Abstract:
Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the musculoskeletal pain frequency and intensity, to pinpoint the factors affecting the pain and to research their effect on patients’ quality of life. Methods: 203 patients over 65 who came to our Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation clinic were included in the study. Intensity of comorbid diseases were calculated by using Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Geriatric Pain Measure-24 (GPM) was used to assess the pain intensity, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS) was used to detect the presence of depression and Short Form-36 (SF-36) was used to determine quality of life. Results: The median age of the patients was 72.9 ± 6.36 (65 - 92) years. 97% of patients complained of pain. GPM total value mean of the patients was 61.9 (0 - 99.9). GPM scores were significantly higher in patients who were female (p < 0.001), single (p < 0.015), lower education, housewife (p < 0.001), depressed (p < 0.001), and with a preexisting comorbidity. However, in multivariate linear regression analysis, only female sex and depression presence was found out to be the factors that significantly affect the GPM scores (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between GPM and GDS scores (p = 0.001, r = 0.545). There were significant negative correlations between all subgroup parameters of SF-36 and both GPM and GDS. Conclusions: Low education, being single, presence of comorbidities and being a housewife all relates to pain intensity, yet the most important factors are being female and presence of depression. Pain intensity is connected to low quality of life. We think this study will show a path to program geriatric population’s healthcare needs.

Abstract:
This research has been conducted to examine the predictor effects that
children’s temperament traits have on the social competence variable. In total
of 112 preschool children (57 boys, 55 girls), and their mothers and teachers
participated in the study. To collect data, the Social Competence and Behavior
Evaluation scale, short form (SCBE-30) as well as the Short Temperament Scale
for Children were completed by their mothers and teachers. According to the
results, there is a significantly positive relationship between the level of
social competence and the persistence and rhythmicity level of temperament
traits. In other results there was found to be a significant positive
relationship between the level of anger/aggression and the reactivity
temperament trait. According to the results of the multiple regression analysis
social competence also has a significant effect related to temperament traits.

Abstract:
We study the phase diagrams of $\Nc= \infty$ vector-like, asymptotically free gauge theories as a function of volume, on $S^3\times S^1$. The theories of interest are the ones with fermions in two index representations [adjoint, (anti)symmetric, and bifundamental abbreviated as QCD(adj), QCD(AS/S) and QCD(BF)], and are interrelated via orbifold or orientifold projections. The phase diagrams reveal interesting phenomena such as disentangled realizations of chiral and center symmetry, confinement without chiral symmetry breaking, zero temperature chiral transitions, and in some cases, exotic phases which spontaneously break the discrete symmetries such as C, P, T as well as CPT. In a regime where the theories are perturbative, the deconfinement temperature in SYM, and QCD(AS/S/BF) coincide. The thermal phase diagrams of thermal orbifold QCD(BF), orientifold QCD(AS/S), and $\N=1$ SYM coincide, provided charge conjugation symmetry for QCD(AS/S) and $\Z_2$ interchange symmetry of the QCD(BF) are not broken in the phase continously connected to $\R^4$ limit. When the $S^1$ circle is endowed with periodic boundary conditions, the (nonthermal) phase diagrams of orbifold and orientifold QCD are still the same, however, both theories possess chirally symmetric phases which are absent in $\None$ SYM. The match and mismatch of the phase diagrams depending on the spin structure of fermions along the $S^1$ circle is naturally explained in terms of the necessary and sufficient symmetry realization conditions which determine the validity of the nonperturbative orbifold orientifold equivalence.

Abstract:
In recent work, we derived the long-distance confining dynamics of certain QCD-like gauge theories formulated on small $S^1 \times \R^3$ based on symmetries, an index theorem, and Abelian duality. Here, we give the microscopic derivation. The solution reveals a new mechanism of confinement in QCD(adj) in the regime where we have control over both perturbative and nonperturbative aspects. In particular, consider SU(2) QCD(adj) theory with $1 \leq n_f \leq 4$ Majorana fermions, a theory which undergoes gauge symmetry breaking at small $S^1$. If the magnetic charge of the BPS monopole is normalized to unity, we show that confinement occurs due to condensation of objects with magnetic charge 2, not 1. Because of index theorems, we know that such an object cannot be a two identical monopole configuration. Its net topological charge must vanish, and hence it must be topologically indistinguishable from the perturbative vacuum. We construct such non-self-dual topological excitations, the magnetically charged, topologically null molecules of a BPS monopole and ${\bar{\rm KK}}$ antimonopole, which we refer to as magnetic bions. An immediate puzzle with this proposal is the apparent Coulomb repulsion between the BPS-${\bar{\rm KK}}$ pair. An attraction which overcomes the Coulomb repulsion between the two is induced by $2n_f$-fermion exchange. Bion condensation is also the mechanism of confinement in $\N=1$ SYM on the same four-manifold. The SU(N) generalization hints a possible hidden integrability behind nonsupersymmetric QCD of affine Toda type, and allows us to analytically compute the mass gap in the gauge sector. We currently do not know the extension to $\R^4$.

Abstract:
We analyze the vacuum structure of SU(2) QCD with multiple massless adjoint representation fermions formulated on a small spatial $S^1 \times \R^3$. The absence of thermal fluctuations, and the fact that quantum fluctuations favoring the vacuum with unbroken center symmetry in a weakly coupled regime renders the interesting dynamics of these theories analytically calculable. Confinement, the area law behavior for large Wilson loops, and the generation of the mass gap in the gluonic sector are shown analytically. By abelian duality transformation, the long distance effective theory of QCD is mapped into an amalgamation of $d=3$ dimensional Sine-Gordon and NJL models. The duality necessitates going to IR first. In this regime, theory exhibits confinement without continuous chiral symmetry breaking. However, a flavor singlet chiral condensate (which breaks a discrete chiral symmetry) persists at arbitrarily small $S^1$. Under the reasonable assumption that the theory on $\R^4$ exhibits chiral symmetry breaking, there must exist a zero temperature chiral phase transition in the absence of any change in spatial center symmetry realizations.

Abstract:
We prove the absence of a mass gap and confinement in the Polyakov model with massless complex fermions in any representation of the gauge group. A $U(1)_{*}$ topological shift symmetry protects the masslessness of one dual photon. This symmetry emerges in the IR as a consequence of the Callias index theorem and abelian duality. For matter in the fundamental representation, the infrared limits of this class of theories interpolate between weakly and strongly coupled conformal field theory (CFT) depending on the number of flavors, and provide an infinite class of CFTs in $d=3$ dimensions. The long distance physics of the model is same as certain stable spin liquids. Altering the topology of the adjoint Higgs field by turning it into a compact scalar does not change the long distance dynamics in perturbation theory, however, non-perturbative effects lead to a mass gap for the gauge fluctuations. This provides conceptual clarity to many subtle issues about compact QED$_3$ discussed in the context of quantum magnets, spin liquids and phase fluctuation models in cuprate superconductors. These constructions also provide new insights into zero temperature gauge theory dynamics on $\R^{2,1}$ and $\R^{2,1} \times S^1$. The confined versus deconfined long distance dynamics is characterized by a discrete versus continuous topological symmetry.

Abstract:
A manifestly supersymmetric nonperturbative matrix regularization for a twisted version of N=(8,8) theory on a curved background (a two-sphere) is constructed. Both continuum and the matrix regularization respect four exact scalar supersymmetries under a twisted version of the supersymmetry algebra. We then discuss a succinct Q=1 deformed matrix model regularization of N=4 SYM in d=4, which is equivalent to a non-commutative $A_4^*$ orbifold lattice formulation. Motivated by recent progress in supersymmetric lattices, we also propose a N=1/4 supersymmetry preserving deformation of N=4 SYM theory on $\R^4$. In this class of N=1/4 theories, both the regularized and continuum theory respect the same set of (scalar) supersymmetry. By using the equivalence of the deformed matrix models with the lattice formulations, we give a very simple physical argument on why the exact lattice supersymmetry must be a subset of scalar subalgebra. This argument disagrees with the recent claims of the link approach, for which we give a new interpretation.

Abstract:
We construct a $\CQ=1$ supersymmetry and $U(1)^5$ global symmetry preserving deformation of the type IIB matrix model. This model, without orbifold projection, serves as a nonperturbative regularization for $\CN=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four Euclidean dimensions. Upon deformation, the eigenvalues of the bosonic matrices are forced to reside on the surface of a hypertorus. We explicitly show the relation between the noncommutative moduli space of the deformed matrix theory and the Brillouin zone of the emergent lattice theory. This observation makes the transmutation of the moduli space into the base space of target field theory clearer. The lattice theory is slightly nonlocal, however the nonlocality is suppressed by the lattice spacing. In the classical continuum limit, we recover the $\CN=4$ SYM theory. We also discuss the result in terms of D-branes and interpret it as collective excitations of D(-1) branes forming D3 branes.

Abstract:
We analyze the vacuum structure of SU(2) QCD with multiple massless adjoint representation fermions formulated on a small spatial $S^1 \times \R^3$. The absence of thermal fluctuations, and the fact that quantum fluctuations favoring the vacuum with unbroken center symmetry in a weakly coupled regime renders the interesting dynamics of these theories analytically calculable. Confinement, the area law behavior for large Wilson loops, and the generation of the mass gap in the gluonic sector are shown analytically. By abelian duality transformation, the long distance effective theory of QCD is mapped into an amalgamation of $d=3$ dimensional Sine-Gordon and NJL models. The duality necessitates going to IR first. In this regime, theory exhibits confinement without continuous chiral symmetry breaking. However, a flavor singlet chiral condensate (which breaks a discrete chiral symmetry) persists at arbitrarily small $S^1$. Under the reasonable assumption that the theory on $\R^4$ exhibits chiral symmetry breaking, there must exist a zero temperature chiral phase transition in the absence of any change in spatial center symmetry realizations.

Abstract:
It is commonly believed that in confining vector-like gauge theories the center and chiral symmetry realizations are parametrically entangled, and if phase transitions occur, they must take place around the strong scale $\Lambda^{-1}$ of the gauge theory. We demonstrate that (non-thermal) vector-like theories formulated on ${\mathbb R}^{3} \times S^1$ where $S^1$ is a spatial circle exhibit new dynamical scales and new phenomena. There are chiral phase transitions taking place at $\Lambda^{-1}/N_c$ in the absence of any change in center symmetry. $\Lambda^{-1}/N_c$, invisible in (planar) perturbation theory, is also the scale where abelian versus non-abelian confinement regimes meet. Large $N_c$ volume independence (a working Eguchi-Kawai reduction) provides new insights and independently confirms the existence of these scales. We show that certain phases and scales are outside the reach of holographic (supergravity) modeling of QCD.