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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4187 matches for " Sher Shah "
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The Carbon Sinks and Mitigation Potential of Deodar (Cedrus deodara) Forest Ecosystem at Different Altitude in Kumrat Valley, Pakistan  [PDF]
Adnan Ahmad, Muhammad Amir, Abdul Mannan, Sajjad Saeed, Sher Shah, Sami Ullah, Rahman Uddin, Qijing Liu
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.84034
Abstract: Forest carbon monitoring and reporting are critical for informing global climate change assessment. The regional estimates of forest carbon attached greater attention, to assess the role of forest in carbon mitigation. Here using field inventory, we examined the carbon sink and mitigation potential of monospecific Deodar forest in the Kumrat valley, of Hindu Kush Himalaya, Region of Pakistan, at a different elevation. The elevation of monospecific Deodar forest ranges from 2300 to 2700 m (a.s.l). We divided the forest into three elevation classes (that is 2300 - 2400 m (EI) 2400 - 2500 m (EII) and 2500 - 2700 m (EIII) a.s.l respectively). In each elevation class, we laid out 09 sample plots (33*33 m2) for measuring carbon values in living tree biomass (LT), soil (SC), litter, dead wood, cone (LDWC) and understory vegetation (USV). Our results showed that the carbon density at EI was 432.37 ± 277.96 Mg·C-1, while the carbon density at EII and EIII was 668.35 ± 323.94 and 1016.79 ± 542.99 Mg·C-1 respectively. Our finding revealed that the carbon mitigation potential of the forest increases with increasing elevation. Among the different elevation classes, EIII stored significantly higher carbon due to the dominance of mature, old age, larger trees, and the minimum anthropogenic disturbance, whereas EI stored statistically lower carbon because of maximum anthropogenic disturbance, which resulted in the removal of mature and over-mature trees. Furthermore, our correlation analysis between tree height and carbon stock and basal area and LT carbon, underlines that the basal area is the stronger predictor of LT carbon estimation than height. Overall our results highlight that deodar forest stored 716.94 ± 462.06 Mg?C·ha-1. However, the rehabilitation, preservation and sustainable management of disturb forest located at a lower elevation could considerably improve carbon mitigation potential.
2-(2-Methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 2-nitrobenzoate
Sher Bahadar Khan,Itrat Anis,Kuldip Singh,Muhammad Raza Shah
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810004186
Abstract: In the title compound, C13H12N4O6, the mean plane through the nitrobenzene forms a dihedral angle of 37.38 (15)° with the plane through the imidazole ring. The crystal packing is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...N interactions together with π–π stacking interactions between nitrobenzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.788 (3) ] and between imidazole rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.590 (2) ].
2-(2-Methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 3-bromobenzoate
Sher Bahadur,Itrat Anis,Muhammad Raza Shah,Kuldip Singh
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809015499
Abstract: The molecule of the title compound, C13H12BrN3O4, is non-planar, as indicated in the dihedral angle of 59.5 (4)° formed between the least-squares planes through the imidazole and benzene rings. In the crystal, molecules are connected via C—H...O contacts, forming a supramolecular chain.
Evaluation of Pre-emergence Herbicides and their Application Methods for Weed Control in Soybean
Mukhtar Ahmad Khan,Sher Mahmood Shah,M. Yasin Mirza
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: Four pre-emergence herbicides (pendimethalin @ 1.48 kg ai/ha, oxadiazon @ 0.45 kg ai/ha, trifluralin @ 0.75 kg ai/ha and isoproturon @ 1.0 kg ai/ha) were tested with three different methods of application, i.e., spray, sand mix broadcast and soil incorporation during spring 1992 and 1993 at NARC, Islamabad. A total of 12 weed species were recorded. The lowest weed density and week biomass was recorded in pendimethalin treatment. Highest plan height and number of pods per plant were obtained from weed free treatment. No negative effect on the germination and growth of the crop was observed. Pendimethalin proved to be the best herbicide for weed control in soybean applied by soil incorporation method. Highest grain yield (1523 kg ha -1) was obtained from weed free treatment followed by pendimethalin (1475 kg ha -1) while the lowest yield (1127 kg ha -1) was produced in weedy check.
Application of Pre-emergence Herbicides in Spring Soybean
Sher Mahmood Shah,M. Yasin Mirza,Mukhtar Ahmad,Naazar Ali
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Weed control treatments were found significantly effective on weed density/boimass and seed yield. The weedy check plots offered the lowest yield (1374 kg ha-1 ) and was 37.6 per cent less than the weed free treatment. Hand weeding caused to a significantly higher yield than weedy check but lower than herbicide treatments. Pendimethalin gave significantly 19.3 per cent higher yield (1639 kg ha-1 ) and its yield was also higher than other treatments. Pendimethalin was also found more effective in controlling weeds in spring soybean.
Evaluation of Pre-emergence Herbicides in Autumn Soybean
Mukhtar Ahmad,Sher Mahmood Shah,M. Yasin Mirza,Naazar Ali
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2000,
Abstract: Herbicide, Pendimethlin applied @ 1.48 kg ai/ha controlled the weeds and gave 53 per cent higher grain yield (2858 kg ha-1) than weedy check (1877 kg ha-1) and was at par with weed free treatment (2867 kg ha-1). Similarly, oxadiazon applied @ 0.45 kg ai/ha showed better performance in controlling weeds and gave higher grain yield of 2610 kg ha-1. The lowest grain yield of 1877 kg ha-1 was recorded in weedy check. Weed density and biomass were also significantly effected with the different doses of pendimethalin and oxadiazon. The medium doses of both herbicides gave excellent performance. Pods per plant were significantly different with the different doses of herbicides whereas, the medium doses gave higher number of pods per plant. The oil content was not altered with the different doses of herbicides but comparatively higher oil percentage was found than weedy check.
Resistance of polio to its eradication in Pakistan
Masaud Shah, Muhammad Khan, Saleha Shakeel, Faiza Mahmood, Zunaira Sher, Muhammad Sarwar, Aleena Sumrin
Virology Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-8-457
Abstract: Several Government documents, survey reports and unpublished program documents were studied and online search was made to find information on EPI Pakistan. SPSS 16 and Microsoft Excel 2007 were used for the statistical analysis.Immunization against polio is higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Marked variation in vaccination has been observed in different provinces of Pakistan in the last decade. Secondly 10-20% of the children who have received their first dose of trivalent polio vaccine were deprived of their 2nd and 3rd dose because of poor performance of EPI and Lack of information about immunization.In spite of numerous successes, such as the addition of new vaccines and raising immunization to over 100% in some areas, EPI is still struggling to reach its polio eradication goals. Inadequate service delivery, lack of information about immunization and limited number of vaccinators were found to be the key reason for poor performance of immunization and for large number of cases reported each year due to the deficiency of second and third booster dose.Many epidemics are caused by poliovirus in the last three centuries. About 100,000 new polio cases are reported each year worldwide. Europe and North America were the targets of Epidemic poliomyelitis in 1890s [1]. Now a day most of these cases occur in Asia and Africa [2]. German physician Jakob Heine recognized Poliomyelitis as a distinct condition for the first time in 1840 [3]. Poliovirus was identified by Austrian physicians Karl Landsteiner and E. Popper in 1908 [2]. The three serotypes 1, 2, and 3 infect cells via a specific receptor, PVR (polio virus receptors): CD-155. These receptors are only present in human cell that is why humans are the only reservoirs of this virus [4]. The serological relationship is present between serotype 1 and serotype 2. This is conferred by significant protection against type 2 by the antibodies which were produced against serotype 1 [5]. Immunologically Type 2 is
Effect of Gelam Honey on the Oxidative Stress-Induced Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Hamster Cells
Kalaivani Batumalaie,Sher Zaman Safi,Kamaruddin Mohd Yusof,Ikram Shah Ismail,Shamala Devi Sekaran,Rajes Qvist
International Journal of Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/367312
Abstract: Background. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is critically involved in the impairment of β-cell function during the development of diabetes. Methods. HIT-T15 cells were cultured in 5% CO2 and then preincubated with Gelam honey extracts (20, 40, 60, and 80?μg/mL) as well as quercetin (20, 40, 60, and 80?μM), prior to stimulation by 20 and 50?mM of glucose. Cell lysate was collected to determine the effect of honey extracts and quercetin on the stress activated NF-κB, MAPK pathways, and the Akt (ser473) activated insulin signaling pathway. Results. HIT-T15 cells cultured under hyperglycemic conditions demonstrated insulin resistance with a significant increase in the levels of MAPK, NF-κB, and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (ser307); however, Akt expression and insulin contents are significantly decreased. Pretreatment with quercetin and Gelam honey extract improved insulin resistance and insulin content by reducing the expression of MAPK, NF-κB, and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (ser307) and increasing the expression of Akt significantly. Conclusion. Gelam honey-induced differential expression of MAPK, NF-κB, IRS-1 (ser307), and Akt in HIT-T15 cells shows that Gelam honey exerts protective effects against diabetes- and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress by improving insulin content and insulin resistance. 1. Introduction Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces [1]. Loss of β-cell function caused by reduced insulin synthesis and secretion is one of the key events in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Normal β cells can compensate for insulin resistance by increasing insulin secretion, but insufficient compensation leads to the onset of glucose intolerance [2–4]. Chronic hyperglycemia is a cause of impaired insulin biosynthesis and secretion [5], the progression of which causes insulin resistance and is often accompanied by β-cell degranulation and apoptosis [6]. This process is called “glucose toxicity” and has been demonstrated in various studies in vivo [7] and in vitro [8–10]. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species produced by several biochemical pathways associated with hyperglycemia (glucose autooxidation, polyol pathway, prostanoid synthesis, and protein glycation) is critically involved in the impairment of β-cell function during the development of type 2 diabetes [11]. It has been reported that extracellular hyperglycemia causes intracellular hyperglycemia in
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Dendritic Cells Leads to Partially Caspase-1/11-Independent IL-1β and IL-18 Secretion but Not to Pyroptosis
Hana Abdalla, Lalitha Srinivasan, Swati Shah, Katrin D. Mayer-Barber, Alan Sher, Fayyaz S. Sutterwala, Volker Briken
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040722
Abstract: Background Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is important for host resistance against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections. The response of the dendritic cell inflammasome during Mtb infections has not been investigated in detail. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that Mtb infection of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) induces IL-1β secretion and that this induction is dependent upon the presence of functional ASC and NLRP3 but not NLRC4 or NOD2. The analysis of cell death induction in BMDCs derived from these knock-out mice revealed the important induction of host cell apoptosis but not necrosis, pyroptosis or pyronecrosis. Furthermore, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and apoptosis induction were both reduced in BMDCs infected with the esxA deletion mutant of Mtb demonstrating the importance of a functional ESX-1 secretion system. Surprisingly, caspase-1/11-deficient BMDCs still secreted residual levels of IL-1βand IL-18 upon Mtb infection which was abolished in cells infected with the esxA Mtb mutant. Conclusion Altogether we demonstrate the partially caspase-1/11-independent, but NLRP3- and ASC- dependent IL-1β secretion in Mtb-infected BMDCs. These findings point towards a potential role of DCs in the host innate immune response to mycobacterial infections via their capacity to induce IL-1β and IL-18 secretion.
Birds of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, Nepal  [PDF]
Saroj Panthi, Sher Singh Thagunna
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2013.34018
Abstract:

Nepal is rich in bird diversity and recorded 871 bird species. Our study aimed to update bird diversity of Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve (DHR) of Nepal which is an Important Birds Area (IBA) out of 27 IBAs of Nepal. One hundred forty nine species of birds were recorded in DHR; out of them Catreus wallichii was globally threatened bird which has faced different anthropogenic problem. Twelve species of birds were included in CITIES Appendices and 3 species were nationally threatened. Most of the species of order Passeriformis were recorded. Only one species of order Upupiformes i.e. Upupa epops was recorded during the study.

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