Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Structure of semantic memory was investigated in the way of neural network simulations in detail. In the literature, it is well-known that brain damaged patients often showed category specific disorder in various cognitive neuropsychological tasks like picture naming, categorisation, identification tasks and so on. In order to describe semantic memory disorder of brain damaged patients, the attractor neural network model originally proposed Hinton and Shallice (1991) was employed and was tried to re-evaluate the model performance. Especially, in order to answer the question about organization of semantic memory, how our semantic memories are organized, computer simulations were conducted. After the model learned data set (Tyler, Moss, Durrant-Peatfield, & Levy, 2000), units in hidden and cleanup layers were removed and observed its performances. The results showed category specificity. This model could also explain the double dissociation phenomena. In spite of the simplicity of its architecture, the attractor neural network might be considered to mimic human behavior in the meaning of semantic memory organization and its disorder. Although this model could explain various phenomenon in cognitive neuropsychology, it might become obvious that this model had one limitation to explain human behavior. As far as investigation in this study, asymmetry in category specificity between animate and inanimate objects might not be explained on this model without any additional assumptions. Therefore, further studies must be required to improve our understanding for semantic memory organisation.
Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination
therapy (GC) is accepted as a standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, little information
is available regarding such treatment in the clinical practice setting in
Japan. We retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients with
unresectable or recurrent BTC who received GC as first-line treatment. The
regimen consisted of cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2)
administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 of repeated 3-week cycles. Twenty
patients were analyzed. A total of 148 cycles of GC was administered, with a
median of 8 and a range of 1 to 18 cycles. Treatment delay and dose reduction
were noted in 35 (24%) and 41 (28%) of the 148 cycles, respectively. The major
adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (45%), anemia
(30%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Nonhematologic toxicities included nausea
(10%), appetite loss (10%), and fatigue (10%). Median progression-free and
overall survival times were 6.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Gallbladder
cancer showed a significantly higher response rate than did other types of BTC
(chi-squaretest, P = 0.002). GC was
thus effective and well tolerated as first-line chemotherapy for Japanese
patients with advanced BTC in the clinical practice setting.
The polyaddition of isocyanate and polyol to form polyurethane elastomers has rarely been applied to the construction of chiral polyurethane elastomers. Hence, the introduction of chiral units via polyaddition remains a challenging subject in polymer chemistry. In this study, the synthesis of chiral polyurethane elastomers using an aromatic isocyanate, polyols (polyether and polyester polyols), and L(+)-, D(−)-, or meso-tartaric acid by a one-shot method is investigated. The polymers are characterized using FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and their thermal properties are investigated by TGA, DMA, and DSC analyses. The optical activities of the polymers are confirmed by rotation. The use of chiral tartaric acids is essential to obtain the desired chiral polyurethane elastomers.