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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 76 matches for " Sheba Nakacubo Gitta "
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Paradigm shift: contribution of field epidemiology training in advancing the “One Health” approach to strengthen disease surveillance and outbreak investigations in Africa
Sheba Nakacubo Gitta, Peter Wasswa, Olivia Namusisi, Aloysius Bingi, Monica Musenero, David Mukanga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The occurrence of major zoonotic disease outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa has had a significant impact on the already constrained public health systems. This has, as a result, justified the need to identify creative strategies to address threats from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases at the human-animal-environmental interface, and implement robust multi-disease public health surveillance systems that will enhance early detection and response. Additionally, enhanced reporting and timely investigation of all suspected notifiable infectious disease threats within the health system is vital. Field epidemiology and laboratory training programs (FELTPs) have made significant contributions to public health systems for more than 10 years by producing highly skilled field epidemiologists. These epidemiologists have not only improved disease surveillance and response to outbreaks, but also improved management of health systems. Furthermore, the FETPs/FELTPs have laid an excellent foundation that brings clinicians, veterinarians, and environmental health professionals drawn from different governmental sectors, to work with a common purpose of disease control and prevention. The emergence of the One Health approach in the last decade has coincided with the present, paradigm, shift that calls for multi-sectoral and cross-sectoral collaboration towards disease surveillance, detection, reporting and timely response. The positive impact from the integration of FETP/FELTP and the One Health approach by selected programs in Africa has demonstrated the importance of multi-sectoral collaboration in addressing threats from infectious and non- infectious causes to man, animals and the environment. Pan African Medical Journal 2011; 10(Supp1):13
The African Field Epidemiology Network - Networking for effective field epidemiology capacity building and service delivery
Sheba Nakacubo Gitta, David Mukanga, Rebecca Babirye, Melissa Dahlke, Mufuta Tshimanga, Peter Nsubuga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Networks are a catalyst for promoting common goals and objectives of their membership. Public Health networks in Africa are crucial, because of the severe resource limitations that nations face in dealing with priority public health problems. For a long time, networks have existed on the continent and globally, but many of these are disease-specific with a narrow scope. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) is a public health network established in 2005 as a non-profit networking alliance of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) and Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) in Africa. AFENET is dedicated to helping ministries of health in Africa build strong, effective and sustainable programs and capacity to improve public health systems by partnering with global public health experts. The Network’s goal is to strengthen field epidemiology and public health laboratory capacity to contribute effectively to addressing epidemics and other major public health problems in Africa. AFENET currently networks 12 FELTPs and FETPs in sub-Saharan Africa with operations in 20 countries. AFENET has a unique tripartite working relationship with government technocrats from human health and animal sectors, academicians from partner universities, and development partners, presenting the Network with a distinct vantage point. Through the Network, African nations are making strides in strengthening their health systems. Members are able to: leverage resources to support field epidemiology and public health laboratory training and service delivery notably in the area of outbreak investigation and response as well as disease surveillance; by-pass government bureaucracies that often hinder and frustrate development partners; and consolidate efforts of different partners channelled through the FELTPs by networking graduates through alumni associations and calling on them to offer technical support in various public health capacities as the need arises. AFENET presents a bridging platform between governments and the private sector, allowing for continuity of health interventions at the national and regional level while offering free exit and entry for existing and new partners respectively. AFENET has established itself as a versatile networking model that is highly responsive to members’ needs. Based on the successes recorded in AFENET’s first 5 years, we envision that the Network’s membership will continue to expand as new training programs are established. The lessons learned will be useful in initiating new programs and building sustainability frameworks for FETPs and FELTPs in Africa. AFENET will continue to play a role in coordinating, advocacy, and building capacity for epidemic disease preparedness and response. Pan African Medical Journal 2011;10(Supp):3
The Ethiopian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: strengthening public health systems and building human resource capacity
Daddi Jima, Getnet Mitike, Zegeye Hailemariam, Alemayehu Bekele, Adamu Addissie, Richard Luce, Peter Wasswa, Olivia Namusisi, Sheba Nakacubo Gitta, Monica Musenero, David Mukanga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The Ethiopian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (EFELTP) is a comprehensive two-year competency-based training and service program designed to build sustainable public health expertise and capacity. Established in 2009, the program is a partnership between the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health, the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute, Addis Ababa University School of Public Health, the Ethiopian Public Health Association and the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Residents of the program spend about 25% of their time undergoing didactic training and the 75% in the field working at program field bases established with the MOH and Regional Health Bureaus investigating disease outbreaks, improving disease surveillance, responding to public health emergencies, using health data to make recommendations and undertaking other field Epidemiology related activities on setting health policy. Residents from the first 2 cohorts of the program have conducted more than 42 outbreaks investigations, 27analyses of surveillance data, evaluations of 11 surveillance systems, had28oral and poster presentation abstracts accepted at 10 scientific conferences and submitted 8 manuscripts of which 2are already published. The EFELTP has provided valuable opportunities to improve epidemiology and laboratory capacity building in Ethiopia. While the program is relatively young, positive and significant impacts are assisting the country better detect and respond to epidemics and address diseases of major public health significance. Pan African Medical Journal 2011; 10 (Supp 1):5
Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET)
Masanza Monica,Nqobile Ndlovu,Mukanga David,Gitta Sheba
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-s1-s8
Abstract: Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET’s approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.
Field Epidemiology Training Programmes in Africa - Where are the Graduates?
David Mukanga, Olivia Namusisi, Sheba N Gitta, George Pariyo, Mufuta Tshimanga, Angela Weaver, Murray Trostle
Human Resources for Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4491-8-18
Abstract: Alumni data from African FETPs were reviewed in order to establish graduate retention. Retention was defined as a graduate staying and working in their home country for at least 3 years after graduation. African FETPs are located in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, the United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. However, this paper only includes the Uganda and Zimbabwe FETPs, as all the others are recent programmes.This review shows that enrolment increased over the years, and that there is high graduate retention, with 85.1% (223/261) of graduates working within country of training; most working with Ministries of Health (46.2%; 105/261) and non-governmental organizations (17.5%; 40/261). Retention of graduates with a medical undergraduate degree was higher (Zimbabwe 80% [36/83]; Uganda 90.6% [125/178]) than for those with other undergraduate qualifications (Zimbabwe 71.1% [27/83]; Uganda 87.5% [35/178]).African FETPs have unique features which may explain their high retention of graduates. These include: programme ownership by ministries of health and local universities; well defined career paths; competence-based training coupled with a focus on field practice during training; awarding degrees upon completion; extensive training and research opportunities made available to graduates; and the social capital acquired during training.A key ingredient to achieving improved health outcomes is stronger health systems, including an adequate health workforce [1,2]. There is evidence of a direct and positive causal link between numbers of health workers and health outcomes [3,4]. The World Development Report 2004 [5] states that without improvements to the health workforce, the health-related Millennium Development Goals cannot be achieved. In many countries, the effects of insufficient development of the health workforce are aggravated by migration and a mounting burden of disease [5]. The current shortage of health workers, part
Private and public health care in rural areas of Uganda
Joseph Konde-Lule, Sheba N Gitta, Anne Lindfors, Sam Okuonzi, Virgil ON Onama, Birger C Forsberg
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-10-29
Abstract: The study was carried out in three rural districts. Methods included (1) mapping of health care providers; (2) a household survey to determine morbidity and health care utilization; (3) a health facility survey to assess quality of care; (4) focus group discussions to get qualitative information on providers and provider choice; and (5) key informant interviews to further explore service characteristics.95.7% of all 445 facilities surveyed were private while 4.3% were public. Traditional practitioners and general merchandise shops that sold medicines comprised 77.1% of all providers. They had limited infrastructure and skills but were often located in the villages and therefore easily accessible. Among the formal providers there were 4 times as many private for profit providers than public, 76 versus 18. However, most of the private units were one-person drug shops.In the household survey, 2580 persons were interviewed. 1097 (42%) had experienced illness during the preceding month. Care was sought in 54.1% of the cases. 35.6% were given self-treatment and in 10.3% no action was taken. Of the episodes for which people sought care at a health care facility, 37.0% visited a public health care provider, 39.7% a for profit provider, 11.8% a private not for profit provider, and 10.6% a traditional practitioner. Private for profit facilities were the most popular for ambulatory health care, while public facilities were preferred for more serious conditions and for hospitalization. Traditional practitioners were many but saw relatively few patients. They were mostly used for social problems and limited medical specific conditions.Private providers play a major role in health care delivery in rural Uganda; reaching a wide client base. Traditional practitioners are many but have as much a social as a medical function in the community. The significance of the private health care sector points to the need to establish a policy that addresses quality and affordability issues and
The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network
David Mukanga, Mufuta Tshimanga, Frederick Wurapa, David Serwada, George Pariyo, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Sheba Gitta, Stella Chungong, Murray Trostle, Peter Nsubuga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: In an effort to contain the frequently devastating epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa launched the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in an effort to strengthen surveillance and response. However, 36 sub-Saharan African countries have been described as experiencing a human resource crisis by the WHO. Given this human resource situation, the challenge remains for these countries to achieve, among others, the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper describes the process through which the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) was developed, as well as how AFENET has contributed to addressing the public health workforce crisis, and the development of human resource capacity to implement IDSR in Africa. AFENET was established between 2005 and 2006 as a network of Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) and Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in Africa. This resulted from an expressed need to develop a network that would advocate for the unique needs of African FETPs and FELTPs, provide service to its membership, and through which programs could develop joint projects to address the public health needs of their countries. A total of eight new programs have been developed in sub-Saharan Africa since 2006. Programs established after 2006 represent over 70% of current FETP and FELTP enrolment in Africa. In addition to growth in membership and programs, AFENET has recorded significant growth in external partnerships. Beginning with USAID, CDC and WHO in 2004-2006, a total of at least 26 partners have been added by 2011. Drawing from lessons learnt, AFENET is now a resource that can be relied upon to expand public health capacity in Africa in an efficient and practical manner. National, regional and global health actors can leverage it to meet health-related targets at all levels. The AFENET story is one that continues to be driven by a clearly recognized need within Africa to develop a network that would serve public health systems development, looking beyond the founders, and using the existing capacity of the founders and partners to help other countries build capacity for IDSR and the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005). Pan Afr Med J. 2011; 10(Supp 1):2
Sparsity Equivalence of Anisotropic Decompositions
Gitta Kutyniok
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: Anisotropic decompositions using representation systems such as curvelets, contourlet, or shearlets have recently attracted significantly increased attention due to the fact that they were shown to provide optimally sparse approximations of functions exhibiting singularities on lower dimensional embedded manifolds. The literature now contains various direct proofs of this fact and of related sparse approximation results. However, it seems quite cumbersome to prove such a canon of results for each system separately, while many of the systems exhibit certain similarities. In this paper, with the introduction of the concept of sparsity equivalence, we aim to provide a framework which allows categorization of the ability for sparse approximations of representation systems. This framework, in particular, enables transferring results on sparse approximations from one system to another. We demonstrate this concept for the example of curvelets and shearlets, and discuss how this viewpoint immediately leads to novel results for both systems.
Theory and Applications of Compressed Sensing
Gitta Kutyniok
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Compressed sensing is a novel research area, which was introduced in 2006, and since then has already become a key concept in various areas of applied mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. It surprisingly predicts that high-dimensional signals, which allow a sparse representation by a suitable basis or, more generally, a frame, can be recovered from what was previously considered highly incomplete linear measurements by using efficient algorithms. This article shall serve as an introduction to and a survey about compressed sensing.
Geometric Separation by Single-Pass Alternating Thresholding
Gitta Kutyniok
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Modern data is customarily of multimodal nature, and analysis tasks typically require separation into the single components. Although a highly ill-posed problem, the morphological difference of these components sometimes allow a very precise separation such as, for instance, in neurobiological imaging a separation into spines (pointlike structures) and dendrites (curvilinear structures). Recently, applied harmonic analysis introduced powerful methodologies to achieve this task, exploiting specifically designed representation systems in which the components are sparsely representable, combined with either performing $\ell_1$ minimization or thresholding on the combined dictionary. In this paper we provide a thorough theoretical study of the separation of a distributional model situation of point- and curvilinear singularities exploiting a surprisingly simple single-pass alternating thresholding method applied to the two complementary frames: wavelets and curvelets. Utilizing the fact that the coefficients are clustered geometrically, thereby exhibiting clustered/geometric sparsity in the chosen frames, we prove that at sufficiently fine scales arbitrarily precise separation is possible. Even more surprising, it turns out that the thresholding index sets converge to the wavefront sets of the point- and curvilinear singularities in phase space and that those wavefront sets are perfectly separated by the thresholding procedure. Main ingredients of our analysis are the novel notion of cluster coherence and clustered/geometric sparsity as well as a microlocal analysis viewpoint.
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