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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 54327 matches for " Shi Young Lee "
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Prize Allocation in Contests with Size Effect through Prizes  [PDF]
Sanghack Lee, Shi Young Lee
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22038
Abstract: We examine prize allocation in contests in which the number of contenders affects prizes. The government allocates a fixed prize between two groups of contenders. The prize share of each group is determined endogenously through the inter-group share contest. Then, the contenders in each group respectively compete for the prize. Examining prize allocation in such contests, we obtain the following results. The contenders expend more resources when they cooperate than when they contribute non-cooperatively in the inter-group share contest. The size effect through prizes increases the prize share of the larger group. The larger group can even obtain the larger share if the size effect through prizes is sufficiently strong.
Fabrication of Transparent Conducting Electrode Pattern by Metal Mesh Method on Stretchable Film Substrate  [PDF]
Gun-Woo Lee, Dock Young Lee, Byung Chan Lee, Kyungha Baek, Genggongwo Shi, Jeseob Kim, Lee Soon Park, Su Yong Nam
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2019.105029
Abstract: Smart phones have become one of major electronic devices for human being. The easy and rapid exchange of information between man and machine is carried out by the touch screen panel (TSP) installed in the smart phones. Currently the smart phones are widely spread out while displays for automobiles are in the initial stage of developments. Since the automobile displays should fit the curved area of indoor space of the vehicle, the TSPs for automobiles need to be fabricated on the flexible and stretchable substrate film. In this study, we selected the thermo-plastic polyurethane film as the substrate film and examined the materials and process for fabrication of metal mesh type transparent conducting electrode films suitable for TSPs of automobile displays. The optimum UV resin system was established by the evaluation of various UV resin formulations in the UV imprinting process to make 3 × 3.5 μm trench patterns on the metal mesh type electrode film utilizing the embossed metal mask plate. The Ag paste has also been prepared by synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and formulation with the binder polymers. The inlay (filling) of Ag paste in the trench layer of transparent electrode film showed that the variation of electrical resistance was within 10% upon bending up to 100,000 times to radius of 3 mm.
Elicitation of Induced Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae by Specific Individual Compounds Derived from Native Korean Plant Species
Geun Cheol Song,Shi Yong Ryu,Young Sup Kim,Ji Young Lee,Jung Sup Choi,Choong-Min Ryu
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules181012877
Abstract: Plants have developed general and specific defense mechanisms for protection against various enemies. Among the general defenses, induced resistance has distinct characteristics, such as broad-spectrum resistance and long-lasting effectiveness. This study evaluated over 500 specific chemical compounds derived from native Korean plant species to determine whether they triggered induced resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum supsp. carotovorum ( Pcc) in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum) and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ( Pst) in Arabidopsis thaliana. To select target compound(s) with direct and indirect (volatile) effects, a new Petri-dish-based in vitro disease assay system with four compartments was developed. The screening assay showed that capsaicin, fisetin hydrate, jaceosidin, and farnesiferol A reduced the disease severity significantly in tobacco. Of these four compounds, capsaicin and jaceosidin induced resistance against Pcc and Pst, which depended on both salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, using Arabidopsis transgenic and mutant lines, including npr1 and NahG for SA signaling and jar1 for JA signaling. The upregulation of the PR2 and PDF1. 2 genes after Pst challenge with capsaicin pre-treatment indicated that SA and JA signaling were primed. These results demonstrate that capsaicin and jaceosidin can be effective triggers of strong induced resistance against both necrotrophic and biotrophic plant pathogens.
Roles of TLR7 in Activation of NF-κB Signaling of Keratinocytes by Imiquimod
Zheng Jun Li, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Dae-Kyoung Choi, Ge Shi, Dongkyun Hong, Han-Eul Lee, Kyu Uang Whang, Young Ho Lee, Myung Im, Young Lee, Young-Joon Seo, Chang Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077159
Abstract: Imiquimod is known to exert its effects through Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) and/or TLR8, resulting in expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Keratinocytes have not been reported to constitutively express TLR7 and TLR8, and the action of imiquimod is thought to be mediated by the adenine receptor, not TLR7 or TLR8. In this study, we revealed the expression of TLR7 in keratinocytes after calcium-induced differentiation. After addition of calcium to cultured keratinocytes, the immunological responses induced by imiquimod, such as activation of NF-κB and induction of TNF-α and IL-8, were more rapid and stronger. In addition, imiquimod induced the expression TLR7, and acted synergistically with calcium to induce proinflammatory cytokines. We confirmed that the responses induced by imiquimod were significantly inhibited by microRNAs suppressing TLR7 expression. These results suggest that TLR7 expressed in keratinocytes play key roles in the activation of NF-κB signaling by imiquimod, and that their modulation in keratinocytes could provide therapeutic potential for many inflammatory skin diseases.
Effects of Anonaine on Dopamine Biosynthesis and L-DOPA-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells
Jae Joon Lee,Chun Mei Jin,Young Kyoon Kim,Shi Yong Ryu,Sung Cil Lim,Myung Koo Lee
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13020475
Abstract: The effects of anonaine, an aporphine isoquinoline alkaloid, on dopaminebiosynthesis and L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells were investigated. Anonaineat concentration ranges of 0.01-0.2 μM showed a significant inhibition of dopaminecontent at 24 h, with an IC50 value of 0.05 μM. Anonaine at 0.05 μM inhibited tyrosinehydroxylase (TH) and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activities to 38.4-40.2% and 78.4-90.2% of control levels at 12-24 h and 3-6 h, respectively. TH activity wasmore influenced than AADC activity. Anonaine also decreased intracellular cyclic AMPlevels, but not intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. In addition, anonaine (0.05 μM) reducedL-DOPA (50 μM and 100 μM)-induced increases in dopamine content at 24 h. However,anonaine (0.05 μM) did not enhance L-DOPA (50 μM and 100 μM)-induced cell death 476after 24 h. These results suggest that anonaine inhibits dopamine biosynthesis by mainlyreducing TH activity without aggravating L-DOPA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.
Improvements to the Fluoride Reactivation Method by Simple Organic Extraction for Retrospective Detection of Exposure to the Organophosphorus Nerve Agents in Human Plasma  [PDF]
Jin Young Lee, Yong Han Lee
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2014.23007
Abstract: A rapid and simple organic extraction method for the determination of the chemical warfare agent, isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) in human plasma has been developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). In the course of method development, several organic solvents have been screened and chloroform show a low background and increase signal to noise ratio of GB among other organic solvents. Especially, the organic extraction method of reactivated GB from the human plasma has a 30% greater recovery yield than solid-phase ex-traction (SPE). This simple extraction method was successfully applied to the trace analysis of nerve agents in human plasma in the 3rd Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) confidence building exercise on biomedical sample analysis.
Resistance to reinfection in rats induced by irradiated metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis
Quan, Fu Shi;Lee, Jeong Beom;Bae, Jun Sang;Ohwatari, Nobu;Min, Young Ki;Yang, Hun Mo;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000500016
Abstract: a study was made to observe the association between the resistance to reinfection induced by irradiated metacercariae (mc) of clonorchis sinensis and antigen specific th1- and th2-type cytokine productions in rats. rats were infected with 20 mc of c. sinensis, previously exposed to a single dose of gamma irradiation, which varied from 0 to 100 gy. all of them, single dose of 12 gy showed higher igg antibody titer with lowest worm recovery. thus, 50 mc were used to challenge infection in rats previously infected with 20 mc irradiated at 12 gy and the highest resistance to challenge infection was observed. the results of lymphocyte proliferation with specific antigen, es ag were shown no difference of proliferative responses as compared with primary and challenge infection at 12 gy irradiation dose. in the case of cytokines production were observed that interferon (ifn-g) and interlukin (il-2) were significantly enhanced, while il-4 and il-10 was almost unchanged to make comparison between primary and secondary infection at 12 gy irradiation dose. in conclusion, the single dose of 12 gy could be adopted for induction of the highest resistance to challenge infection. up-regulation of th1 type cytokines, ifn-g and il-2 may be affected to develop vaccine by irradiated mc.
Platyconic Acid A, a Genuine Triterpenoid Saponin from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum
Yeon Hee Choi,Dae Seok Yoo,Chun whan Choi,Mi-Ran Cha,Young Sup Kim,Hyun Sun Lee,Kang Ro Lee,Shi Yong Ryu
Molecules , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/molecules13112871
Abstract: A genuine triterpenoid saponin, platyconic acid A (1) was isolated from the roots extract of Platycodon grandiflorum, together with five known saponins: deapioplatycoside E (2), platycoside E (3), platycodin D3 (4), platycodin D2 (5) and platycodin D (6). The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical evidence.
Causality and Collisionless Damping in Plasma  [PDF]
Hee J. Lee, Mi Young Song
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44077

We derive the collisionless Landau damping in a plasma by satisfying the causal requirement that the susceptibility function of the plasma for time t < 0 should be nil. The causality condition should be satisfied by the susceptibility function of a plasma no matter what equations we employ to describe the plasma. Thus we conclude that the fundamental reason of the collisionless damping can be traced to the causality. As an example, we derive the collisionless damping of ion acoustic wave in a plasma by employing fluid equations.

A Study on the Effective Long Type Coil Shape by Multidisciplinary Method in Induction Heating  [PDF]
Young Hwa Lee, Yun Sok Ha
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2014.42007

The axis symmetric analysis method can neither handle initial curved plates nor be used in the optimization of coil shapes because an axis symmetric coil is the only shape to analyze in this method. But the method using some discrete divisions and steps, can overcome these difficulties and show more accurate, reasonable results of temperatures and deflections in flat or curved plates with initial curvature, than those in the axis symmetric analysis method. Traditionally, the coil shape in induction heating is circular shape and it needs the moving process along heating lines. To overcome these, the “long type coil” with some linear parallel coils is proposed. It does not need the moving process along heating lines and reduces the heating process time. The results of experiments are compared with those of simulation.

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