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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 966 matches for " Shunsuke Kikuchi "
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Transcriptome map of plant mitochondria reveals islands of unexpected transcribed regions
Sota Fujii, Takushi Toda, Shunsuke Kikuchi, Ryutaro Suzuki, Koji Yokoyama, Hiroko Tsuchida, Kentaro Yano, Kinya Toriyama
BMC Genomics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-12-279
Abstract: Whereas statistical analysis verified the transcription of all previously known functional genes such as the ones related to oxidative phosphorylation, a similar extent of RNA expression was frequently observed in the inter-genic regions where none of the previously annotated genes are located. The newly identified open reading frames (ORFs) predicted in these transcribed inter-genic regions were generally not conserved among flowering plant species, suggesting that these ORFs did not play a role in mitochondrial principal functions. We also identified two partial fragments of retrotransposon sequences as being transcribed in rice mitochondria.The present study indicated the previously unexpected complexity of plant mitochondrial RNA metabolism. Our transcriptomic data (Oryza sativa Mitochondrial rna Expression Server: OsMES) is publicly accessible at [http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/cgi-bin/gbrowse/OsMes/#search webcite].The obvious expansion of its genomic size indicates that higher plant mitochondria experienced a dramatic evolution. The common size of mitochondria genetic information is limited to approximately 16 kb in metazoans [1], whereas in higher plants the sequence length can be 200-2400 kb (Additional file 1) [2]. The principal role of mitochondria (i.e. oxidative phosphorylation) is undoubtedly shared between metazoans and higher plants. The presence of three genes encoding subunits of ATP synthase (atp6 and atp8), three genes encoding subunits of cytochrome oxidase (cox1-cox3), cytochrome b (cob), and seven genes for NADH dehydrogenase (nad1-nad4, nad4L, nad5 and nad6) is indeed conserved in mitochondria of both kingdoms. What is extra in plant mitochondria compared to that of metazoans are only a few more respiratory-related genes (including atp1, atp9, nad7 and nad9) and dozens of genes encoding ribosomal subunits (rps or rpl). Thus, usually a higher plant mitochondrion encodes about 40 genes with known functions, whereas in most cases there are 13 ti
Should We Overlook All Altruistic Behavior by Politicians?  [PDF]
Shunsuke Sekiguchi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.33023

Not all policies benefit their intended targets even though they are motivated by political altruism. This paper analyzes how the frequency of altruistic behavior changes depending on whether consumers (i.e., the electorate) or producers (i.e., politicians) bear the responsibility. It compares the strict liability rule, which means the altruist must bear all damages, with the no liability rule, which means the recipient must bear all damages. It finds that under the no liability rule, if politicians are altruist, the frequency of altruistic behavior is less than under the strict liability rule. Therefore, the paper shows that if politicians were altruists, they would prefer the strict liability rule.

S1-Equivariant CMC Surfaces in the Berger Sphere and the Corresponding Lagrangians  [PDF]
Keiichi Kikuchi
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.32037

The periodic s1-equivariant hypersurfaces of constant mean curvature can be obtained by using the Lagrangians with suitable potential functions in the Berger spheres. In the corresponding Hamiltonian system, the conservation law is effectively applied to the construction of periodic s1-equivariant surfaces of arbitrary positive constant mean curvature.

R & D-Based Growth Model with Nominal Wage Stickiness  [PDF]
Shunsuke Shinagawa, Tomohiro Inoue
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.65089
Abstract: In this study, we introduce nominal wage stickiness into an endogenous growth model based on R & D. This study examines how money growth affects long-run economic growth. We find that there exists a unique balanced growth path for sufficiently high rates of money growth, and that the economy exhibits sustained growth based on sustained R & D. Faster money growth results in greater employment and faster economic growth along such a balanced growth path. Furthermore, under some parameter restrictions, no balanced growth path exists for low rates of money growth; the economy is trapped in a steady state without long-run growth. These results suggest that money growth may be an important factor for long-run economic growth.
Simple HPLC Analysis of Hinokitiol in Skin Lotion with Visible Light Detection after Pre-Column Dabsylation  [PDF]
Yasuhiko Higashi, Shunsuke Tohda
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2017.85026
Abstract: Hinokitiolis frequently added to personal care products as an antibacterial agent. We previously established an HPLC-UV method for determination of hinokitiol in skin lotion after pre-column derivatization with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole. However, the labeling reagent is expensive, and derivatives of degradation products of parabens, which may be added to skin lotion as general preservatives, interfered with the peak of the hinokitiol derivative. In this study, the concentration of hinokitiol in skin lotions was determined by HPLC with a visible light detector (450 nm) after pre-column derivatization with 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene-4’-sulfonyl chloride (Dabsyl-Cl), a more economical reagent. A standard curve was obtained after derivatization with Dabsyl-Cl in borate buffer (pH 9.5) at 55°C for 10 min. The retention time of Dabsyl-hinokitiol was 6.8 min. The calibration plot was linear in the range of 1.25 to 40 μg/mL with a r2 value of 0.9991, and the lower limit of quantification and detection were 0.60 μg/mL (absolute amount of 0.86 ng/20μL injection, signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1) and 0.18 μg/mL (absolute amount of 0.26 ng/20μL injection, signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1), respectively. The coefficient of variation was less than 8.8%. Seven Dabsyl-paraben derivatives showed little interference with the peak of Dabsyl-hinokitiol. The developed system was used to determine the content of hinokitiol in two skin lotions. Addition-recovery tests gave satisfactory results.
Bromination of Pd Compounds during Thermal Decomposition of Tetrabromobisphenol A  [PDF]
Shunsuke Kuzuhara, Ayaka Sano
Engineering (ENG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2018.104013
Abstract: We conducted thermal tests using the reagent tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and various Pd compounds to study the chemical forms of Pd obtained during the pyrolytic and oxidative decomposition of TBBPA. Thermal testing was conducted in an electric furnace at temperatures of 280°C - 800°C in an Ar or Ar-O2 (5%) atmosphere for a heating period of 40 min. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results revealed that Pd bromide was formed in the mixture of TBBPA and PdO after heating to 450°C in the Ar atmosphere. In addition, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis showed that as the heating temperature was increased from 350°C to 730°C, weight loss occurred at a nearly constant rate, indicating that Pd bromide decomposed in this temperature range.
Some Sequence of Wrapped Δ-Labellings for the Complete Bipartite Graph  [PDF]
Tomoko Adachi, Daigo Kikuchi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.61019
Abstract: The design of large disk array architectures leads to interesting combinatorial problems. Minimizing the number of disk operations when writing to consecutive disks leads to the concept of “cluttered orderings” which were introduced for the complete graph by Cohen et al. (2001). Mueller et al. (2005) adapted the concept of wrapped Δ-labellings to the complete bipartite case. In this paper, we give some sequence in order to generate wrapped Δ-labellings as cluttered orderings for the complete bipartite graph. New sequence we give is different from the sequences Mueller et al. gave, though the same graphs in which these sequences are labeled.
Impacts to the Micronesian islands by environmental change of globalization and climate change
Shunsuke Nagashima
Journal of Ecology and Field Biology , 2010,
Abstract: This article focused on the environmental changes on atolls in Micronesia. First, we considered the problem. Second,we designed research that focused on the impacts of environmental changes especially in relation to globalization andglobal warming in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The results were in accordance to the hypotheses that globalizationhad impacted prominently in communities on main islands and impact was lessened with increased distancefrom the centre. The fact that the islands are remotely situated and thus, in theory, do not have much outside influence,has not alleviated them from having societal concerns. The earth’s environmental change is causing an impact on themain islands as well. This has been governed by distinctive characteristics in their geographical, regional, and contents.Moreover, they showed stronger concerns about impacts on the environment than globalization. A set of questionnaireswas used as the principal assessment method to quantify the concerns relating to the environmental changes.
Organization of Neural Systems for Aversive Information Processing: Pain, Error, and Punishment
Shunsuke Kobayashi
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2012.00136
Abstract: The avoidance of aversive events is critically important for the survival of organisms. It has been proposed that the medial pain system, including the amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), contains the neural circuitry that signals pain affect and negative value. This system appears to have multiple defense mechanisms, such as rapid stereotyped escape, aversive association learning, and cognitive adaptation. These defense mechanisms vary in speed and flexibility, reflecting different strategies of self-protection. Over the course of evolution, the medial pain system appears to have developed primitive, associative, and cognitive solutions for aversive avoidance. There may be a functional grading along the caudal-rostral axis, such that the amygdala-PAG system underlies automatic and autonomic responses, the amygdala-orbitofrontal system contributes to associative learning, and the ACC controls cognitive processes in cooperation with the lateral prefrontal cortex. A review of behavioral and physiological studies on the aversive system is presented, and a conceptual framework for understanding the neural organization of the aversive avoidance system is proposed.
Destructible Bars in Disk Galaxies under the Dynamical Influence of a Massive Central Black Hole
Shunsuke Hozumi
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/64.1.5
Abstract: The characteristics of the galactic bars that are prone to suffer a damaging impact from a massive central black hole are examined using flat stellar disks. We construct three disk model groups that consist of exponential disks with one type of velocity distribution and Kuzmin-Toomre disks with two different types of exact equilibrium distribution function. For each disk model group, three disks that have different typical Toomre's Q values are evolved to form bars through dynamical instability. Once a bar is fully developed, a black hole (BH), whose mass is 1% of the disk mass, is adiabatically added at the center of the disk. Our results show that lower-amplitude bars, that is, weaker bars are dissolved more easily by that BH. We have found that this destructibility is rooted in the characteristic feature that the bar formed spontaneously becomes shorter in length and rounder in shape with decreasing bar amplitude. Since such weaker bars are found to originate from colder disks in each disk model group, it follows that for a given form of velocity structure, the coldness of an initial disk determines whether the bar produced in that disk is favorable to dissolution induced by a massive central BH. In addition, the existence of bar-dissolved galaxies of the kind studied here is also discussed.
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