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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 722 matches for " Shinogi Yoshiyuki "
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Effect of Crop Root on Soil Water Retentivity and Movement  [PDF]
Kozue Yuge, Keiki Shigematsu, Mitsumasa Anan, Shinogi Yoshiyuki
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.312A218
Abstract:

The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of crop root on soil water retentivity and movement to improve the crop growth environment and irrigation efficiency. To simulate soil water movement considering the crop root effect on the physical properties of soil, a numerical model describing the soil water and heat transfers was introduced. Cultivation experiments were conducted to clarify the effect of the crop root on soil water retentivity and verify the accuracy of the numerical model. The relationship between soil water retentivity and the root content of soil samples was clarified by soil water retention curves. The soil water content displayed a high value with increasing crop root content in the high volumetric water content zone. The experimental results indicated that the saturated water content increased with the crop root content because of the porosity formed by the crop root. The differences of the soil water retentivity became smaller when the value of the matric potential was over pF 1.5. To verify the accuracy of the numerical model, an observation using acrylic slit pot was also conduced. The temporal and spatial changes of the volumetric water content and soil temperature were measured. Soil water and heat transfers, which considered the effect of the crop root on the soil water retentivity clarified by the soil water retention curves, were simulated. Simulated volumetric water content and temperature of soil agreed with observed data. This indicated that the numerical model used to simulate the soil water and heat transfer considering the crop root effect on soil water retentivity was satisfactory. Using this model, spatial and temporal changes of soil water content were simulated. The soil water condition of the root zone was relatively high compared with the initial conditions. This indicated that the volumetric water condition of the root zone increased with the soil water extraction and high soil water

The Different Expressions of Draft Cherry Tomato Growth, Yield, Quality under Bamboo and Rice Husk Biochars Application to Clay Loamy Soil  [PDF]
Tran Thi Thu Hien, Yoshiyuki Shinogi, Tomoyuki Taniguchi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.89068
Abstract: This study evaluated the different expressions of cherry tomato growth, yield and quality under bamboo and rice husk biochar applications to soil. The experiment was conducted under glasshouse conditions at Hakozaki campus, Kyushu University, Japan and consisted of 5 treatments, namely 1) no biochar application as a control; 2) 2% (RH2) and 3) 5% (RH5) of rice husk biochar; 4) 2% (BB2) and 5) 5% (BB5) of bamboo biochar. Bamboo biochar application significantly improved tomato growth, including number of leaves, fresh biomass yield of aboveground and underground parts for BB5; number of fruit; fresh yield from 24% - 25% for BB2 and BB5. In particular, both bamboo and rice husk biochar application at two rates 2% and 5% had positive effects on tomato quality, demonstrated by the increased total sugar content from 56% to 91%, and the enhancement of ascorbic acid content for BB2 and RH2 by 12% and 17%, respectively. Those improvements reflected the soil physiochemical property changes after biochar application, including the increase in plant available water for bamboo biochar amendment before and after cultivating by 25% - 38% and 9% - 18%, respectively, compared with those of control; and the increased total soil N for bamboo biochar treatments (11% - 14%). Generally, all data above support bamboo biochar utilization for the purpose of improving soil properties and developing crop production.
Effects of Rice Husk and Rice Husk Charcoal on Soil Physicochemical Properties, Rice Growth and Yield  [PDF]
Anand Mishra, Koungveng Taing, Michael W. Hall, Yoshiyuki Shinogi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.89074
Abstract: To investigate the effect of the application of rice husk (RH) and rice husk charcoal (RHC) on soil properties and rice production, pot experiment comprising of five treatments was conducted. Soil was mixed at the rate of 0 (control), 2% and 4% (w/w) with RH and RHC, respectively with randomized complete block design (RCBD). RHC incorporation had a potential to reduce the acidity of the soil, whereas, RH incorporation had almost no effect on the pH of the soil. RH and RHC amendment both increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, saturated water content, plant available water and field capacity but decreased the bulk density of soil. Crop growth components at harvest revealed that the highest plant height was recorded in RH4%. However, for the panicle length, panicle weight and number of tillers, the highest value was found in RHC2%, 14.2 cm, 4.0 g and 28.8 cm, respectively. Furthermore, number of panicle, 1000-grains weight and grain yield were also found highest in RHC2%, 22.4 g and 4.41 t/ha, respectively. However, for the number of grain per panicle and percentage of filled grain, the highest value was found in RH4%, 79.0 and 88.5, respectively. The grain yield increased by 38%, 28%, 18% and 22% and the biological yield increased by 27%, 18%, 14%, and 16% for RHC2%, RHC4%, RH2%, and RH4%, respectively, compared to that of the control; however, the significant difference was found only for RHC2% for both. The harvest index increased under all application rates of RH and RHC compared to that of control.
Delivery of Plasmid DNA into Tumors by Intravenous Injection of PEGylated Cationic Lipoplexes into Tumor-Bearing Mice  [PDF]
Yoshiyuki Hattori
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2016.77034
Abstract: For systemic injection of cationic liposome/plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes (cationic lipoplexes), polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modification (PEGylation) of lipoplexes can enhance their systemic stability. In this study, we examined whether intravenous injection of PEGylated cationic lipoplexes into tumor-bearing mice could deliver pDNA into tumor tissues and induce transgene expression. PEGylation of cationic liposomes could prevent their agglutination with erythrocytes. However, when PEGylated cationic lipoplexes were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice, they accumulated in tumor vascular vessels and did not exhibit transgene expression in tumors with both poor and well-developed vascularization. Furthermore, PEGylated cationic lipoplexes of CpG- free pDNA could not increase transgene expression in tumors after intravenous injection. These results suggested that PEGylation could not extravasate cationic lipoplexes from vascular vessels in tumors and abolished transgene expression although it enhanced the systemic stability of cationic lipoplexes by avoiding interactions with blood components such as erythrocytes. Successful delivery of pDNA to tumors by PEGylated cationic liposomes will require a rational strategy and the design of liposomal delivery systems to overcome the issue associated with the use of PEG.
Suppression of Methane Gas Emissions and Analysis of the Electrode Microbial Community in a Sediment-Based Bio-Electrochemical System  [PDF]
Yoshiyuki Ueno, Yoji Kitajima
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.45032
Abstract:

The effects of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) for the suppression of methane gas emissions from sediment were examined using a laboratory-scale reactor system. Methane gas emissions from acetate were suppressed by approximately 36% from control based on the installation of a BES in which carbon-graphite electrodes were buried in sediment and arbitrarily set at certain oxidative potentials (+300 mV vs Ag/AgCl) using a potentiostat. Meanwhile, methane gas emissions increased in the BES reactor where the electrode potential was set at -200 mV. Results obtained from pyrotag sequencing analysis of the microbial community on the surface of the buried electrodes targeting 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the genusGeobacterhad drastically propagated in a sample from the reactor where the electrodes were buried. Quantitative analysis of 16S rRNA genes of archaea also revealed that the archaeal population had decreased to approximately 1/6 of its original level on the electrode of the BES set at +300 mV. This implied that the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in the sediment was raised to the inhibition level for methanogenesis in the vicinity of the buried electrode. Analysis of electron flux in the experiment revealed that electrons intrinsically used for methanogenesis were recovered via current generation in the sediment where a potential of +300 mV was set for the electrode, although most electrons donated from acetate were captured by oxygen respiration and other electron-accepting reactions. These results imply that BES technology is suitable for use as a tool for controlling re-dox-dependent reactions in natural environments, and that it also brought about changes in the microbial population structure and methanogenic activity in sediment.

Electric Double-Layer Capacitor Fabricated with Addition of Carbon Nanotube to Polarizable Electrode
Yoshiyuki Show
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/929343
Abstract: Electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated with addition of carbon nanotube (CNT) to polarization electrodes as a conducting material. The CNT addition reduced the series resistance of the EDLC by one-twentieth, while the capacitance was not increased by the CNT addition. The low series resistance leaded to the high electrical energy stored in the EDLC. In this paper, the dependence of the series resistance, the specific capacitance, the energy, and the energy efficiencies on the CNT addition is discussed.
Genetic Factors of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Japanese
Yoshiyuki Ban
Autoimmune Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/236981
Abstract: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), including Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), are caused by immune response to self-thyroid antigens and affect approximately 2–5% of the general population. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors, such as smoking, viral/bacterial infection, and chemicals, is believed to initiate the autoimmune response against thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITDs. Various techniques have been employed to identify genes contributing to the etiology of AITDs, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked to AITDs, and, in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to GD and HT and some are common to both diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. Known AITD-susceptibility genes are classified into three groups: HLA genes, non-HLA immune-regulatory genes (e.g., CTLA-4, PTPN22, and CD40), and thyroid-specific genes (e.g., TSHR and Tg). In this paper, we will summarize the latest findings on AITD susceptibility genes in Japanese. 1. Introduction Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) are common autoimmune endocrine diseases [1], and according to one study, AITD are the commonest autoimmune diseases in the USA [2]. Even though the hallmark of AITD is infiltration of the thyroid with thyroid reactive lymphocytes, the end result is two clinically opposing syndromes: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) manifesting by hypothyroidism and Graves’ disease (GD) manifesting by hyperthyroidism. In HT, the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid gland leads to apoptosis of thyroid cells and hypothyroidism [3]. In contrast, in GD, the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid leads to activation of TSH-receptor- (TSHR) reactive B cells that secrete TSHR-stimulating antibodies causing hyperthyroidism [4]. GD and HT are complex diseases, and their etiology involves both genetic and environmental influences [1]. Up until 15 years ago, the only known gene for AITD was HLA-DR3 haplotype (DRB1*03-DQB1*02-DQA1*0501) in Caucasians. However, with the advent of new genomic tools and the completion of the human genome and the HapMap projects, new non-HLA genes have been identified and their functional effects on disease aetiology started to be dissected as well. This paper will summarize the recent advances
Computational study of the solid-state vibrations and force field of magnesium and calcium hydroxides
Hase, Yoshiyuki;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532006000400016
Abstract: the solid-state vibrations of magnesium and calcium hydroxides have been studied by normal coordinate analysis. using a simple short-range force field, the calculated frequencies of normal vibrations are in good agreement with the experimentally observed fundamentals. some fundamental bands have been estimated by calculations. hartree-fock frequency calculations on three model clusters suggest that the correlation field splitting of the hydroxyl group stretching vibrations mainly originates in the interlayer interactions.
NCT: pacote de tratamento de coordenadas normais (vers?o 7)
Hase, Yoshiyuki;
Química Nova , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422004000400023
Abstract: a new version of the normal coordinate analysis package nct is presented. the upgrade was mainly devised to enable the nct package to manipulate easily the hessian matrix evaluated by quantum chemical calculations. program codes were almost wholly rewritten to be more efficient with gnu fortran77, or g77, and compiled under freebsd and ms-dos with the djgpp implementation. three typical usages of the program package are presented by giving the related input and output files. functionality of the programs was carefully and satisfactorily checked for some sample calculations.
Making continental crust: The sanukitoid connection
Yoshiyuki Tatsumi
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-008-0185-9
Abstract: The average continental crust possesses intermediate compositions that typify arc magmatism and as a result it is believed to have been created at ancient convergent plate boundaries. One possible mechanism for intermediate continental crust formation is the direct production of andesitic melts in the upper mantle. Sanukitoids, which characterize the Setouchi volcanic belt, SW Japan, include unusually high-Mg andesites (HMA). They were generated by slab melting and subsequent melt-mantle interactions under unusual tectonic settings such as where warm lithosphere subducts into hot upper mantle. Such conditions would have existed in the Archean. Hydrous HMA magmas are likely to have solidified within the crust to form HMA plutons, which were then remelted to produce differentiated sanukitoids. At present, generation and differentiation of HMA magmas may be taking place in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc-trench system (IBM), because (1) HMA magmatism characterizes the initial stages of the IBM evolution and (2) the IBM middle crust exhibits V p identical to that of the bulk continental crust. V p estimates for plutonic rocks with HMA compositions support this. However tonalitic composition for middle-crust-forming rocks cannot be ruled out, suggesting an alternative possibility that the continental crust has been created by differentiation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas.
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