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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3190 matches for " Shulian Shang "
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A Tight Prediction Interval for False Discovery Proportion under Dependence  [PDF]
Shulian Shang, Mengling Liu, Yongzhao Shao
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2012.22018
Abstract: The false discovery proportion (FDP) is a useful measure of abundance of false positives when a large number of hypotheses are being tested simultaneously. Methods for controlling the expected value of the FDP, namely the false discovery rate (FDR), have become widely used. It is highly desired to have an accurate prediction interval for the FDP in such applications. Some degree of dependence among test statistics exists in almost all applications involving multiple testing. Methods for constructing tight prediction intervals for the FDP that take account of dependence among test statistics are of great practical importance. This paper derives a formula for the variance of the FDP and uses it to obtain an upper prediction interval for the FDP, under some semi-parametric assumptions on dependence among test statistics. Simulation studies indicate that the proposed formula-based prediction interval has good coverage probability under commonly assumed weak dependence. The prediction interval is generally more accurate than those obtained from existing methods. In addition, a permutation-based upper prediction interval for the FDP is provided, which can be useful when dependence is strong and the number of tests is not too large. The proposed prediction intervals are illustrated using a prostate cancer dataset.
Expression of miR-16 is not a suitable reference for analysis of serum microRNAs in melanoma patients  [PDF]
Erica B. Friedman, Shulian Shang, Nathaniel H. Fleming, Eleazar Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eva Hernando, Yongzhao Shao, Iman Osman
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.511080
Abstract: Background: The evolving paradigm shift towards the molecular characterization of melanoma has expanded to include studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression. As miR-16 has been utilized as a normalizer in serum-based miRNA studies in several cancers, we evaluated miR-16 expression as a potential reference for normalization of serum miRNA expression in melanoma patients. Methods: 143 primary cutaneous melanoma patients who presented to New York University (NYU) Langone Medical Center for surgical resection of AJCC stage I-III disease were studied. In addition, sera samples from 60 control subjects were utilized including 22 healthy volunteers, 13 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 20 non-melanoma cancer patients (10 renal cell carcinoma and 10 bladder cancer), and 5 Atypical Mole Syndrome patients. The Kruskal-Wallis test (k = 6) or Wilcoxon test (k = 2) with Bonferroni correction was used for analyses of miR-16 expression in melanoma patients compared to various control groups, using raw Ct values directly. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare miR-16 expression across stages of melanoma. The equivalence test for independent samples was used to test the equivalence of miR-16 expression among different groups. Results: No significant differential expression of miR-16 was observed between melanoma patients and healthy volunteers (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.37). However, miR-16 did show a significant difference in expression as it related to stage of melanoma (p = 0.015). Additionally, the equivalence test was unable to confirm equivalent expression of miR-16 in any melanoma versus control group pair. Conclusion: Our data indicate that miR-16 cannot be used as a universal normalizer in sera studies of melanoma patients.
Sample Size Calculation for Controlling False Discovery Proportion
Shulian Shang,Qianhe Zhou,Mengling Liu,Yongzhao Shao
Journal of Probability and Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/817948
Abstract: The false discovery proportion (FDP), the proportion of incorrect rejections among all rejections, is a direct measure of abundance of false positive findings in multiple testing. Many methods have been proposed to control FDP, but they are too conservative to be useful for power analysis. Study designs for controlling the mean of FDP, which is false discovery rate, have been commonly used. However, there has been little attempt to design study with direct FDP control to achieve certain level of efficiency. We provide a sample size calculation method using the variance formula of the FDP under weak-dependence assumptions to achieve the desired overall power. The relationship between design parameters and sample size is explored. The adequacy of the procedure is assessed by simulation. We illustrate the method using estimated correlations from a prostate cancer dataset.
Serum microRNAs as biomarkers for recurrence in melanoma
Friedman Erica B,Shang Shulian,de Miera Eleazar,Fog Jacob
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-10-155
Abstract: Background Identification of melanoma patients at high risk for recurrence and monitoring for recurrence are critical for informed management decisions. We hypothesized that serum microRNAs (miRNAs) could provide prognostic information at the time of diagnosis unaccounted for by the current staging system and could be useful in detecting recurrence after resection. Methods We screened 355 miRNAs in sera from 80 melanoma patients at primary diagnosis (discovery cohort) using a unique quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) panel. Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier recurrence-free survival (RFS) curves were used to identify a miRNA signature with prognostic potential adjusting for stage. We then tested the miRNA signature in an independent cohort of 50 primary melanoma patients (validation cohort). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine if the miRNA signature can determine risk of recurrence in both cohorts. Selected miRNAs were measured longitudinally in subsets of patients pre-/post-operatively and pre-/post-recurrence. Results A signature of 5 miRNAs successfully classified melanoma patients into high and low recurrence risk groups with significant separation of RFS in both discovery and validation cohorts (p = 0.0036, p = 0.0093, respectively). Significant separation of RFS was maintained when a logistic model containing the same signature set was used to predict recurrence risk in both discovery and validation cohorts (p < 0.0001, p = 0.033, respectively). Longitudinal expression of 4 miRNAs in a subset of patients was dynamic, suggesting miRNAs can be associated with tumor burden. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that serum miRNAs can improve accuracy in identifying primary melanoma patients with high recurrence risk and in monitoring melanoma tumor burden over time.
Research on the Contents and Development Mode about the Intensive Urbanization
Shulian Wu
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n6p99
Abstract: In this paper, the process of urbanization in the current one-sided pursuit of quantity and speed of urbanization, ignoring the inherent quality of urbanization, from the perspective of the development of intensive urbanization, proposed intensive urbanization ideas: From the agglomeration of population, space intensive, industrial clusters defined in terms of the connotation of intensive urbanization; Based on resource-saving, environment friendly, cost-effective development goals of the intensive urbanization, proposed the typical pattern of intensive urbanization, that is the pattern of urbanization and land-based, ecological patterns of urbanization, urban cluster model.
Application of the Asthma Phenotype Algorithm from the Severe Asthma Research Program to an Urban Population
Paru Patrawalla, Angeliki Kazeros, Linda Rogers, Yongzhao Shao, Mengling Liu, Maria-Elena Fernandez-Beros, Shulian Shang, Joan Reibman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044540
Abstract: Rationale Identification and characterization of asthma phenotypes are challenging due to disease complexity and heterogeneity. The Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) used unsupervised cluster analysis to define 5 phenotypically distinct asthma clusters that they replicated using 3 variables in a simplified algorithm. We evaluated whether this simplified SARP algorithm could be used in a separate and diverse urban asthma population to recreate these 5 phenotypic clusters. Methods The SARP simplified algorithm was applied to adults with asthma recruited to the New York University/Bellevue Asthma Registry (NYUBAR) to classify patients into five groups. The clinical phenotypes were summarized and compared. Results Asthma subjects in NYUBAR (n = 471) were predominantly women (70%) and Hispanic (57%), which were demographically different from the SARP population. The clinical phenotypes of the five groups generated by the simplified SARP algorithm were distinct across groups and distributed similarly to those described for the SARP population. Groups 1 and 2 (6 and 63%, respectively) had predominantly childhood onset atopic asthma. Groups 4 and 5 (20%) were older, with the longest duration of asthma, increased symptoms and exacerbations. Group 4 subjects were the most atopic and had the highest peripheral eosinophils. Group 3 (10%) had the least atopy, but included older obese women with adult-onset asthma, and increased exacerbations. Conclusions Application of the simplified SARP algorithm to the NYUBAR yielded groups that were phenotypically distinct and useful to characterize disease heterogeneity. Differences across NYUBAR groups support phenotypic variation and support the use of the simplified SARP algorithm for classification of asthma phenotypes in future prospective studies to investigate treatment and outcome differences between these distinct groups. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00212537
The Novel Gamma Secretase Inhibitor RO4929097 Reduces the Tumor Initiating Potential of Melanoma
Chanh Huynh,Laura Poliseno,Miguel F. Segura,Ratna Medicherla,Adele Haimovic,Silvia Menendez,Shulian Shang,Anna Pavlick,Yongzhao Shao,Farbod Darvishian,John F. Boylan,Iman Osman,Eva Hernando
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025264
Abstract: Several reports have demonstrated a role for aberrant NOTCH signaling in melanoma genesis and progression, prompting us to explore if targeting this pathway is a valid therapeutic approach against melanoma. We targeted NOTCH signaling using RO4929097, a novel inhibitor of gamma secretase, which is a key component of the enzymatic complex that cleaves and activates NOTCH. The effects of RO4929097 on the oncogenic and stem cell properties of a panel of melanoma cell lines were tested both in vitro and in vivo, using xenograft models. In human primary melanoma cell lines, RO4929097 decreased the levels of NOTCH transcriptional target HES1. This was accompanied by reduced proliferation and impaired ability to form colonies in soft agar and to organize in tridimensional spheres. Moreover, RO4929097 affected the growth of human primary melanoma xenograft in NOD/SCID/IL2gammaR-/- mice and inhibited subsequent tumor formation in a serial xenotransplantation model, suggesting that inhibition of NOTCH signaling suppresses the tumor initiating potential of melanoma cells. In addition, RO4929097 decreased tumor volume and blocked the invasive growth pattern of metastatic melanoma cell lines in vivo. Finally, increased gene expression of NOTCH signaling components correlated with shorter post recurrence survival in metastatic melanoma cases. Our data support NOTCH inhibition as a promising therapeutic strategy against melanoma.
Numerical Taxonomy of Species in the Genus Mallomonas (Chrysophyta) from China
Jia Feng,Shulian Xie
ISRN Biodiversity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/653958
Abstract: Mallomonas is one of the biggest genera of Chrysophyta. In total, 37 species and 2 varieties have been recorded in China. Because of their narrow ecological optimum, species of this genus are considered as valuable bioindicators. However, taxonomy of Mallomonas remains unclear. We studied the numerical taxonomy of all the species and varieties recorded in China using Ward’s method and the furthest neighbor method based on 52 morphological characters. Shown in the phylogenetic trees, those species could be divided into two major clusters. One cluster includes 5 small clusters and another includes 2. The results of numerical taxonomy are partially consistent with the traditional ones with some divergences. Furthermore, the diversity of silicified scales including shapes and structures was confirmed as the most important character for identification of Mallomonas species. 1. Introduction The genus Mallomonas, which was created by Perty in 1852, is reported as one of the biggest genera in Chrysophyta [1, 2]. It is comprised of 163 species around the world so far, of which 37 species and 2 varieties are from China [3–14]. Mallomonas are unicellular, free-swimming, freshwater organisms. Because of their narrow ecological optimum, Mallomonas species are considered as valuable bioindicators to both recent and historical environments, as well as for biomonitoring [15–18]. Smol suggested that morphological variability of silica structures within individual species could represent an important piece of information for biomonitoring studies [19]. Therefore, it is important for us to make a clear and reasonable classification system of this genus. The basic taxonomic system of the genus Mallomonas was first established in 1933 and has been modified for several times [20–27]. Nowadays, the genus Mallomonas is traditionally divided into sections and series in mainly the morphology of scales, which is considered as the most important taxonomic character for species identification and the taxonomy of the species [5, 28]. However, we shall be aware that this classification based mainly on resemblances and the difference in the structures of scales and bristles may be highly artificial, because it is still unknown which scale characters are stable enough to be selected as reliable taxonomical markers. Also, since it is hard to collect enough samples of unicellular bodies for molecular analysis, phylogenetic studies that used the molecular data were also difficult for generic taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus Mallomonas. Therefore, the phylogenetic reliability of
The Latest Progress of the Conceptual Framework  [PDF]
Ting Shang
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.66065
Abstract: During the past 30 years, the world’s economy developed rapidly, but the formulation of accounting standards often could not keep up with the pace of economic development as the continuous innovation of financial instruments or derivatives financial instruments, the increasingly frequency of unconventional activities such as merger, acquisition and restructuring, the rapid flowing of global capital, and the development of networking, information science and technology. Thus the lagging and patching method of accounting standards made the conceptual framework which was ever explored in the past back to the IASB agenda again. This paper mainly described the latest progress of the conceptual framework after IASB released Discussion Paper, analyzed the characteristics of the restatement of CF, and proposed several thoughts for the China CF and accounting standards.
Quantum-Inspired Neural Network with Quantum Weights and Real Weights  [PDF]
Fuhua Shang
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.510060
Abstract: To enhance the approximation ability of neural networks, by introducing quantum rotation gates to the traditional BP networks, a novel quantum-inspired neural network model is proposed in this paper. In our model, the hidden layer consists of quantum neurons. Each quantum neuron carries a group of quantum rotation gates which are used to update the quantum weights. Both input and output layer are composed of the traditional neurons. By employing the back propagation algorithm, the training algorithms are designed. Simulation-based experiments using two application examples of pattern recognition and function approximation, respectively, illustrate the availability of the proposed model.
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