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In this paper, four new hybrid digital circuit design techniques, namely, hybrid multi-threshold CMOS complete stack technique, hybrid multi-threshold CMOS partial stack technique, hybrid super cutoff complete stack technique and hybrid super cutoff partial stack technique, have been proposed to reduce the subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby modes. Techniques available in literature are compared with our proposed hybrid circuit design techniques. Performance parameters such as subthreshold leakage power dissipation in active and standby modes, dynamic power dissipation and propagation delay, are compared using existing and proposed hybrid techniques for a two input AND gate. Reduction of subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby mode is given more importance, in comparison with the other circuit design performance parameters. It is found that there is reduction in subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby and active modes by 3.5× and 1.15× respectively using the proposed hybrid super cutoff complete stack technique as compared to the existing multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) technique. Also a saving of 2.50× and 1.04× in subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby and active modes respectively were observed using hybrid super cutoff complete stack technique as compared to the existing super cutoff CMOS (SCCMOS) technique. The proposed hybrid super cutoff stack technique proved to perform better in terms of subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby mode in comparison with other techniques. Simulation results using Microwind EDA tool in 65 nm CMOS technology is provided in this paper.
LiMn2O4 thin films are deposited on gold coated polyimide flexible substrates using RF magnetron sputtering technique maintained at a moderate substrate temperature of 300℃. The films exhibited characteristic peaks with predominant (111) orientation representing cubic spinel structure of Fd3m symmetry with an evaluated lattice parameter of 8.199 ?. The surface topography of films exhibited pyramidal shaped grains oriented vertical to the substrate surface with root mean square surface roughness of 90 nm. The Pt/LiMn2O4 electrochemical cell in aqueous region exhibited two step de-insertion and insertion kinetics of Li ion during oxidation and reduction reaction with an initial discharge capacity of 36 μAh?cm_2?μm_1.