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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 208384 matches for " Sigurd L Steinshamn "
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Continuous monitoring of the bronchial epithelial lining fluid by microdialysis
Stig S Tyvold, Erik Sollig?rd, Oddveig Lyng, Sigurd L Steinshamn, Sigurd Gunnes, Petter Aadahl
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-78
Abstract: Microdialysis catheters were introduced into the right main stem bronchus and into the right subclavian artery of five anesthetized and normoventilated pigs. The flowrate was 2 μl/min and the sampling interval was 60 minutes. Lactate and fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa (FD-4) infusions were performed to obtain two levels of steady-state concentrations in blood. Accuracy was defined as [bronchial-MD] divided by [arterial-MD] in percent. Data presented as mean ± 95 percent confidence interval.The accuracy of bronchial MD was calculated with and without correction by the arteriobronchial urea gradient. The arteriobronchial lactate gradient was 1.2 ± 0.1 and FD-4 gradient was 4.0 ± 1.2. Accuracy of bronchial MD with a continuous lactate infusion was mean 25.5% (range 5.7–59.6%) with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 62.6%. With correction by the arteriobronchial urea gradient accuracy was mean 79.0% (57.3–108.1%) with a CV of 17.0%.Urea as a marker of catheter functioning enhances bronchial MD and makes it useful for monitoring substantial changes in the composition of the ELF.The epithelial lining fluid of the lung is important in the understanding mechanisms in acute lung injury, inflammatory lung diseases, cardiac failure, and in pharmacokinetic studies.Today there are no established methods of direct continuous monitoring of the epithelial lining fluid of the lower respiratory tract. The epithelial lining fluid of the bronchi has been examined by bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL), direct aspiration, microsampling, and exhaled breath condensates. BAL and other bronchoscopic techniques have in common that they are invasive, may create lung injury, are based on single or intermittent samples and therefore have limited value as continuous and dynamic monitors of the epithelial lining fluid of the lung. The exhaled breath condensates technique is non-invasive and continuous, but is indirect and best suited for collection of non-volatile hydrophilic solutes[1].Micro
Tuberculosis screening and follow-up of asylum seekers in Norway: a cohort study
Ingunn Harstad, Einar Heldal, Sigurd L Steinshamn, Helge Gar?sen, Geir W Jacobsen
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-141
Abstract: We assessed a national programme for screening, treatment and follow-up of tuberculosis infection and disease in a cohort of asylum seekers.Asylum seekers ≥ 18 years who arrived at the National Reception Centre from January 2005 to June 2006, were included as the total cohort. Those with a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm or positive x-ray findings were included in a study group for follow-up.Data were collected from public health authorities in the municipality to where the asylum seekers had moved, and from hospital based internists in case they had been referred to specialist care.Individual subjects included in the study group were matched with the Norwegian National Tuberculosis Register which receive reports of everybody diagnosed with active tuberculosis, or who had started treatment for latent tuberculosis.The total cohort included 4643 adult asylum seekers and 97.5% had a valid Mantoux test. At least one inclusion criterion was fulfilled by 2237 persons. By end 2007 municipal public health authorities had assessed 758 (34%) of them. Altogether 328 persons had been seen by an internist. Of 314 individuals with positive x-rays, 194 (62%) had seen an internist, while 86 of 568 with Mantoux ≥ 15, but negative x-rays (16%) were also seen by an internist. By December 31st 2006, 23 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis (prevalence 1028/100 000) and another 11 were treated for latent infection.The coverage of screening was satisfactory, but fewer subjects than could have been expected from the national guidelines were followed up in the community and referred to an internist. To improve follow-up of screening results, a simplification of organisation and guidelines, introduction of quality assurance systems, and better coordination between authorities and between different levels of health care are all required.As tuberculosis (TB) in native populations in Western countries decreases, the relative importance of cases among immigrants increases. Latent tuberculosis is preval
The role of entry screening in case finding of tuberculosis among asylum seekers in Norway
Ingunn Harstad, Geir W Jacobsen, Einar Heldal, Brita A Winje, Saeed Vahedi, Anne-Sofie Helvik, Sigurd L Steinshamn, Helge Gar?sen
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-670
Abstract: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of entry screening of a cohort of asylum seekers. Cases detected by screening were compared with cases detected later. Further we have characterized cases with active tuberculosis.All asylum seekers who arrived at the National Reception Centre between January 2005 - June 2006 with an abnormal chest X-ray or a Mantoux test ≥ 6 mm were included in the study and followed through the health care system. They were matched with the National Tuberculosis Register by the end of May 2008.Cases reported within two months after arrival were defined as being detected by screening.Of 4643 eligible asylum seekers, 2237 were included in the study. Altogether 2077 persons had a Mantoux ≥ 6 mm and 314 had an abnormal chest X-ray. Of 28 cases with tuberculosis, 15 were detected by screening, and 13 at 4-27 months after arrival. Abnormal X-rays on arrival were more prevalent among those detected by screening. Female gender and Somalian origin increased the risk for active TB.In spite of an imperfect follow-up of screening results, a reasonable number of TB cases was identified by the programme, with a predominance of pulmonary TB.In recent years most new tuberculosis (TB) cases in Norway have occurred among immigrants from high incidence countries. Rarely, new cases are due to transmission within the country [1].Low incidence countries have diverse policies on entry screening of immigrants from high incidence countries. These range from no screening at all, to pre-immigration screening or screening after arrival [2-4]. There is an ongoing discussion about the content and effectiveness of different screening programmes to control tuberculosis [5,6]. Studies of screening of tuberculosis among immigrants have given TB prevalences that range from 0.1-1.2% [7-10], that can be due to differences in the characteristics of the populations and the screening programmes.Previous studies have shown differences between cases detected by or outside the screening
Effect of 24 Sessions of High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training Carried out at Either High or Moderate Frequency, a Randomized Trial
H?vard Hatle, Per Kristian St?bakk, Harald Edvard M?lmen, Eivind Br?nstad, Arnt Erik Tj?nna, Sigurd Steinshamn, Eirik Skogvoll, Ulrik Wisl?ff, Charlotte Bj?rk Ingul, ?ivind Rognmo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088375
Abstract: Purpose The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Methods Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9th and 17th session and four days after the final 24th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. Results The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035). The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026) twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001) above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609). Conclusion Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.
Non-linear simulations of combustion instabilities with a quasi-1D Navier-Stokes code
Nils Erland L. Haugen,?yvind Lang?rgen,Sigurd Sannan
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsv.2011.06.023
Abstract: As lean premixed combustion systems are more susceptible to combustion instabilities than non-premixed systems, there is an increasing demand for improved numerical design tools that can predict the occurrence of combustion instabilities with high accuracy. The inherent non-linearities in combustion instabilities can be of crucial importance, and we here propose an approach in which the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes and scalar transport equations are solved for geometries of variable cross-section. The focus is on attached flames, and for this purpose a new phenomenological model for the unsteady heat release from a flame front is introduced. In the attached flame method (AFM) the heat release occurs over the full length of the flame. The non-linear code with the use of the AFM approach is validated against results from an experimental study of thermoacoustic instabilities in oxy-fuel flames by Ditaranto and Hals [Combustion and Flame, 146, 493-512 (2006)]. The numerical simulations are in accordance with the experimental measurements and both the frequencies and the amplitudes of the resonant acoustic pressure modes are reproduced with good accuracy.
Study of superheavy elements
Nucleus , 2007,
Abstract: abstract the nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond 208pb is at a proton number z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number n = 172 or 184. the outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical ‘superheavy elements’ (shes). experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. the decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical investigations.
Avisl sning gennem 20 r
Sigurd Bennike
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 1991,
Abstract: Hvis man vil forst udviklingen p dagbladsomr det, er det n dvendigt, men langtfra tilstr kkeligt at kende til avisernes oplagstal; man m des- uden have oplysninger om l serne, blandt andet deres demografiske karakteristika: disse oplysninger findes i et "media indeks". Sigurd Ben- nike, mange rog drivkraft i Dansk Media Komite, pr senterer her i over- sigtsform 20 rs talmateriale med tilh rende forklaringer fra Dansk Media Indeks. Tallene indeholder oplysninger om den andel af befolkningen der l ser hverdagsavis, l serprofilen for forskellige dagbladstyper samt en r kke forskellige kontaktparametre, bl.a. dagbladenes st rke og svage sider i forhold til andre medier, l sested og -tidspunkt.
Radioreklamen skal finde sine ben
Sigurd Bennike
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 1989,
Abstract: Den 1. august 1988 startede radioreklamerne i Danmark uden n vnev rdig opm rksomhed fra hverken pressen eller medieforskerne. Annonc rerne, reklamebureauerne og de store radiostationer har haft lidt sv rt ved at finde hinanden. Og heller ikke nemt ved at finde ud af, hvem der skulle producere reklamerne og hvordan s dan nogle skal lyde p dansk. Som det indirekte fremg r af denne artikel, s er det sv rt at f tal ud af branchen. - Men et kvalificeret g t lyder p , at der er omsat for mellem 20 og 40 millioner kroner p de f rste m neder, koncentreret p mindre end 50 af de 237 n rradiosendetilladelser. De radiostationer der v lger at sende reklamer, skal betale 10% af deres oms tning til en s rlig radiofond, hvis midler deles ud til de gr srodsradioer, som ikke kan eller vil skaffe sig reklameindt gter.
Nete N rgaard Kristensen: Journalister og kilder - slinger i valsen?
Sigurd Allern
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 2005,
Dynamics and Control of Distillation Columns - A Critical Survey
Sigurd Skogestad
Modeling, Identification and Control , 1997, DOI: 10.4173/mic.1997.3.1
Abstract: Distillation column dynamics and control have been viewed by many as a very mature or even dead field. However, as is discussed in this paper significant new results have appeared over the last 5-10 years. These results include multiple steady states and instability in simple columns with ideal thermodynamics (which was believed to be impossible), the understanding of the difference between various control configurations and the systematic transformation between these, the feasibility of using the distillate-bottom structure, for control (which was believed to be impossible), the importance of flow dynamics for control studies, the fundamental problems in identifying models from open-loops responses, the use of simple regression estimators to estimate composition from temperatures, and an improved general understanding of the dynamic behavior of distillation columns which includes a better understanding of the fundamental difference between internal and external flow, simple formulas for estimating the dominant time constant, and a derivation of the linearizing effect of logarithmic transformations. These issues apply to all columns, even for ideal mixtures and simple columns with only two products. In addition, there have been significant advances for cases with complex thermodynamics and complex column configurations. These include the behavior and control of azeotropic distillation columns, and the possible complex dynamics of nonideal mixtures and of interlinked columns. However, both for the simple and more complex cases there are still a number of areas where further research is needed.
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