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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 118941 matches for " Shimizu T "
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3D magnetic field configuration of small-scale reconnection events in the solar plasma atmosphere
T. Shimizu
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1063/1.4933056
Abstract: The outer solar atmosphere, i.e., the corona and the chromosphere, is replete with small energy-release events, which are accompanied by transient brightening and jet-like ejections. These events are considered to be magnetic reconnection events in the solar plasma, and their dynamics have been studied using recent advanced observations from the Hinode spacecraft and other observatories in space and on the ground. These events occur at different locations in the solar atmosphere, and vary in their morphology and amount of the released energy. The magnetic field configurations of these reconnection events are inferred based on observations of magnetic fields at the photospheric level. Observations suggest that these magnetic configurations can be classified into two groups. In the first group, two anti-parallel magnetic fields reconnect to each other, yielding a 2D emerging flux configuration. In the second group, helical or twisted magnetic flux tubes are parallel or at a relative angle to each other. Reconnection can occur only between anti-parallel components of the magnetic flux tubes and may be referred to as component reconnection. The latter configuration type may be more important for the larger class of small-scale reconnection events. The two types of magnetic configurations can be compared to counter-helicity and co-helicity configurations, respectively, in laboratory plasma collision experiments.
System 3 diagnostic process: the lateral approach
Shimizu T, Tokuda Y
International Journal of General Medicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S36859
Abstract: tem 3 diagnostic process: the lateral approach Rapid Communication (1152) Total Article Views Authors: Shimizu T, Tokuda Y Published Date October 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 873 - 874 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S36859 Received: 09 August 2012 Accepted: 18 September 2012 Published: 17 October 2012 Taro Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Tokuda2 1Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Abstract: The process of obtaining diagnosis is described as a dual-process model, including the intuitive process, and the analytical process. The similarity between the two systems is that they both infer a diagnosis from patient-derived information. Here we present another process by which to elicit the diagnosis: asking direct questions of the patient themselves, such as “What do you think is the cause?” or “What do you suspect is wrong?” This simple method would enable us to elicit pivotal information for diagnosis. Asking patients direct questions allows them to think about the cause of their own problem and suggest their own diagnosis. This method of reasoning is completely different from the two above-mentioned systems and may represent a third approach. We highlight this third process as an important strategy, thereby using this third effective method of inquiry to facilitate quick and effective diagnosis in conjunction with former two systems.
Pivot and cluster strategy: a preventive measure against diagnostic errors
Shimizu T, Tokuda Y
International Journal of General Medicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S38805
Abstract: t and cluster strategy: a preventive measure against diagnostic errors Short Report (1721) Total Article Views Authors: Shimizu T, Tokuda Y Published Date November 2012 Volume 2012:5 Pages 917 - 921 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S38805 Received: 04 October 2012 Accepted: 16 October 2012 Published: 06 November 2012 Taro Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Tokuda2 1Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan Abstract: Diagnostic errors constitute a substantial portion of preventable medical errors. The accumulation of evidence shows that most errors result from one or more cognitive biases and a variety of debiasing strategies have been introduced. In this article, we introduce a new diagnostic strategy, the pivot and cluster strategy (PCS), encompassing both of the two mental processes in making diagnosis referred to as the intuitive process (System 1) and analytical process (System 2) in one strategy. With PCS, physicians can recall a set of most likely differential diagnoses (System 2) of an initial diagnosis made by the physicians’ intuitive process (System 1), thereby enabling physicians to double check their diagnosis with two consecutive diagnostic processes. PCS is expected to reduce cognitive errors and enhance their diagnostic accuracy and validity, thereby realizing better patient outcomes and cost- and time-effective health care management.
Pivot and cluster strategy: a preventive measure against diagnostic errors
Shimizu T,Tokuda Y
International Journal of General Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Taro Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Tokuda21Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanAbstract: Diagnostic errors constitute a substantial portion of preventable medical errors. The accumulation of evidence shows that most errors result from one or more cognitive biases and a variety of debiasing strategies have been introduced. In this article, we introduce a new diagnostic strategy, the pivot and cluster strategy (PCS), encompassing both of the two mental processes in making diagnosis referred to as the intuitive process (System 1) and analytical process (System 2) in one strategy. With PCS, physicians can recall a set of most likely differential diagnoses (System 2) of an initial diagnosis made by the physicians’ intuitive process (System 1), thereby enabling physicians to double check their diagnosis with two consecutive diagnostic processes. PCS is expected to reduce cognitive errors and enhance their diagnostic accuracy and validity, thereby realizing better patient outcomes and cost- and time-effective health care management.Keywords: diagnosis, diagnostic errors, debiasing
System 3 diagnostic process: the lateral approach
Shimizu T,Tokuda Y
International Journal of General Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Taro Shimizu,1 Yasuharu Tokuda21Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, JapanAbstract: The process of obtaining diagnosis is described as a dual-process model, including the intuitive process, and the analytical process. The similarity between the two systems is that they both infer a diagnosis from patient-derived information. Here we present another process by which to elicit the diagnosis: asking direct questions of the patient themselves, such as “What do you think is the cause?” or “What do you suspect is wrong?” This simple method would enable us to elicit pivotal information for diagnosis. Asking patients direct questions allows them to think about the cause of their own problem and suggest their own diagnosis. This method of reasoning is completely different from the two above-mentioned systems and may represent a third approach. We highlight this third process as an important strategy, thereby using this third effective method of inquiry to facilitate quick and effective diagnosis in conjunction with former two systems.Keywords: diagnosis, diagnostic process, clinical problem solving, dual-process model, clinical reasoning
A Precursor of Chiral Symmetry Restoration in the Nuclear Medium
T. Hatsuda,T. Kunihiro,H. Shimizu
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.82.2840
Abstract: Spectral enhancement near the 2m_{\pi} threshold in the I=J=0 channel in nuclei is shown to be a distinct signal of the partial restoration of chiral symmetry. The relevance of this phenomenon with the possible detection of 2\pi^{0} and 2\gamma in hadron-nucleus and photo-nucleus reactions is discussed.
Data assimilation of CALIPSO aerosol observations
T. T. Sekiyama, T. Y. Tanaka, A. Shimizu,T. Miyoshi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2010,
Abstract: We have developed an advanced data assimilation system for a global aerosol model with a four-dimensional ensemble Kalman filter in which the Level 1B data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) were successfully assimilated for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge. A one-month data assimilation cycle experiment for dust, sulfate, and sea-salt aerosols was performed in May 2007. The results were validated via two independent observations: 1) the ground-based lidar network in East Asia, managed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan, and 2) weather reports of aeolian dust events in Japan. Detailed four-dimensional structures of aerosol outflows from source regions over oceans and continents for various particle types and sizes were well reproduced. The intensity of dust emission at each grid point was also corrected by this data assimilation system. These results are valuable for the comprehensive analysis of aerosol behavior as well as aerosol forecasting.
Data assimilation of CALIPSO aerosol observations
T. T. Sekiyama,T. Y. Tanaka,A. Shimizu,T. Miyoshi
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: We have developed an advanced data assimilation system for a global aerosol model with a four-dimensional ensemble Kalman filter in which the Level 1B data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) were successfully assimilated for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge. A one-month data assimilation cycle experiment for dust, sulfate, and sea-salt aerosols was performed in May 2007. The results were validated via two independent observations: 1) the ground-based lidar network in East Asia, managed by the National Institute for Environmental Studies of Japan, and 2) weather reports of aeolian dust events in Japan. Detailed four-dimensional structures of aerosol outflows from source regions over oceans and continents for various particle types and sizes were well reproduced. The intensity of dust emission at each grid point was also globally corrected. These results are valuable for the comprehensive analysis of aerosol behavior as well as aerosol forecasting.
Monte Carlo Approach to Radiative Corrections in Bhabha Scattering
J. Fujimoto,Y. Shimizu,T. Munehisa
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.91.333
Abstract: A new Monte Carlo model is proposed for radiative corrections to Bhabha scattering by extending QEDPS developed for multi-photon emission in muon pair production in $e^+e^-$ annihilation. This is the QED version of the model known as parton shower in QCD. The main difference between muon pair production and Bhabha scattering is that the latter cross section shows the singularity of $1/t^2$. A shower algorithm is constructed on the radiator formalism modified in a suitable form for this singularity. Some results of the model are presented and compared with $O(\alpha)$ corrections.
Optimal pair density functional for description of nuclei with large neutron excess
M. Yamagami,Y. R. Shimizu,T. Nakatsukasa
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.80.064301
Abstract: Toward a universal description of pairing properties in nuclei far from stability, we extend the energy density functional by enriching the isovector density dependence in the particle-particle channel (pair density functional, pair-DF). We emphasize the necessity of both the linear and quadratic isovector density terms. The parameters are optimized by the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculation for 156 nuclei of the mass number A=118-196 and the asymmetry parameter (N-Z)/A<0.25. We clarify that the pair-DF should include the isovector density dependence in order to take into account the effect of the isoscalar and isovector effective masses in the particle-hole channel consistently. The different Skyrme forces can give the small difference in the pairing gaps toward the neutron drip line, if the optimal pair-DF consistent with the particle-hole channel is employed.
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