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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10015 matches for " Simon Agwale "
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Response to Heterologous Leishmanins in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nigeria: Discovery of a New Focus
Agwale, Simon M;Duhlinska, Dockha D;Grimaldi Jr, Gabriel;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761998000100005
Abstract: a pilot study was undertaken to preliminary illustrate the leishmanin skin test (lst) positivity to distinct antigen preparations (derived from promastigote of either leishmania major or l. amazonensis, or pooled l. mexicana, l. amazonensis and l. guyanensis) in cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) patients and healthy subjects living in two endemic foci in nigeria. the study was designed to provide insights into whether cross-species leishmanin, such as that prepared from new world leishmania could be useful to detect cases of old world leishmanial infection and to compare the results with lst using l. major-derived leishmanin. the overall lst positivity in individuals from keana tested with the cross-species leishmanin was 28.7% (27/94), while the positivity rate in the subjects from kanana tested with the same leishmanin was 54.5% (6/11). lower positivity values were obtained when l. major (12.5%; 11/88) or l. amazonensis (15.8%; 9/57) was tested as antigen in grossly comparable populations. moreover, the pooled leishmanin identified most of the subjects (13/14; 92.9%) with active or healed cl, and the maximum reaction sizes were found among positive subjects in this group. no healthy controls (10 total) showed specific dth response. the lst was useful for assessing the prevalence of subclinical infection and for measuring cl transmission over time. we report for the first time the occurrence of cl in kanana village of langtang south local government area of plateau state
Response to Heterologous Leishmanins in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Nigeria: Discovery of a New Focus
Agwale Simon M,Duhlinska Dockha D,Grimaldi Jr Gabriel
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1998,
Abstract: A pilot study was undertaken to preliminary illustrate the leishmanin skin test (LST) positivity to distinct antigen preparations (derived from promastigote of either Leishmania major or L. amazonensis, or pooled L. mexicana, L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis) in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients and healthy subjects living in two endemic foci in Nigeria. The study was designed to provide insights into whether cross-species leishmanin, such as that prepared from New World Leishmania could be useful to detect cases of Old World leishmanial infection and to compare the results with LST using L. major-derived leishmanin. The overall LST positivity in individuals from Keana tested with the cross-species leishmanin was 28.7% (27/94), while the positivity rate in the subjects from Kanana tested with the same leishmanin was 54.5% (6/11). Lower positivity values were obtained when L. major (12.5%; 11/88) or L. amazonensis (15.8%; 9/57) was tested as antigen in grossly comparable populations. Moreover, the pooled leishmanin identified most of the subjects (13/14; 92.9%) with active or healed CL, and the maximum reaction sizes were found among positive subjects in this group. No healthy controls (10 total) showed specific DTH response. The LST was useful for assessing the prevalence of subclinical infection and for measuring CL transmission over time. We report for the first time the occurrence of CL in Kanana village of Langtang South local government area of Plateau State
Broad Antibody Mediated Cross-Neutralization and Preclinical Immunogenicity of New Codon-Optimized HIV-1 Clade CRF02_AG and G Primary Isolates
Simon M. Agwale,Joseph C. Forbi,Frank Notka,Terri Wrin,Jens Wild,Ralf Wagner,Hans Wolf
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023233
Abstract: Creation of an effective vaccine for HIV has been an elusive goal of the scientific community for almost 30 years. Neutralizing antibodies are assumed to be pivotal to the success of a prophylactic vaccine but previous attempts to make an immunogen capable of generating neutralizing antibodies to primary “street strain” isolates have resulted in responses of very limited breadth and potency. The objective of the study was to determine the breadth and strength of neutralizing antibodies against autologous and heterologous primary isolates in a cohort of HIV-1 infected Nigerians and to characterize envelopes from subjects with particularly broad or strong immune responses for possible use as vaccine candidates in regions predominated by HIV-1 CRF02_AG and G subtypes. Envelope vectors from a panel of primary Nigerian isolates were constructed and tested with plasma/sera from the same cohort using the PhenoSense HIV neutralizing antibody assay (Monogram Biosciences Inc, USA) to assess the breadth and potency of neutralizing antibodies. The immediate goal of this study was realized by the recognition of three broadly cross-neutralizing sera: (NG2-clade CRF02_AG, NG3-clade CRF02_AG and NG9- clade G). Based on these findings, envelope gp140 sequences from NG2 and NG9, complemented with a gag sequence (Clade G) and consensus tat (CRF02_AG and G) antigens have been codon-optimized, synthesized, cloned and evaluated in BALB/c mice. The intramuscular administration of these plasmid DNA constructs, followed by two booster DNA immunizations, induced substantial specific humoral response against all constructs and strong cellular responses against the gag and tat constructs. These preclinical findings provide a framework for the design of candidate vaccine for use in regions where the HIV-1 epidemic is driven by clades CRF02_AG and G.
Antiretroviral-Drug Resistant Mutations and Genetic Diversity in HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Nigeria  [PDF]
Olubunmi Ruth Negedu-Momoh, Olayeni Stephen Olonitola, Lillian Emiola Odama, Helen Ineigo Inabo, Henry Akwen Mbah, Alex Nganga Kasembeli, Seth Chekata Inzaule, Edward Adekola Oladele, Titilope Badru, Simon Magaji Agwale
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2014.42024

Introduction: Despite the success derived from antiretroviral therapy, drug resistance (DR) mutations are known to develop and are major impediments to treatment of HIV patients. Therefore, periodic assessment of HIVDR is needed to ensure continuous HAART efficacy. This study assessed the magnitude of drug resistance as well as HIV genetic variability in drug-naive and treated patients in Nigeria. Methodology: Genotypic analysis was performed by sequencing plasma specimens from 40 individuals in a cross sectional study involving 202 HIV infected patients from all the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Sequences were analyzed for presence of HIVDR mutation using the algorithm in Stanford HIVDR database and confirmed by IAS-USA 2009 mutation list. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were done using PAUP V4.0 and REGA V2.0 respectively. Results: Major DR mutations were detected in the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of 5 (33%) drug experienced and 2 (8%) na?ve patients. Most common mutations were M184V and K103N with no protease (PR) mutations detected. Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) and a complex multi resistance mutation Q151M were detected in 3 samples. Polymorphic substitutions were observed in both PR and RT gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed Group M isolates of G (20), J (1), circulating recombinant forms: CRF02_AG (14), CRF-18-cpx (1), CRF06_cpx (3) and a unique AD recombinant (1). Conclusion: Our findings corroborate previous studies on circulating DR viruses in Nigeria while genetic diversity is on the increase. In view of ART scale-up, monitoring the resistance pattern and genetic diversity will aid in appropriate prevention strategies.

Preliminary Report on HIV-1 Vaccine Preparedness in Nigeria: Advantages of Recruiting University Students
Abigail Edubio,Simon Agwale,Marc Bulterys,Dadik Jelpe,John Idoko,Chris Isichei,Ruth Guyit,Alash’le Abimiku
Viruses , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/v2010073
Abstract: The national HIV seroprevalence in Nigeria has risen steeply from about 3% in 1993 to 5-8% in 2001 and now stands at 4.4%. HIV epidemic continues to be a serious threat to the most populous country in Africa with a population of 140 million, with limited use of antiviral drugs that is taken for life since it only suppresses the virus without completely eliminating the virus or leading to cure. Only a change in social behavior and an affordable vaccine can halt the epidemic in Africa. We report here results of a pilot study on the recruitment strategies, sociodemographic aspects and HIV risk behavior of a cohort of normal volunteers recruited at the University of Jos, Nigeria. Our study recorded a high degree of interest and zeal to participate in HIV vaccine studies by volunteers, and demonstrated the superiority of snowballing over invitation by mail, as a recruitment strategy. A cohort of university students may be particularly suitable for conducting HIV vaccine trials because of the assurance of prospective follow-up for up to four years (time to graduation), and a good understanding of the risks and benefits of participation as outlined in the informed consent. We had 100% retention during a follow-up period of two years. Most importantly, the cohort reflected a relatively low HIV seroprevalence, which gives preventive programs the potential to blunt or halt the epidemic.
European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership
Mecky I Matee, Christine Manyando, Peter M Ndumbe, Tumani Corrah, Walter G Jaoko, Andrew Y Kitua, Herman PA Ambene, Mathieu Ndounga, Lynn Zijenah, David Ofori-Adjei, Simon Agwale, Steven Shongwe, Thomas Nyirenda, Michael Makanga
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-249
Abstract: EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC); a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts.The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i) increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii) the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached € 150 m, iii) the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv) there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities.While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional networks of excellence in sub-Saharan Africa is envisaged to lead to a sustainable programme. Current data shows that the number of projects supported by EDCTP is increasing. DCCC proposes that this success story of true partnership should be used as model by partners involved in the fight against other infectious diseases of public health importance in the region.Tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria cross paths in sub-Saharan Africa, the epicentre of the three infections. Although HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are three treatable and preventable diseases, they are having a devastatin
Frequency of human toxocariasis in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria
Ajayi, OO;Duhlinska, DD;Agwale, SM;Njoku, M;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762000000200002
Abstract: the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to examine sera of 104 children and adults in jos, plateau state, nigeria for anti-toxocaral antibodies, out of which 31 (29.8%) were reactive. the seropositive rates were 30.4% for adults, 29.6% for children, 34% for females and 25.9% for males. however, the differences were not significant by age and sex. a highly significant association (p < 0.001) was observed between seropositivity and geophagia but none between seropositivity and dog ownership (p > 0.05).
A review of the epidemiology, prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nigeria
Entonu, P.E.;Agwale, S.M.;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702007000600011
Abstract: in order to amalgamate research findings on hiv/aids in nigeria as well as the trend of the infection in a concise manner, we reviewed published articles on the hiv/aids situation in nigeria. we categorized this review into several subheadings. the hiv prevalence rate has continued to rise steadily from less than 0.1% in 1987, to 5.8% in 2001, with a slight decrease in 2003 to 5.0%. although the knowledge about hiv and its mode of transmission is widespread, it is however disheartening to note that this did not result into appreciable attitudinal change and behavior modification among nigerians. both hiv-1 and hiv-2 have been identified in nigeria, with hiv-1 being the predominant type. furthermore, several subtypes like subtypes a, b, c, g and j have been identified in nigeria, with several recombinant forms like the crf02_ag; the major ones being a, g and crf02_ag. hiv-infected patients in nigeria are also co-infected with other viral and bacterial infections, the commonly reported ones being co infections with hepatitis b and c. although treatment of infected patients has increased recently, more effort is needed, especially in the area of patients monitoring, to maximize the benefits of art in nigeria. finally, nigeria has made appreciable efforts in vaccine development and candidate hiv dna vaccines have been developed utilizing the sequences from predominant subtypes, and these candidates have been shown to be immunogenic in animal models. it is therefore clear that only the integration of prevention and antiretroviral research programmes into a coherent programme that is needed to address the public health needs that hiv/aids crisis represents for nigeria.
Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Umar, H. S.;Okoye, C. U.;Agwale, A. O;
Tropical and subtropical agroecosystems , 2011,
Abstract: the study assessed productivity levels of sesame farms under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in doma local government area of nasarawa state. multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 96 sesame farmers; made up of 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using total factor productivity analysis, ols regression analysis and gross margin analysis. results show that sesame farmers who applied inorganic fertilizer earned higher returns (41%) over farmers under organic fertilizer. the productivity level of sesame farms under inorganic fertilizer application was higher (27%) over sesame farm under organic fertilizer. farm size, labour, education and farming experience as well as inorganic fertilizer were factors influencing productivity level of the two enterprises. poor road network, poor access to credit facility, poor extension service and high cost of inorganic fertilizer were major constraints to sesame production. in order to reduce the gap of income earn and productivity level between the two enterprises, organic fertilizer users should be encouraged to apply, and educated on, the recommended quantity of organic fertilizer require per hectare through effective extension service.
Sero-prevalance of anti-R7V antibody in HIV infected patients in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria
KM Yusuf, A Shugaba, MKA Zubair, S Agwale
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Studies in some parts of the world have shown that Anti-R7V antibodies, which neutralize 100% of the different variant’s panel (targeted against a beta2-microglobulin epitope acquired when the virus is released by budding) in vitro, are found in 30 to 50% of na ve HIV positive patients, but even more in socalled “long-term survivor’’ patients with a close to 90% correlation. The seroprevalence of Anti-R7V antibody was therefore investigated in HIV patients attending clinic within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and compared with HIV negative patients. Correlation between the presence of the antibody and the clinical status of patients was also investigated. The HIV positive patients were categorized into drug na ve and drug experienced subjects and their Anti-R7V antibody together with CD4 counts were determined using Anti-R7V ELISA kits and BD FACS count, respectively. About 47.2% of the HIVinfected patients tested positive for the Anti-R7V antibody while 25.2% were negative for this antibody. Patients with Anti-R7V antibody had a mean CD4 count (355 ± 19.2) significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of Anti-R7V antibody negative patients (215 ± 42.6). Also it was observed that Anti-R7V antibody was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in drug experienced patients as compared to drug na ve patients. The significance of these findings is discussed. It was concluded that Anti-R7V antibody may be a natural immunity against HIV-infection in drug na ve HIV patients and that the synthesis and release of this antibody may decrease with ARD treatment.
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