Abstract:
The acts of human beings are usually guided by our purposes. To meet our purposes, we deliberately take different strategies. It is the same case in verbal communication. In communication, vague language has been widely applied as a discursive strategy to achieve speaker’s communicative purpose. We usually adopt different vague languages in order to achieve different communicative purposes. We call this discursive strategy pragmatic vagueness, which is different from the vagueness of language. The latter is an intrinsic feature of some languages themselves while the former is used as a strategy in communication and heavily influenced by our communicative purposes, therefore, to some degree, indicating the language using ability of the speaker. Thus it is necessary to explore the communicative functions of pragmatic vagueness for achieving communicative purpose. By examining the examples mainly in daily usage, this thesis intends to explore what communicative functions pragmatic vagueness has, how its functions are achieved and why people tend to do it in this way, and to analyze how speakers’ goals are accomplished by making use of vague languages.

Abstract:
In this paper, existence and uniqueness of solution to two-point boundary value for two-sided fractional differential equations involving Caputo fractional derivative is discussed, by means of the Min-Max Theorem.

Considering characteristic of mHealth communication and
problems of existing methods, this paper presents a real-time communication
method for mHealth based on extended XMPP protocol. The method can maintain the
role status efficiently and reduce data latency during the communication
process. Meanwhile, it can be extended flexibly to meet increasing
communication demands of mHealth services. Furthermore, a system framework is
presented to support telemonitoring scene. Finally, system implementation and
feasibility tests verify the effectiveness of the method and framework.

Abstract:
Considering the overnight effect on the stock market, we construct a daily
volatility measure that is formed by a linear combination of the three components,
namely overnight volatility, morning realized volatility and afternoon
realized volatility, and obtain the optimal solution in theory. An empirical
work is performed for studying the daily volatility structure of Shanghai
stock index and Shenzhen stock index in China’s stock market by using our
daily volatility measure. The empirical results show that, the daily volatility
measure considering the impact of overnight variance and time segment performs
better than original volatility measure.

Abstract:
We investigate correlations among pitches in several songs and pieces of piano music by mapping them to one-dimensional walks. Two kinds of correlations are studied, one is related to the real values of frequencies while they are treated only as different symbols for another. Long-range power law behavior is found in both kinds. The first is more meaningful. The structure of music, such as beat, measure and stanza, are reflected in the change of scaling exponents. Some interesting features are observed. Our results demonstrate the viewpoint that the fundamental principle of music is the balance between repetition and contrast.

Abstract:
We consider how to obtain a nontrivial two-qubit unitary transformation purely based on geometric phases of two spin-1/2's with Ising-like interaction in a magnetic field with a static z-component and a rotating xy-component. This is an interesting problem both for the purpose of measuring the geometric phases and in quantum computing applications. In previous approach, coupling of one of the qubit with the rotating component of field is ignored. By considering the exact two-spin geometric phases, we find that a nontrivial two-spin unitary transformation purely based on Berry phases can be obtained by using two consecutive cycles with opposite directions of the magnetic field and opposite signs of the interaction constant. In the nonadiabatic case, starting with a certain initial state, a cycle in the projected space of rays and thus Aharonov-Anandan phase can be achieved. The two-cycle scheme cancels the total phases, hence any unknown initial state evolves back to itself without a phase factor.

Abstract:
We consider a mixture of two species of spin-1 atoms with interspecies spin exchange, which may cooperate or compete with the intraspecies spin exchanges and thus dramatically affect the ground state. It represents a new class of bosonic gases differing from single-species spinor gases. We determine the exact ground states in several parameter regimes, and study the composite structures by using the generating function method generalized here to be applicable to a mixture of two species of spinor gases. The most interesting phase is the so-called entangled Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), which is fragmented BEC with quantum entanglement between the two species, and with both interspecies and intraspecies singlet pairs. For comparison, we also apply the generating function method to a mixture of two species of pseudospin-1/2 atoms, for which the total spin quantum number of each species is fixed as half of the atom number, in contrast with the case of spin-1, for which it is a variable determined by energetics. Consequently, singlet pairs in entangled BEC of a pseudospin-1/2 mixture are all interspecies. Interspecies spin exchange leads to novel features beyond those of spinor BEC of a single species of atoms as well as mixtures without interspecies spin exchange.

Abstract:
We present a so-called adaptive Ising model (AIM) to provide a unifying explanation for sensitivity and perfect adaptation in bacterial chemotactic signalling, based on coupling among receptor dimers. In an AIM, an external field, representing ligand binding, is randomly applied to a fraction of spins, representing the states of the receptor dimers, and there is a delayed negative feedback from the spin value on the local field. This model is solved in an adiabatic approach. If the feedback is slow and weak enough, as indeed in chemotactic signalling, the system evolves through quasi-equilibrium states and the ``magnetization'', representing the signal, always attenuates towards zero and is always sensitive to a subsequent stimulus.

Abstract:
It is shown that calculus can apply on a fractal structure with the condition that the infinitesimal limit of change of the variable is larger than the lower cut-off of the fractal structure, and an assumption called local decomposability. As an application, it is shown that the angular projection of a fractal distribution in 3-dimensional space is not homogeneous at sufficiently large angles. Therefore the angular projection of galaxy distribution for sufficiently large angles can discriminate the fractal and the homogeneity pictures.