Abstract:
The present study first aimed to construct a coactivation model that integrates cognitive and motivational variables that determine an individual’s conscious humor experience. It then aimed to test the model’s reliability, validity, and generalizability. As part of the study, 16 (out of 48) four-frame cartoons were randomly presented to 201 (42 male and 159 female) high school students and 302 (185 male and 117 female) undergraduate and graduate students (age range was 15 to 23, M = 18.15, SD = 1.79) who were instructed to rate items related to the variable humor. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the generalizability of the model to predict the humor experience to a great extent within different population samples was shown. Furthermore, the theoretical prediction of the coactivation model was supported. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of future research that could demonstrate the possible application of the coactivation model.

Abstract:
Substantial potential exists to expand supplies of biomass for energy applications through more systematic collection of agricultural residues, more intensive cultivation of croplands, and reduced waste and losses in the food chain. This study aims to show how the potential can be calculated from public information sources, to put the potential in the context of global needs for liquid transport fuels, and to suggest some practical policy options for bringing part of the potential to market. It finds that if the theoretical potential is fully realized, enough liquid biofuel could be produced to displace the equivalent of all current global liquid fuel use for transport.

Abstract:
Patients who underwent surgical resection of an advanced colorectal cancer during the period from June 1982 to July 2001 were examined for evidence of no anastomotic recurrence or recurrent lesions through combination of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) with endoscopy. Included in this study were 11 patients with recurrence and 36 patients without recurrence, 47 patients in all. Endoscopy revealed stenosis in 81.8% of patients with ana anastomotic recurrence, erosion including cancer exposure in 81.8% and submucosal tumor-like elevation in 45.5%. In the group of patients without recurrence it revealed stenosis in 13.9% of patients, erosion in 22.2%, and a scar-like change in 77.8%. There was a significant difference between the two groups in each change. EUS, on the other hand, revealed localized hypertrophy of the region extending from the submucosa to the mp due to edema early in the postoperative course. The rate of definitive diagnosis with EUS was 100%, compared to 90.1% for endoscopy. The results of this study indicate that EUS is helpful in detecting anastomotic recurrence of colorectal cancer.

Abstract:
A unique form of turbulent-transport equations is derived based on first principles.The role of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics employed to describe the phenomenology is that it enables to single out the unique form consistent with master equation of Liouville, a prerequisite not met with existing equations for turbulence modeling.The equation is variable-separated to yield a Navier-Stokes equation in 6D(physical-plus-eddy) space with homogeneous boundary conditions.Turbulent transports such as Reynolds' stress are calculated using a solution of this equation; a solitary-wave function.Satisfactory agreement is observed with existing experiment for mixing shear layer of incompressible flows although no empirical constants are involved.

Abstract:
The classical turbulence theory by Kolmogorov is reconsidered using Navier-Stokes' equation generalized to 6D physical-plus-eddy space. Strong pseudo-singularity is shown to reveal itself along the boundary `ridge' line separating the dissipation and inertial sub-ranges surrounding the origin of the eddy space. A speculation is made that this singularity is generated by two dipoles of opposite sign aligned on the common axis. It is supported by the observation that the universal power spectrum calculated rediscovers the Kolmogorov's -5/3 power law as independent of the dimensional approach.

Abstract:
An open question of whether phenomenological fluid equations to be used for direct numerical simulation of turbulence are warranted on `first principles' is addressed, and the problem is posed using Klimontovich microscopic density to replace the Boltzmann function of the classical statistical mechanics. For inert monatomic gases, it is shown that all the gasdynamic equations, namely, the three conservation equations plus the Navier-Stokes stress law and the Fourier heat conduction law are retrieved as governing instantaneous quantities, without having recourse to any concepts of averaging or statistical equilibrium. For reactive gases, however, the Arrhenius reaction rate law written in terms of the fluctuating temperature is not justified, reflecting the fact that this rate law hinges crucially on these concepts.

Abstract:
As contrast to the Maxwellian distribution, equilibrium distribution of the second kind or turbulent equilibrium is shown to exist under tertiary molecular chaos hypothesis to replace the classical binary chaos by Boltzmann. It is expressed as bimodal Maxwellians each mode differing by plus/minus root-mean-squares of fluctuations in macroscopic variables. Chemical reaction rates calculated using the turbulent-equilibrium are obtained in a closed form, accounting for discrepancy between experiments and classical theory based on Arrhenius' law that underestimates the burning rate considerably. The key issue is the correct estimation of the high-energy tail of the distribution function that is minor in population, yet playing a major role for reactions with high activation energy. It is extremely sensitive to turbulence level in the temperature, causing slightly subcritical molecules to clear the potential barrier to cause reactions just like quantum particles undergoing tunnelling effect owing to the uncertainty principle. Variance of the fluctuating turbulent chemical reaction rate is also calculated, verifying that relative variance based on the turbulent equilibrium is low, whereas its classical counterpart (Arrhenius) is pathologically high. A closed set of equations governing reactive turbulent gases is presented on this sound basis.

Abstract:
We study soliton solutions to the DKP equation which is defined by the Hirota bilinear form, \[ {\begin{array}{llll} (-4D_xD_t+D_x^4+3D_y^2) \tau_n\cdot\tau_n=24\tau_{n-1}\tau_{n+1}, (2D_t+D_x^3\mp 3D_xD_y) \tau_{n\pm 1}\cdot\tau_n=0 \end{array} \quad n=1,2,.... \] where $\tau_0=1$. The $\tau$-functions $\tau_n$ are given by the pfaffians of certain skew-symmetric matrix. We identify one-soliton solution as an element of the Weyl group of D-type, and discuss a general structure of the interaction patterns among the solitons. Soliton solutions are characterized by $4N\times 4N$ skew-symmetric constant matrix which we call the $B$-matrices. We then find that one can have $M$-soliton solutions with $M$ being any number from $N$ to $2N-1$ for some of the $4N\times 4N$ $B$-matrices having only $2N$ nonzero entries in the upper triangular part (the number of solitons obtained from those $B$-matrices was previously expected to be just $N$).

Abstract:
We
conducted structural analysis of xNa_{2}O-yY_{2}O_{3}-5B_{2}O_{3}-3Al_{2}O_{3} and xNa_{2}O-yLa_{2}O_{3}-5B_{2}O_{3}-3Al_{2}O_{3} glasses
to elucidate the additive effects of rare-earth ions in these sodium
aluminoborate glasses, and investigated the local environment

Abstract:
A six-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation derived by one of the authors(ST) is solved for a turbulent mixing layer to demonstrate that it has a solitary wave solution. Turbulence intensities and Reynolds' stress are calculated using this solution, showing satisfactory agreement with experiments although no emperical constants are involved in the theory.