Abstract:
Up until now a complete scan in all phenomenologically relevant directions of the MSSM at the TeV scale for performing global fit has not been done. Given the imminent start of operation of the LHC, this is a major gap on our quest to discovering and understanding the physical implications of low energy supersymmetry. The main reason for this is the large number of parameters involved that makes it computationally extremely expensive using the traditional methods. In this talk I demonstrate that with advanced sampling techniques the problem is solvable. The results from the explored 24-parameter TeV scale MSSM (phenoMSSM) are remarkably distinct from previous studies and are independent of models for supersymmetry breaking and mediation mechanisms. Hence they are a more robust guide to searches for supersymmetry and dark matter.

Abstract:
Background: The use of Marijuana is on the increase worldwide especially among adolescents and youths. Marijuana smoking has gained a foothold in our environment because of peer group influence, accessibility and availability. Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the factors that influence secondary school students in Zaria LGA to smoke and the effects on academic performance. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was employed to generate data among secondary school students. A multi-stage sampling technique was used. Data was collected with the use of a structured, pre tested self-administered questionnaire. χ2 test was used to test for significance of association between categorical variables. Results: Of the 350 respondents, 262 (74.9%) were males, while 88 (25.1%) were females. The study shows that 33 of the students smoke marijuana giving a prevalence of 9.4%. There were more smokers in the age group 15-19 years (54.6%). Other factors that influence marijuana smoking include family background, peer pressure and attendance of social functions. There was better academic performance (51.1%) among non smokers as compared to smokers (27.2%), and this was found to be statistically significant (x2 =11.73,df=5,P< .05) There was also statistically significant association between age and marijuana smoking (x2 =24,df=2,P< .05) Conclusion: The prevalence of marijuana smoking is high. Age, family background, peer pressure and attendance of social function influence marijuana smoking. A comprehensive school health education program should be instituted to curtail this menace.

Abstract:
Background : Majority of the maternal deaths that occur especially in developing countries are avoidable or preventable. Studies have shown that the health, reproductive behaviour and socio economic status of women are among the important determinants of maternal mortality. This study was aimed at assessing the role of some health, socio-economic and demographic factors in determining the place of delivery among women in a semi-urban settlement in Zaria, north-western Nigeria. Methods :The study design was a cross sectional descriptive study conducted in Sabuwar Unguwa, Magume district Zaria Local Government Area Kaduna State Nigeria in June, 2003.A total of 496 women who had delivered at least once were interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Results : The study revealed both high rates of home deliveries and deliveries not supervised by skilled attendants of 70% and 78% respectively. Mother′s educational level, husband′s occupation and age at first pregnancy were the main determinants of place of delivery. Statistically significant associations between non- formal education and home delivery, (X2 = 6.7 df = 1 P< 0.05) age at first pregnancy and home delivery (X2 =18.7 df = 1 P< 0.05) were observed. There was no statistical significance between employment status of fathers and home delivery (X2 = 0.59 df = 1 P>0.05). Conclusion :Low maternal education, unemployment among fathers, first pregnancies at less than 18 years of age increase the likelihood of home delivery in Sabuwar Unguwa, Magume district of Zaria. Girl child education, income generating activities and training of TBAs could reduce the high rate of home deliveries and its consequences in the study area.

Abstract:
Aqueous methanol of Ceiba pentandra leaves extract was tested for antivenom activity against Echis ocellatus snake venom. Among parameters investigated include: LD50 of the Echis ocellatus snake venom, phospholipase A2 activity, percentage hemolysis. In vivo analysis of total protein content, white blood cells, pack cell volume and haemoglobin contents were also investigated. The result reveals that Echis ocellatus has an LD50 of 0.280mg/kg ± 0.065. Haemolysis due to venom has drastically reduced by the extract from 66% to 27.4%. suggesting that the extract is effective in reducing haemolysis in mice. The in vivo studies reveals that there were significant (p<0.05) decrease in packed cell volume, total protein and haemoglobin contents for the venom group and there was only slight changes in the venom/extract and control groups suggesting that the extract has some inhibitory effect on the venom activity. The purified phospholipase incubated with the extract demonstrated neutralization effect against the phospholipase A2 activity. The result has shown that Ceiba pentandra leaves extract possess potent snake venom-neutralizing capacity. The plant leaves extract could be use as an antidote for snakebite envenomation.

Abstract:
In the present study viscosity characteristics and pasting properties of ogi produced from six pearl (both local and improved) cultivars was studied.The ogi produced from the pearl cultivars exhibited varying degrees of rheological characteristic.The viscosity data recorded at the share rates were significantly (p < 0.05) different for the ogi`s. While the amylograph hot past viscosities for the individual ogi`s recorded significant (p < 0.05) differences in the parameters assessed. None of the ogi?samples had a characteristic peak except ogi from Gwagwa?pearl millet cultivar. The excellent stabilities exhibited by the ogi samples from LCIC-9702, SOSAT-C 88 (improved cultivars) and Zango and Ex-Borno (local cultivars) is desirable for instant ogi. There were non significant differences in the water absorption capacity of the ogi from the pearl millet varieties. SOSAT-C88andZangorecordedthehighestpercentwaterabsorptionof76and74%,respectively,while Ex-Borno was the least.

Abstract:
A study was conducted in Kaduna State Nigeria to ascertain the impact of Drug Supply and laboratory services towards effective functioning of DOTS system. Six DOTS providing centres were identified for the study and in each centre, three respondents were selected based on their profession, the Medical Officer, the Pharmacist and the Laboratory Technician totaling 18. The officers were interviewed for the purpose of the research. Semi structured Interviews were conducted in this research as a means of obtaining Health workers perspective. The Interview which was conducted in their respective work station was open ended and all questions are same for all respondents. During the course of the study, all respondents agreed that the sources of drugs supply to their respective centres was the Kaduna State Tuberculosis and leprosy control Program office from the state capital and that drugs are been supplied quarterly and are adequate with slight interruption due to Logistic while for Laboratory services the respondents were of the view that there is the need to improve on it as there are cases of shortage of reagents and erratic supply of Electricity for effective Laboratory functioning.

Mental disorders are generally characterized by abnormal thoughts, perceptions and emotions. These abnormalities may make an informed consent more difficult to obtain from psychiatric patients. The implementation of drug trials is being threatened by the decline in its overall frequency generally, especially in Psychiatry. This foretells a dearth of major breakthroughs in pharmacotherapy for psychiatric patients if they are unwilling to present themselves for drug trials. Insight into patient’s awareness and perception of drug trials will enhance the planning, design and implementation of drug trials among this vulnerable subpopulation. This was a cross-sectional study of one hundred patients attending the follow-up clinic of a tertiary psychiatric hospital. A proforma questionnaire to assess awareness and perception of drug trials was administered to participants. About half (51%) were aware of drug trials and 50% of the participants were not willing to participate in a drug trial. Sixty-five percent considered it highly risky to participate. Females were more likely to be unsure whether informed consent will be needed for drug trials. The married were more likely to be unaware of drug trials in clinical research. The unmarried were more likely to be informed about drug trials through the media. Findings are likely to have been influenced by the socio-cultural environment of this study setting. Drug trials among this population require an approach that will create an initial drug trial disorder—sensitive awareness and a design that will ensure that the consent process will take into cognizance the vulnerability of these patients; especially among females.

Abstract:
We construct a new iterative scheme by hybrid methods and prove strong convergence theorem for approximation of a common fixed point of two countable families of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings which is also a solution to a system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in a uniformly convex real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized -projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general -monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature. 1. Introduction Let be a real Banach space with dual , and let be nonempty, closed and convex subset of . A mapping is called nonexpansive if A point is called a fixed point of if . The set of fixed points of is denoted by . We denote by the normalized duality mapping from to defined by The following properties of are well known (the reader can consult [1–3] for more details). (1)If is uniformly smooth, then is norm-to-norm uniformly continuous on each bounded subset of . (2) , ？ . (3)If is reflexive, then is a mapping from onto .(4)If is smooth, then is single valued. Throughout this paper, we denote by , the functional on defined by From [4], in uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces, we have Definition 1.1. Let be a nonempty subset of and let be a countable family of mappings from into . A point is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges weakly to and . The set of asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . One says that is countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings (see, e.g., [5]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ;(R2) , for all , ？ , ？ ;(R3) . Definition 1.2. A point is said to be a strong asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges strongly to and . The set of strong asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . One says that a mapping is countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings (see, e.g., [5]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ;(R2) , for all , ？ , ？ ;(R3) . Definition 1.3. Let be a nonempty subset of and let be a mapping from into . A point is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges weakly to and . The set of asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . We say that a mapping is relatively nonexpansive (see, e.g., [6–11]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ;(R2) , for all , ？ ;(R3) . Definition 1.4. A point is said to be an strong asymptotic fixed

Abstract:
We construct a new Halpern type iterative scheme by hybrid methods and prove strong convergence theorem for approximation of a common fixed point of two countable families of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings in a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth real Banach space using the properties of generalized -projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general -monotone mappings. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

Abstract:
We construct a new iterative scheme by hybrid methods and prove strong convergence theorem for approximation of a common fixed point of two countable families of closed relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings which is also a solution to a system of equilibrium problems in a uniformly smooth and strictly convex real Banach space with Kadec-Klee property using the properties of generalized -projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning variational inequality and convex minimization problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature. 1. Introduction Let be a real Banach space with dual and a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of . A mapping is called nonexpansive if A point is called a fixed point of if . The set of fixed points of is denoted by . We denote by the normalized duality mapping from to defined by The following properties of are well known (the reader can consult [1–3] for more details). (1)If is uniformly smooth, then is norm-to-norm uniformly continuous on each bounded subset of . (2) .(3)If is reflexive, then is a mapping from onto .(4)If is smooth, then is single valued. Throughout this paper, we denote by the functional on defined by It is obvious from (1.3) that Definition 1.1. Let be a nonempty subset of , and let be a mapping from into . A point is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges weakly to and . The set of asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . We say that a mapping is relatively nonexpansive (see, e.g., [4–9]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ,(R2) ,(R3) . If satisfies (R1) and (R2), then is said to be relatively quasi-nonexpansive. It is easy to see that the class of relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings contains the class of relatively nonexpansive mappings. Many authors have studied the methods of approximating the fixed points of relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings (see, e.g., [10–12] and the references cited therein). Clearly, in Hilbert space , relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings and quasi-nonexpansive mappings are the same, for , and this implies that The examples of relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings are given in [11]. Let be a bifunction of into . The equilibrium problem (see, e.g., [13–25]) is to find such that for all . We will denote the solutions set of (1.6) by . Numerous problems in physics, optimization, and economics reduce to find a solution of problem (1.6). The equilibrium problems include fixed point problems, optimization problems, and variational inequality