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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 599 matches for " Silke Symczak "
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Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes ATM, GSTP1, SOD2, TGFB1, XPD and XRCC1 with risk of severe erythema after breast conserving radiotherapy
Annette Raabe, Katharina Derda, Sebastian Reuther, Silke Symczak, Kerstin Borgmann, Ulrike Hoeller, Andreas Ziegler, Cordula Petersen, Ekkehard Dikomey
Radiation Oncology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1748-717x-7-65
Abstract: Retrospective analysis of 83 breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving radiotherapy. A total dose of 50.4?Gy was administered, applying 1.8?Gy/fraction within 42?days. Erythema was evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. DNA was extracted from blood samples and polymorphisms were determined using either the Polymerase Chain Reaction based Restriction-Fragment-Length-Polymorphism (PCR-RFL) technique or Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption/Ionization –Time-Of-Flight-Mass-Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Relative excess heterozygosity (REH) was investigated to check compatibility of genotype frequencies with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). In addition, p-values from the standard exact HWE lack of fit test were calculated using 100,000 permutations. HWE analyses were performed using R.Fifty-six percent (46/83) of all patients developed erythema of grade 2 or 3, with this risk being higher for patients with large breast volume (odds ratio, OR?=?2.55, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.03–6.31, p?=?0.041). No significant association between SNPs and risk of erythema was found when all patients were considered. However, in patients with small breast volume the TGFB1 SNP was associated with erythema (p?=?0.028), whereas the SNP in XPD showed an association in patients with large breast volume (p?=?0.046). A risk score based on all risk alleles was neither significant in all patients nor in patients with small or large breast volume. Risk alleles of most SNPs were different compared to a previously identified risk profile for fibrosis.The genetic risk profile for erythema appears to be different for patients with small and larger breast volume. This risk profile seems to be specific for erythema as compared to a risk profile for fibrosis.
From single cells to whole organisms
Silke Sperling
Genome Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-13-365
Abstract: Functional genomics aims to provide a bridge from the static information in the genome to the related functional properties of the cell, tissue or organism. Data on a genome-wide level are generated using a variety of high-throughput technologies, and are analyzed using bioinformatics and system-level integration. The program of the recent European Science Foundation Conference on functional genomics linked the most promising developments in functional genomics research and technology with their applications and future in biomedicine.Considerable effort is currently being made to reveal the relationship between complex genotypes and phenotype, for example, in looking at the enormous genetic variation that exists in outbred populations such as our own and how it manifests itself in phenotypic variation. One approach to uncovering the molecular basis of common diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is the correlation of sequence variation among healthy and ill individuals to try and understand how genetic perturbations interact to affect clinical outcome. Analyzing genotype-phenotype relationships in simpler organisms than humans, Charlie Boone (University of Toronto, Canada) and Andrew Fraser (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK) reported on global genetic-interaction projects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans that aim to identify overlapping functions and compensatory pathways that complicate the phenotype. Using an automated screen for suppressor/enhancer mutations, Boone's group analyzed 250,000 mutants of S. cerevisiae for synthetic genetic sickness or lethal genotypes, which are important for understanding how an organism tolerates random mutation. Interestingly, the genetic-interaction map appears to be four times as complex as the protein-protein interaction map. Genetic interactions do not overlap with physical interactions, but predict functional neighborhoods and clearly identify components of pathways whose orde
Why the way we consider the body matters – Reflections on four bioethical perspectives on the human body
Silke Schicktanz
Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1747-5341-2-30
Abstract: The author begins by descriptively exploring some main positions in bioethics from which the "body" is conceptualized. Such positions conflict: the body is that which is constitutive of the individual's experience and perception, or it is conceived of materially or mechanistically; or as a constructed locus, always historically and culturally transformed. The author goes on to suggest a methodological approach that dialectically considers embodiment from four different perspectives: as bodily self-determination, as respect for the bodily unavailability of the other, as care for bodily individuality; and lastly, as acknowledgement of bodily-constituted communities. These four perspectives encompass autonomy in two of its main interpretations: as the capability of a person to act independent of external forces, and as the moral ideal of pursuing individual wishes by means of role distance, self-limitation and universalization. Various bioethical cases are utilized to show how the four perspectives on the body can complement one another.The way we consider the body matters. The author's dialectical method allows a premise-critical identification and exploration of bioethical problems concerning the body. The method is potentially applicable to other bioethical problems.During the 1970s, a number of performance artists shocked the public by making their bodies the subject of artistic performances. By being thus displayed, the body itself becomes both the medium of the artistic work and the scene on which it takes place. In the performance Zerrei?probe (1970) the Austrian artist Günter Brus injured himself by cutting his head and thigh with a razor blade. The vulnerability of the flesh was to be shown by means of the extreme display of a body disfigured by pain and by interventions from the outside. Brus' perfomance at the same time was intended to demonstrate limits and extremes. The American Chris Burden had his left arm shot by a friend in the course of the performanc
Notas sobre o CNE e a qualidade do ensino superior
Weber, Silke;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302002008000006
Abstract: this paper brings forth some notes upon the action of the brazilian council of education (cne), especially at the chamber of higher education, since its creation, in 1996, through law number 9131/1996. the cne is conceived as a social space that establishes direct links between agents of the political society, specifically the government, and segments of the civil society as for issues related to education. its institutional dynamics ? proposals and conflicts aroused ?, as well as some its possible repercussions not only on higher education, more particularly on the increase of offers of graduate and specialization courses, but also on teacher training are briefly highlighted.
Como e onde formar professores: espa?os em confronto
Weber, Silke;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302000000100008
Abstract: this paper emphasizes the status given to professional teacher-training in educational legislation during the last 40 years, pointing out elements which interfered in law changing its focus: if in the beginning emphasis was put mainly on the indication of the formal patterns required, as time passes by, legislation concentrates more on training itself, which is to be effected through undergraduate studies. the argumentation centers on brazilian society's struggle for the reconstruction of democracy, context in which the debate about the quality of apprenticeship has increased and the professional dimension of teaching has been rescued. at last, the paper focuses on the discussion about the locus of professional teacher-training. this debate expresses once more the historical tensions between the academic and governmental instances.
Profissionaliza??o docente e políticas públicas no Brasil
Weber, Silke;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302003000400003
Abstract: teachers, beginning in the 80's, became recognized as major agents of change, be it in the quality of education, or in the democratization of brazilian society. their organized actions, however, according to cunha (1991), could be having an "effect of political retro-annulment", favoring the theses of the privatization of public education. the relevance of this interpretation is examined in the perspective of the teacher as a professional who seeks to expand his/her power and to have his/her specialty recognized by the state and the market. stress is given to the movement, shifts of interest and demands promoted by the action of the representative organs of basic education, wherein the data indicate that, different from cunha's (1991) interpretation, the organized action of teachers has favored the delimitation of their specific sphere of action and the range of their political influence.
Avalia??o e regula??o da educa??o superior: conquistas e impasses
Weber, Silke;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302010000400011
Abstract: this text seeks to retrieve references that have imposed themselves in the brazilian debate and practice of assessment of higher education and underpin a process that, since it necessarily refers to the assessment of merit and value, is far from obtaining the enthusiastic adhesion of institutions and of their main agents. these orienting landmarks, the legislation and its application are conceived of as speeches, texts or utterances, whose meaning is fixed in the context of articulation practices that involve social agents contending for the hegemony of society projects, in given social-political spaces. to the light of the tension between conceptions of assessment and of support to regulation, especially those contained in the sinaes (brazilian system to assess higher education) law, we point out some conquests that have had a positive impact on the quality of the training offered at this level of teaching and the impasses that can lead to the prevalence of a vision of assessment privileging the individual performance of students, courses and institutions. we also list aspects that could help reduce the social differences that characterize brazilian higher education.
Rela??es entre esferas governamentais na educa??o e PDE: o que muda?
Weber, Silke;
Cadernos de Pesquisa , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-15742008000200003
Abstract: this paper focuses on the relationship between the three spheres of power - union, state and county/municipalities - proposed in 2007 by the ministry of education in its education development plan. the aim of this plan is to improve the quality of basic school education. we start by listing some advance and developments in the relationship maintained among the various governmental spheres that have taken place in the last decades. these should lead to the construction of the national system of education. emphasis is given to some challenges generated by the union's participation in local agreements in order to increase quality's standards, indicating, also, possible ways of regulating such agreements. the definition of parameters for institutionalizing the regime of collaboration and social control of education on a national level is perceived as bound to transform basic school education into the main axis of a project of nation.
?Cambios políticos mediante nuevos procedimientos? El impacto de los procesos electorales en los pueblos de indios de Oaxaca bajo el sistema liberal
Hensel, Silke;
Signos históricos , 2008,
Abstract: the political process beginning in 1808 in the spanish empire brought about substantial changes in political culture. the constitution of cádiz introduced general elections with profound implications on power relations at every level, the national, regional and local, that is. while these changes have been studied mostly for the formerly spanish social sphere less scholarship focuses on the impact elections had on the indigenous villages. therefore, the present article analyses the electoral processes in the heavily indigenous province of oaxaca from 1814 onwards. it intends to show that the hypothesis of a growing local autonomy for the indigenous population vis-a-vis the state has to be rectified.
Anregungen zur Darstellung von Routineformeln in einsprachigen Lernerw rterbüchern für DaF
Lipinski; Silke
Linguistik Online , 2011,
Abstract: Routine formulas (RFs) carry many functions in a language system. Thus, not only knowing them but also mastering their use is of major importance for the L2-learner. For this reason, it is important to also describe RFs adequately in learners' dictionaries. However, as previous research shows, there is a major discrepancy between lexicographical requirements and reality. Some demands for the way in which RFs should be presented can be derived from the list of criteria which are used to evaluate dictionary entries of RFs. Some of these requirements may be called phraseographical minima, the realization of some other requirements that have yet to be developed in detail. This article intends to show options on how to improve the lexicography of RFs in print dictionaries for L2-learners. Suggestions for the presentation of RFs in the lexicographical macro-, micro-, and medio-structure are made and discussed.
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