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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 141288 matches for " Shehnaz K. Hussain "
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Sequence variation in the human transcription factor gene POU5F1
Shehnaz K Hussain, Reynaldo Sequerra, Caterina Bertucci, Noel C Hastings, Mark Rieder, Stephen M Schwartz
BMC Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-9-15
Abstract: A higher number of polymorphisms was observed in the AD (n = 102) versus ED (n = 82) population. Among the 41 observed haplotypes, 21 (51%) and 12 (29%) were unique to the AD and ED populations, respectively, while 8 (20%) were observed in both. The number of tagging polymorphisms necessary to explain at least 80% of common variation (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.10) due to the remaining untyped polymorphisms was 17 for an AD and 10 for an ED population, providing a 4.0- and 7.0-fold gain in genotyping efficiency for characterizing nucleotide variation, respectively.POU5F1 is highly polymorphic, however a smaller subset of polymorphisms can tag the observed genetic variation with little loss of information.Mammalian totipotent cells, including the zygote and first few cells of its cleavage, have two important characteristics, i. they are able to maintain a high rate of karyotypic normal cell division, and ii. they can differentiate into every cell and tissue type throughout the organism. POU5F1 is a member of the POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) domain transcription factor family that activates expression of target genes by binding to octameric consensus sequences [1]. POU5F1 is highly expressed in these totipotent cells but is down regulated during gastrulation and in the cells that comprise the trilaminar embryo, with the exception of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and the primordial germ cells [2]. POU5F1 is associated with stem cell pluripotency in a somewhat quantitative manner, with less than normal levels driving cells to differentiation [3]. Methylation of regulatory sequences appears to be a principal mechanism through which POU5F1 expression is shut-down in non-germ cell embryonic tissue; primordial germ cells have mechanisms (as yet undefined) that prevent POU5F1 methylation.There is growing evidence that POU5F1 may be important in testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC). POU5F1 is highly expressed in nearly all adult seminomas, embryonal cell carcinomas, and testicular
Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Strongly and Weakly Carcinogenic and Lower-Risk Human Papillomaviruses in Anal Specimens in a Cohort of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM)
Dorothy J. Wiley, Xiuhong Li, Hilary Hsu, Eric C. Seaberg, Ross D. Cranston, Stephen Young, Gypsyamber D’Souza, Otoniel Martínez-Maza, Katherine DeAzambuja, Kristofer Chua, Shehnaz K. Hussain, Roger Detels
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079492
Abstract: Background MSM are at higher risk for invasive anal cancer. Twelve human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer in women (Group 1 high-risk HPVs (hrHPVs)) and 13 HPVs are probable/possible causes (Group 2 hrHPVs) of cervical malignancy. HPVs rarely associated with malignancy are classified as lower-risk HPVs (lrHPVs). Materials and Methods Dacron-swab anal-cytology specimens were collected from and data complete for 97% (1262/1296) of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) men tested for HPVs using the Linear Array assay. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses estimated adjusted prevalence ratios for Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs, controlling for the effects of age, race, ethnicity, sexual partnerships, smoking; HIV-infection characteristics, treatment, and immune status among HIV-infected men. Results HIV-infected men showed 35–90% higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs and lrHPVs than HIV-uninfected men, and higher prevalence of multi-Type, and multiple risk-group infections. CD4+ T-cell count was inversely associated with HPV Group 2 prevalence (p<0.0001). The number of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) partners reported in the 24 months preceding HPV testing predicted higher prevalence of Group 1/2 hrHPVs. Men reporting ≥30 lifetime male sex partners before their first MACS visit and men reporting ≥1 RAI partners during the 24 months before HPV testing showed 17–24% and 13–17% higher prevalence of lrHPVs (p-values ≤0.05). Men reporting smoking between MACS visit 1 and 24 months before HPV testing showed 1.2-fold higher prevalence of Group 2 hrHPVs (p = 0.03). Both complete adherence to CART (p = 0.02) and HIV load <50 copies/mL (p = 0.04) were protective for Group 1 hrHPVs among HIV-infected men. Conclusions HIV-infected men more often show multi-type and multi-group HPV infections HIV-uninfected men. Long-term mutual monogamy and smoking cessation, generally, and CART-adherence that promotes (HIV) viremia control and prevents immunosuppression, specifically among HIV-infected MSM, are important prevention strategies for HPV infections that are relevant to anal cancer.
Safety and persistence of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid fillers for nasolabial folds correction in 30 Indian patients
Arsiwala Shehnaz
Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Correction of nasolabial creases through minimally invasive procedures is increasingly being sought by patients. Injecting non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid filler is a highly effective method to achieve an optimal and persistent cosmetic result. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, persistence and safety of Restylane and Perlane (Q-Med, Sweden) for correction of nasolabial folds in Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty Indian patients with mild, moderate and severe nasolabial folds (based on Wrinkle Assessment Scale) were recruited in the study after informed consent for correction of their folds with Restylane or Perlane or both. Injections were administered in a single sitting after global assessment of the patient′s face using Wrinkle assessment scale (WAS).Optimal filling was performed by using appropriate techniques and its safety and efficacy assessed independently by the investigator as well as by patients at immediately, 3, 6 and 9 months post-procedure. Any adverse reactions were noted. Results: Twenty two females and 8 males (age range 45-55 years, mean age 52 years) were recruited in the study. An optimum cosmetic correction was obtained in all patients. The efficacy increased with time and was greatest at 3 months after the treatment. Grade 2 improvement was maintained at 9 months in mild and moderate folds, and grade 3 improvement for severe folds. Minor post injection side effects like erythema at puncture site, needle marks and bruising were seen. Conclusion: Restylane and Perlane are safe and effective dermal fillers for correction of nasolabial creases and offer immediate effect.
Hussain. K
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2010,
Abstract: Effect of water pollution on Bacopa monnieri was studied by culturing their rooted propagules in various polluted water samples and Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with different micro-level concentrations of HgCl2. Anatomical observations of those plants showed safranin-stained masses deposited in the xylem vessels of stem. The plants treated in chemical solutions which are free from metallic ions, under threshold level of HgCl2, and control plants were devoid of such deposits. Similar deposits were observed in plants cultured in various local water samples. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analyses of these water samples and the bioaccumulation property of the plant detected the presence of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn at various levels. The occurrence of the localized stained deposits in the xylem vessels of the stem of the plants cultured in polluted/contaminated aqueous medium, eventhough the growth medium contamination is micro-levels, is indicative of high sensitivity of Bacopa monnieri plants towards water pollution irrespective of the chemical nature of the pollutants. Although these stained deposits are not specific to any individual element that causes pollution, detection of water contamination is possible by observing the safranin-stained masses in the xylem vessels of this medicinal plant.
Utilization of a labeled tracking oligonucleotide for visualization and quality control of spotted 70-mer arrays
Martin J Hessner, Vineet K Singh, Xujing Wang, Shehnaz Khan, Michael R Tschannen, Thomas C Zahrt
BMC Genomics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-5-12
Abstract: Significantly (p < 0.01) improved DNA retention was achieved printing in 15% DMSO/1.5 M betaine compared to the vendor recommended buffers. Introduction of tracking oligonucleotide did not effect hybridization efficiency or introduce ratio measurement bias in hybridizations between M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. tuberculosis mprA. Linearity between the mean log Cy3/Cy5 ratios of genes differentially expressed from arrays either possessing or lacking the tracking oligonucleotide was observed (R2 = 0.90, p < 0.05) and there were no significant differences in Pearson's correlation coefficients of ratio data between replicates possessing (0.72 ± 0.07), replicates lacking (0.74 ± 0.10), or replicates with and without (0.70 ± 0.04) the tracking oligonucleotide. ANOVA analysis confirmed the tracking oligonucleotide introduced no bias. Titrating target-specific oligonucleotide (40 μM to 0.78 μM) in the presence of 0.5 μM tracking oligonucleotide, revealed a fluorescein fluorescence inversely related to target-specific oligonucleotide molarity, making tracking oligonucleotide signal useful for quality control measurements and differentiating false negatives (synthesis failures and mechanical misses) from true negatives (no gene expression).This novel approach enables prehybridization array visualization for spotted oligonucleotide arrays and sets the stage for more sophisticated slide qualification and data filtering applications.Historically, the investigation of genetic alterations has focused on the study of single genes. In recent years, development of DNA microarrays has allowed researchers to study the complete genome of an organism and profile transcriptional expression patterns of up to tens of thousands of genes in a single experiment [1-3]. Consequently, this technology is already providing important insights into the biological properties of various organisms, making it a mainstream component of biomedical research [3-10].DNA microarrays are currently based on one o
Bioaccumulation Pattern of Mercury in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell
Hussain K,Nabeesa Salim
Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry , 2012,
Abstract: Bioaccumulation pattern of mercury was studied in Bacopa monnieri plants cultivated in Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with 5 and 10μM HgCl2. Mercury content of roots, stem and leaves were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). During a period 12 days of growth, more accumulation was noticed in roots followed by stem and leaves. Repeated addition of HgCl2 and enhanced growth period up to 50 days showed only negligible increase in accumulation maintaining a threshold level of mercury in the root. When a comparison was done between the quantities of HgCl2 added to the growth medium and the sum of total accumulation of the plant and content present in the residual medium, a significant quantity of mercury is found to be lost presumably through the process of phytovolatilization from the plant. Studies on the effect of pH on bioaccumulation of mercury showed that acidic pH enhanced accumulation rate and hence for phytoremediation technology ‘chlorination’ is recommended whereas for medicinal purpose, Bacopa monnieri plants can be harvested after ‘liming’ to increase the pH and thereby reducing accumulation rate of mercury.
The Effect of the Industrial Activities on Air Pollution at Baiji and Its Surrounding Areas, Iraq  [PDF]
Salwan S. Al-Hasnawi, Hussain M. Hussain, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Sven K nutsson
Engineering (ENG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2016.81004
Abstract: The polluters of total suspended particles (TSP) and some heavy metals (Cd, Co, and Ni) concentrations were studied in the areas of Al-Fatha, Al-Alam and Baiji, Iraq. These concentrations were measured for selected 22 sample locations for two periods, January and July 2013. The analyzed values of (TSP) and (Cd) exceeded the limits of Iraqi National and the World Health Organization (WHO) for the two periods. Also, (Ni) values exceeded the limits for July only, while (Co) values were under the limits for the two periods. The difference between the two periods reflects the effect of the wind speed and direction, rainfall, and the intensity of the dust storms during the two months, respectively. GIS technique makes optimal predictions possible by examining the relationships between all the sample points and producing a continuous surface of polluter’s concentration. Therefore, GIS was used to produce predictions and probabilities maps for the critical polluter values in the study area.
β-Galactosidase Leakage from Escherichia coli Points to Mechanical Damageas Likely Cause of Carbon Nanotube Toxicity  [PDF]
Smita Amarnath, Mohammad A. Hussain, Vidyanand Nanjundiah, A. K. Sood
Soft Nanoscience Letters (SNL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/snl.2012.23008
Abstract: We show that the cytotoxic effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on bacteria is mediated by mechanical damage to the cell wall and membrane. Two β-galactosidase-producing strains of Escherichia coli harboringgenomically integrated reporter gene constructs, namely pchbB:lacZand prpoS:lacZ, were used for the purpose. We first verified that CNTs result in an inhibition of cell growth. Enzyme activity was determined using a reporter gene assay in which CNTs were used without the lysis buffer (containing detergent). β-galactosidase activity in the presence of CNTs alone measured several fold more than the controls used (without nanotubes). This suggests that CNTs damage the cell membrane in a manner similar to the detergent in the lysis buffer and render E. coli cell walls porous, causing cell contents including enzymes to leak out into the medium. Our results support the hypothesis that mechanical damage to bacterial cell membranes is the prevailing cause of CNT-cytotoxicity.
New Hybrid Digital Circuit Design Techniques for Reducing Subthreshold Leakage Power in Standby Mode  [PDF]
Manish Kumar, Md. Anwar Hussain, Sajal K. Paul
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2013.41012

In this paper, four new hybrid digital circuit design techniques, namely, hybrid multi-threshold CMOS complete stack technique, hybrid multi-threshold CMOS partial stack technique, hybrid super cutoff complete stack technique and hybrid super cutoff partial stack technique, have been proposed to reduce the subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby modes. Techniques available in literature are compared with our proposed hybrid circuit design techniques. Performance parameters such as subthreshold leakage power dissipation in active and standby modes, dynamic power dissipation and propagation delay, are compared using existing and proposed hybrid techniques for a two input AND gate. Reduction of subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby mode is given more importance, in comparison with the other circuit design performance parameters. It is found that there is reduction in subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby and active modes by 3.5× and 1.15× respectively using the proposed hybrid super cutoff complete stack technique as compared to the existing multi-threshold CMOS (MTCMOS) technique. Also a saving of 2.50× and 1.04× in subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby and active modes respectively were observed using hybrid super cutoff complete stack technique as compared to the existing super cutoff CMOS (SCCMOS) technique. The proposed hybrid super cutoff stack technique proved to perform better in terms of subthreshold leakage power dissipation in standby mode in comparison with other techniques. Simulation results using Microwind EDA tool in 65 nm CMOS technology is provided in this paper.

Growth, Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of RF Sputtered LiMn2O4 Thin Films on Au/Polyimide Flexible Substrates  [PDF]
K. Jayanth Babu, P. Jeevan Kumar, Obili M. Hussain
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.42014

LiMn2O4 thin films are deposited on gold coated polyimide flexible substrates using RF magnetron sputtering technique maintained at a moderate substrate temperature of 300. The films exhibited characteristic peaks with predominant (111) orientation representing cubic spinel structure of Fd3m symmetry with an evaluated lattice parameter of 8.199 ?. The surface topography of films exhibited pyramidal shaped grains oriented vertical to the substrate surface with root mean square surface roughness of 90 nm. The Pt/LiMn2O4 electrochemical cell in aqueous region exhibited two step de-insertion and insertion kinetics of Li ion during oxidation and reduction reaction with an initial discharge capacity of 36 μAh?cm_2?μm_1.

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