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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 94 matches for " Shinjiro Kanae "
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Potential and Use of Nitrate in Agricultural Purposes  [PDF]
Anupam Khajuria, Shinjiro Kanae
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.55053

With the excess use of nitrogen, a number of global and regional factors need to be addressed. Nitrate contamination of agricultural water leads to a number of environmental problems. During the twentieth century, the human being has used increasingly more reactive nitrogen, intentionally as fertilizer. The revolution in agricultural production is possibly increase by the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The inorganic nitrogen fertilizers are an essential input for maintaining high crop yield. This article discusses the origin and role of nitrogen in the environment. The potential and use of nitrogen as fertilizer for groundwater and surface water quality resources in agricultural purposes are discussed.

Adaptation Technology: Benefits of Hydrological Services—Watershed Management in Semi-Arid Region of India  [PDF]
Anupam Khajuria, Sayaka Yoshikawa, Shinjiro Kanae
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.66055

Watershed management consists of multifunctional activities to manage and address the increasing water resource problems. Ever increasing water demand and rapidly depleting water resources, it has become necessary to develop the adaptation options to recharge groundwater resources. A watershed is a special kind of Common Pool Resources (CPRs); an area is defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinating the use of natural resources by public participation. Watershed developments have shown significant positive impacts on water table, perennially of water in wells and water availability especially in semi-arid regions. This paper describes direct and indirect impacts of the watershed activities and benefits of hydrological services dealing with watershed management with future prediction of net irrigation water supply. In the present work, we have also discussed the multiple impacts of watershed of CPRs for improving groundwater and surface water resources.

Accuracy Improvement in CCT Estimation of Power Systems by iRprop-RAN Hybrid Neural Network  [PDF]
Teruhisa Kumano, Shinjiro Netsu
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.54B191

This paper proposes a new Initial CCT (Critical Clearing Time) estimation method using a hybrid neural network composed of iRprop (Improving the Resilient back PROPation Algorithm) and RAN (Resource Allocation Network). In transient stability study, CCT evaluation is very important but time consuming due to the fact it needs many iteration of time domain simulations gradually increasing the fault clearing time. The key to reduce the required computing time in this process is to find accurate initial estimation of CCT by a certain handy method before going to the iterative stage. As one of the strongest candidates of this handy method is the utilization of the pattern recognition ability of neural networks, which enable us to jump to a close estimation of the real CCT without any heavy computing burden. This paper proposes a new hybrid neural network which is a combination of the well-known iRprop and RAN. In the proposed method, the outputs of the hidden units of RAN are modified by multiplying the contribution factors calculated by an additional iRprop network. Numerical studies are done using two different test systems for the purpose of confirming the validity of the proposal. The result of the proposed method is the best. Properly evaluating the contribution of each input to the hidden units, the estimation error obtained by the proposed method is improved further than the original RAN based estimation.

In Vitro Bioassay of Allelopathy in Four Bamboo Species; Bambusa multiplex, Phyllostachys bambusoides, P. nigra, Sasa kurilensis, Using Sandwich Method and Protoplast Co-Culture Method with Digital Image Analysis  [PDF]
Shinjiro Ogita, Hamako Sasamoto
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.87117
Abstract: Moderately strong allelopathic activities were found in four bamboo species, Bambusa multiplex cv. Houraichiku; Phyllostachys bambusoides cv. Madake; P. nigra cv. Hachiku; Sasa kurilensis cv. Chishimazasa, which are of different classification or of different ecological distributions, using the “Sandwich Method”, which assays the dried leaves on growth of lettuce seedlings. Only small difference of activity was found among the four bamboo species. In addition, Protoplast Co-culture Method” for assay of allelopathy in a 50 μL liquid medium using a 96 well culture plate, was applied to the suspension cultures of the four bamboo species. Protoplasts were isolated from two-week cultured suspension cells of four bamboo species using Cellulase RS and Pectolyase Y-23 in 0.6 M mannitol. At low protoplast densities of bamboo, B. multiplex
Development of binary shaped pupil mask coronagraph for the observation of exoplanets
Kanae Haze
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Direct observation of extra-solar planets (exoplanets) is essential to understand how planetary systems were born, how they evolve, and ultimately, to identify biological signatures on these planets. However, the enormous contrast in flux between the central star and associated planets is the primary difficulty in the direct observation. This has required stellar coronagraphs which can improve the contrast between the star and the planet to be developed. Of the various kinds of coronagraphs, we focused on a binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph. The reasons for using this coronagraph are robust against pointing errors, essentially achromatic and relatively simple. We conducted a number of coronagraph experiments using a vacuum chamber and a checker-board mask, a kind of binary-shaped pupil mask, without active wavefront control. We demonstrated PSF subtraction is potentially beneficial for improving contrast of a binary-shaped pupil mask coronagraph, this coronagraph produces a significant improvement in contrast with multi-color/broadband light sources, and the new free-standing mask for practical use provides superior performance of improving contrast. We performed the tasks necessary to make the coronagraph fit for practical use. In conclusion, we carried out verification test for more real coronagraphic observations.
The Mutated Acetolactate Synthase Gene from Rice as a Non-Antibiotic Selection Marker for Transformation of Bamboo Cells  [PDF]
Shinjiro Ogita, Nanaka Kikuchi, Taiji Nomura, Yasuo Kato
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.33044
Abstract: Previously, we developed a particle bombardment-mediated transformation protocol in Phyllostachys nigra bamboo by expressing hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (HPT) and neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NPT II). Although these marker genes could introduce to several tissue cultured organs (e.g. leaves, buds, and calli) of Phyllostachs bamboo species, some organs showed a high susceptibility and/or a low selectivity to hygromycin and kanamycin. In this report, therefore, we describe advantages and technical details for generating stable transgenic bamboo cells using the particle bombardment method with the mutated-acetolactate synthase gene (mALS) from rice (W548L/S627IOsALS) as a non-antibiotic selection marker. A facile and efficient transformation was achieved with the mALS gene and enhanced fluorescent protein gene (mCherry). Approximately 490 and 1400 mCherry-expressing cells/dish/shot in average were observed in both P. bambusoides and P. nigra under fluorescent stereo-microscope. Stable transgenic bamboo cell lines were generated in a selection medium supplemented with 0.1 μM of bispyribac-sodium (BS) as ALS inhibitor. The integration of mALS gene was identified by in vivo ALS enzyme assay and a PCR-restriction fragment length polymerphism (RFLP) based detection procedures.
A β-Glucosidase Activity Potentially Involved in Cell Division and Wall Development of Phyllostachys Bamboo Suspension Cells  [PDF]
Shinjiro Ogita, Shinya Ohki, Taiji Nomura, Yasuo Kato
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.38127
Abstract: We propose a novel Madake (Phyllostachys bambusoides) bamboo suspension culture model for investigation of key enzyme(s) activity involved in growth/differentiation. Sedimented Cell Volume (SCV) and fresh weight (FW) of the suspension cultured cells reached 34% (v/v) and 8.7 g in 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-containing medium while only 7% (v/v) SCV and 1.9 g FW of the cells in 10 μM gibberellic acid (GA3)-containing medium in 14 days. Proportion of mitotically active cells (S to G2/M phases) at a log phase was identified as 29.5% in the former cells with tiny cytoplasmic features while 5.4% in the latter cells with elongation, wall thickening, and lignification by using flow cytometry and laser scanning microscopic analysis. The total β-glucosidase (BGL) activity under the 2,4-D condition increased from 4.8 U in day 2 to 26.2 U in day 14 (ca. 5.5-fold) while a slight reduction, from 4.4 U in day 2 to 2.1 U in day 14 (ca. 0.5-fold), occurred when cell division was suppressed under the GA3 condition. Ratio of the BGL activity of the soluble fractions to the membrane-associated fractions varied depending of the culture condition. The ratio was stable (2 to 8) during the culture period under the 2,4-D condition. Interestingly, the activity of the soluble enzyme fractions increased up to ca. 65% under the GA3 condition in inverse proportion to the membrane-associated enzymes. All together, it was strongly suggested that the detected specificity/variability of BGL activity is potentially involved in cell division and lignification in Madake bamboo cells.
Successful coil embolization with a basic technique for ruptured posterior tibial artery in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: A case report  [PDF]
Satoko Nezu, Morio Nagahata, Keisuke Onishi, Rei Kondo, Shinjiro Saito
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22035

The surgical management of vascular complication with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome type IV (EDS-IV) is extremely challenging because of its tissue or organ fragility including arteries. Less traumatic maneuvers and devices have been recommended to perform the endovascular treatment for the vascular lesion of EDS-IV, although the endovascular procedure is less invasive than surgical intervention. We report a 23-year-old man with EDS-IV suffered from left posterior tibial arterial rupture. We performed internal trapping of the ruptured segment using detachable coils with a standard technique via the contralateral femoral artery puncture. The patient was discharged without any complication associated with the endovascular procedure. Embolization by a basic technique, performed with greatest care, is a safe and useful treatment option which we radiologists should try for managing EDS-IV patients.

Anti-Hyperglycemic Effect of Single Administered Gardeniae Fructus in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Improving Insulin Resistance and Enhancing Glucose Uptake in Skeletal Muscle  [PDF]
Qing Yu, Tatsuo Takahashi, Masaaki Nomura, Shinjiro Kobayashi
Chinese Medicine (CM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cm.2013.44019

The mechanisms of Gardeniae Fructus (GF) for anti-hyperglycemic action were demonstrated in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Six hours after single intraperitoneal administration of GF (300 mg/kg) or H2O into 3 hour-fasted STZ-diabetic mice, glucose and insulin tolerances were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose (1.5 g/kg) tolerance test (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin (0.65 U/kg) tolerance test (IPITT), respectively. Effects of GF on insulin signaling pathways in soleus muscle such as glucose uptake, expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in the plasma membrane and phosphorylation of Akt (P-Akt) in cytosolic fraction were examined in STZ-diabetic mice. In IPGTT test, GF significantly accelerated clearance of exogenous glucose and its glucose-lowering action was greater than H2O-treated controlin STZ-diabetic mice. GF also promoted an exogenous glucose-increased insulin level in STZ-diabetic mice. In IPITT test, GF decreased glucose level to the greater extent than H2O-treated control in STZ-diabetic mice. Furthermore, GF significantly decreased high HOMA-IR in STZ-diabetic mice from 21.6 ± 2.4 to 12.4 ± 1.9 (mg/dl × μU/ml). These results implied that GF improved insulin resistance in STZ-diabetic mice. GF increased glucose uptake of soleus muscle 1.5 times greater than H2O-treated control in STZ-diabetic mice. GF enlarged insulin (10 nmol/ml)-increased glucose uptake to 1.8 time-greater. Correspondingly, GF increased expression of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane of soleus muscle to 1.4 time-greater, and P-Akt in the cytosolic fraction of soleus muscle to 1.9 time-greater

Experimental antithrombotic effect of potatoes harvested in the autumn  [PDF]
Junichiro Yamamoto, Megumi Masuda, Kanae Hyodo, Masahiro Iwasaki
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42017
Abstract: Prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has a high priority in developed countries. While an inappropriate diet is known to enhance the risk for acute thrombotic events, a regular diet with proven antithrombotic effects might be beneficial in the prevention of such diseases. The present study is part of a series of investigations aimed to assess the possible antithrombotic activity of various fruits and vegetables. Previously we demonstrated antithrombotic effect of specific potato varieties harvested in the spring. The present study aimed to test seven varieties of potatoes, which were harvested in the autumn. The in vitro Global Thrombosis Test (GTT) was used for selection, which was then followed by the He-Ne laser-induced in vivo thrombosis test in mice treated with potato filtrates orally. We have shown that all seven potato varieties showed some antithrombotic effect and the heat-resistant effect of four varieties was highly significant. Our present findings add further components to a diet containing fruits and vegetables with antithrombotic effect.
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