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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1989 matches for " Sharon Silver "
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Fall Prevention Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Community Stakeholders and Older Adults
Sharon S. Laing,Ilene F. Silver,Sally York,Elizabeth A. Phelan
Journal of Aging Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/395357
Abstract: We assessed knowledge, attitude, and provision of recommended fall prevention (FP) practices by employees of senior-serving organization and participation in FP practices by at-risk elders. The Washington State Department of Health administered structured telephone surveys to 50 employees and 101 elders in Washington State. Only 38% of employees felt “very knowledgeable” about FP, and a majority of their organizations did not regularly offer FP services. Almost half (48%) of seniors sustained a fall within the past 12 months; however, one-third perceived falling to be among their least important health concerns, and most had minimal working knowledge of proven FP practices. Seniors who perceived avoiding falls as important to their well-being were more likely to participate in practices about which they had the least knowledge (risk assessment, medication management). Increased awareness and availability of FP services might help engage older adults in FP practices and reduce the adverse effects of falls. 1. Introduction Falls and fall-related injuries constitute an important public health concern. Each year, one in three community-dwelling older adults (65 years or older) sustains a fall [1, 2]. About 20–30% of falls result in serious injury, and injury care is costly [3–5]. As the aging population grows, the overall population burden will increase, and costs will rise substantially. Falls are among the leading health indicators in Healthy People 2020 [6], and several effective fall prevention (FP) practices have been documented for at-risk elders, including individualized fall risk assessment and multifactorial interventions [7, 8]. Little is known, however, about provision of FP services by community-based senior-serving organizations or about older adults’ understanding of effective fall prevention practices. Understanding fall prevention knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) of older adults and senior-serving organizations is crucial for translating and disseminating effective fall prevention programs. This study sought to obtain information about FP knowledge, attitude, and practices from employees of community-based organizations and from older adults at heightened risk for falling, in order to help establish a foundation for fall prevention initiatives in Washington State. The objectives of the current study were to ascertain (1) service providers’ knowledge of, attitude about, and provision of practice-related services for senior fall prevention and (2) seniors’ knowledge of, attitude about, and participation in recommended fall prevention
Thyroxine and Free Thyroxine Levels in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Inorganic Lead
Michael L. Bledsoe, Lynne E. Pinkerton, Sharon Silver, James A. Deddens and Raymond E. Biagini
Environmental Health Insights , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/EHI.S7193
Abstract: Background: The effects of lead exposure on thyroid function are unclear. Methods: Serum thyroxine (T4) was evaluated among 137 lead-exposed workers and 83 non-exposed workers. Free thyroxine (FT4) was evaluated among a subset of these workers. Exposure metrics included blood lead level (BLL), which reflects recent exposure, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), a marker of intermediate-duration lead exposure, exposure duration, and estimated cumulative exposure. Multiple linear regression results were adjusted for age, race, and current smoking status. Results: Mean BLLs were 38.9 μg/dL in lead exposed workers and 2.1 μg/dL in non-exposed workers. The adjusted mean T4 and FT4 concentrations among exposed and non-exposed workers were similar. While T4 was not significantly related to any of the exposure metrics, FT4 was inversely related to the logged values of both exposure duration and cumulative exposure, but not to ZPP or BLL. Conclusions: The findings suggest that FT4 levels may be related to long-term lead exposure.
Thyroxine and Free Thyroxine Levels in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Inorganic Lead
Michael L. Bledsoe,Lynne E. Pinkerton,Sharon Silver,James A. Deddens
Environmental Health Insights , 2011,
LEMS: A language for expressing complex biological models in concise and hierarchical form and its use in underpinning NeuroML 2
Robert C. Cannon,Padraig Gleeson,Sharon Crook,Gautham Ganapathy,Boris Marin,Eugenio Piasini,R. Angus Silver
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2014.00079
Abstract: Computational models are increasingly important for studying complex neurophysiological systems. As scientific tools, it is essential that such models can be reproduced and critically evaluated by a range of scientists. However, published models are currently implemented using a diverse set of modelling approaches, simulation tools, and computer languages making them inaccessible and difficult to reproduce. Models also typically contain concepts that are tightly linked to domain-specific simulators, or depend on knowledge that is described exclusively in text-based documentation. To address these issues we have developed a compact, hierarchical, XML-based language called LEMS (Low Entropy Model Specification), that can define the structure and dynamics of a wide range of biological models in a fully machine readable format. We describe how LEMS underpins the latest version of NeuroML and show that this framework can define models of ion channels, synapses, neurons and networks. Unit handling, often a source of error when reusing models, is built into the core of the language by specifying physical quantities in models in terms of the base dimensions. We show how LEMS, together with the open source Java and Python based libraries we have developed, facilitates the generation of scripts for multiple neuronal simulators and provides a route for simulator free code generation. We establish that LEMS can be used to define models from systems biology and map them to neuroscience-domain specific simulators, enabling models to be shared between these traditionally separate disciplines. LEMS and NeuroML 2 provide a new, comprehensive framework for defining computational models of neuronal and other biological systems in a machine readable format, making them more reproducible and increasing the transparency and accessibility of their underlying structure and properties.
Exploring mentorship as a strategy to build capacity for knowledge translation research and practice: protocol for a qualitative study
Anna R Gagliardi, Laure Perrier, Fiona Webster, Karen Leslie, Mary Bell, Wendy Levinson, Ori Rotstein, Ann Tourangeau, Laurie Morrison, Ivan L Silver, Sharon E Straus
Implementation Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-4-55
Abstract: A conceptual framework was derived based on mentoring goals, processes and outcomes identified in the management and social sciences literature, and our research on barriers and facilitators of academic mentorship. These concepts will inform data collection and analysis. To identify useful models by which to design, implement and evaluate KT mentorship, we will review the social sciences, management, and nursing literature from 1990 to current, browse tables of contents of relevant journals, and scan the references of all eligible studies. Eligibility screening and data extraction will be performed independently by two investigators. Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect information about KT needs, views on mentorship as a knowledge sharing strategy, preferred KT mentoring program elements, and perceived barriers from clinician health services researchers representing different disciplines. Qualitative analysis of transcripts will be performed independently by two investigators, who will meet to compare findings and resolve differences through discussion. Data will be shared and discussed with the research team, and their feedback incorporated into final reports.These findings could be used by universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and professional organizations in Canada and elsewhere to develop, implement, and evaluate mentorship for KT research and practice. This research will establish a theoretical basis upon which we and others can compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that enhance KT mentorship. If successful, this program of research may increase knowledge about, confidence in, and greater utilization of KT processes, and the quality and quantity of KT research, perhaps ultimately leading to better implementation and adoption of recommended health care services.Health care is often not delivered according to recommendations that are based on the best available research. Numerous population-based studies in Canada, Austral
libNeuroML and PyLEMS: using Python to combine procedural and declarative modeling approaches in computational neuroscience
Michael Vella,Robert C. Cannon,Sharon Crook,Andrew P. Davison,Gautham Ganapathy,Hugh P. C. Robinson,R. Angus Silver,Padraig Gleeson
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2014.00038
Abstract: NeuroML is an XML-based model description language, which provides a powerful common data format for defining and exchanging models of neurons and neuronal networks. In the latest version of NeuroML, the structure and behavior of ion channel, synapse, cell, and network model descriptions are based on underlying definitions provided in LEMS, a domain-independent language for expressing hierarchical mathematical models of physical entities. While declarative approaches for describing models have led to greater exchange of model elements among software tools in computational neuroscience, a frequent criticism of XML-based languages is that they are difficult to work with directly. Here we describe two Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) written in Python (http://www.python.org), which simplify the process of developing and modifying models expressed in NeuroML and LEMS. The libNeuroML API provides a Python object model with a direct mapping to all NeuroML concepts defined by the NeuroML Schema, which facilitates reading and writing the XML equivalents. In addition, it offers a memory-efficient, array-based internal representation, which is useful for handling large-scale connectomics data. The libNeuroML API also includes support for performing common operations that are required when working with NeuroML documents. Access to the LEMS data model is provided by the PyLEMS API, which provides a Python implementation of the LEMS language, including the ability to simulate most models expressed in LEMS. Together, libNeuroML and PyLEMS provide a comprehensive solution for interacting with NeuroML models in a Python environment.
DNA repair and breast cancer: therapeutic opportunities
DP Silver
Breast Cancer Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3008
Abstract: Laboratory-based studies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 demonstrated that loss of function of either gene resulted in significantly increased susceptibility to certain forms of chemotherapy, including interstrand DNA cross-linking agents such as the platinum drugs and mitomycin C. More recently, loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 function has also been shown to increase sensitivity to PARP inhibition, a finding made possible as a result of increased understanding of the DNA repair implications of BRCA1 or BRCA2 loss. To a large extent, these laboratory-based observations have now been verified in clinical trials enrolling patients with hereditary breast cancer. The implications of the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 for treatment options in sporadic breast cancer are more complex. Based on a series of striking phenotypic similarities between the majority of sporadic triple-negative breast cancers and most cancers that arise in BRCA1 heterozygotes, the hypothesis arose that perhaps many of these sporadic cancers might also share a similar lesion in DNA repair (BRCAness) with the BRCA1-related tumors. This notion has now been put to the test in ongoing clinical trials that treat sporadic triple-negative breast cancer patients with platinum agents, PARP inhibitors, or combinations. The current evidence for and against this hypothesis will be discussed.
Emerging options to prevent stroke in atrial fibrillation patients
Silver B
Research Reports in Clinical Cardiology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRCC.S17427
Abstract: ging options to prevent stroke in atrial fibrillation patients Review (2323) Total Article Views Authors: Silver B Published Date January 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 1 - 9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RRCC.S17427 Received: 24 October 2011 Accepted: 28 November 2011 Published: 05 January 2012 Brian Silver Stroke Center, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Atrial fibrillation is a common condition in the population and increases in prevalence with age. A new method for evaluating stroke risk with atrial fibrillation, called CHA2DS2Vasc, has been developed, as has a novel method for estimating the risk of bleeding, called HAS-BLED. Further, the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in the number of treatment options tested for this condition. These include novel oral anticoagulants such as apixaban, dabigatran, and rivaroxaban, and devices that occlude the left atrial appendage, such as WATCHMAN. This review will compare these new agents with the historical gold standard of warfarin.
Takayasu’s Arteritis- An Unusual Cause of Stroke in a Young Patient
Matthew Silver
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2012,
Abstract: We describe the case of a 28-year-old-male with no significant medical history who presented with right-sided hemiparesis, bruits over the carotid and subclavian arteries and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Imaging studies revealed a middle cerebral artery thrombus and inflammatory changes of the carotid and subclavian arteries and aorta. The diagnosis of Takayasu’s arteritis was made and the patient was started on steroids and immunomodulators with good clinical response.
What is Said/ Not Said in Community of Inquiry
Ruth Silver
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 1996,
Abstract: On more than one occasion, I have observed a reaction in an IAPC group discussion at Mendham which has caused me serious concern about how open the community of inquiry is, or should be, to significantquestions. In both cases, a comment was made which represented a serious challenge to accepted views of the group. In both cases the response was essentially to listen politely, and then to ignore the comment. The speakers were of course not shouted down, but neither were they responded to in any way.
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