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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1740 matches for " Sharon Moule "
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The tipping point: a response
Pam Moule
Research in Learning Technology , 2007, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v15i2.10920
Abstract: I am grateful to Gilly Salmon for providing further personal insight into the five-stage model for e-learning, reviewed in my recent paper (Moule, 2007). Professor Salmon plots the development and use of the model, first conceived some 12 years ago, and encourages us to reflect further on a model that has been so widely adopted. The longevity of its use in a fast-changing field is testament to its appeal to educators, developers and learners. It is clear that a number of ALT-J readers will know of, and have used, the model and may want to express thoughts on its current applicability, as Salmon invites.
Challenging the five-stage model for e-learning: a new approach
Pam Moule
Research in Learning Technology , 2007, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v15i1.10911
Abstract: The five-stage approach to e-moderating has provided a coherent model upon which to base online learning design in higher education. However, despite its growing popularity, there are concerns that the model is becoming a dominant discourse, being adapted as a template for the design of all online teaching and learning, to the exclusion of other ideas. It is suggested that the five-stage model may not be the panacea it appears and alternative models of e-learning cannot be ignored. This paper reviews the five-stage model and contrasts it with a new conceptual model, ‘the e-learning ladder', conceived as part of research with healthcare students in the higher education setting.
The Complete Genome Sequence and Comparative Genome Analysis of the High Pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica Strain 8081
Nicholas R Thomson ,Sarah Howard,Brendan W Wren,Matthew T. G Holden,Lisa Crossman,Gregory L Challis,Carol Churcher,Karen Mungall,Karen Brooks,Tracey Chillingworth,Theresa Feltwell,Zahra Abdellah,Heidi Hauser,Kay Jagels,Mark Maddison,Sharon Moule,Mandy Sanders,Sally Whitehead,Michael A Quail,Gordon Dougan,Julian Parkhill,Michael B Prentice
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020206
Abstract: The human enteropathogen, Yersinia enterocolitica, is a significant link in the range of Yersinia pathologies extending from mild gastroenteritis to bubonic plague. Comparison at the genomic level is a key step in our understanding of the genetic basis for this pathogenicity spectrum. Here we report the genome of Y. enterocolitica strain 8081 (serotype 0:8; biotype 1B) and extensive microarray data relating to the genetic diversity of the Y. enterocolitica species. Our analysis reveals that the genome of Y. enterocolitica strain 8081 is a patchwork of horizontally acquired genetic loci, including a plasticity zone of 199 kb containing an extraordinarily high density of virulence genes. Microarray analysis has provided insights into species-specific Y. enterocolitica gene functions and the intraspecies differences between the high, low, and nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica biotypes. Through comparative genome sequence analysis we provide new information on the evolution of the Yersinia. We identify numerous loci that represent ancestral clusters of genes potentially important in enteric survival and pathogenesis, which have been lost or are in the process of being lost, in the other sequenced Yersinia lineages. Our analysis also highlights large metabolic operons in Y. enterocolitica that are absent in the related enteropathogen, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, indicating major differences in niche and nutrients used within the mammalian gut. These include clusters directing, the production of hydrogenases, tetrathionate respiration, cobalamin synthesis, and propanediol utilisation. Along with ancestral gene clusters, the genome of Y. enterocolitica has revealed species-specific and enteropathogen-specific loci. This has provided important insights into the pathology of this bacterium and, more broadly, into the evolution of the genus. Moreover, wider investigations looking at the patterns of gene loss and gain in the Yersinia have highlighted common themes in the genome evolution of other human enteropathogens.
Meningococcal Genetic Variation Mechanisms Viewed through Comparative Analysis of Serogroup C Strain FAM18
Stephen D Bentley ,George S Vernikos,Lori A. S Snyder,Carol Churcher,Claire Arrowsmith,Tracey Chillingworth,Ann Cronin,Paul H Davis,Nancy E Holroyd,Kay Jagels,Mark Maddison,Sharon Moule,Ester Rabbinowitsch,Sarah Sharp,Louise Unwin,Sally Whitehead,Michael A Quail,Mark Achtman,Bart Barrell,Nigel J Saunders,Julian Parkhill
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030023
Abstract: The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is commonly found harmlessly colonising the mucosal surfaces of the human nasopharynx. Occasionally strains can invade host tissues causing septicaemia and meningitis, making the bacterium a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. The species is known to be diverse in many ways, as a product of its natural transformability and of a range of recombination and mutation-based systems. Previous work on pathogenic Neisseria has identified several mechanisms for the generation of diversity of surface structures, including phase variation based on slippage-like mechanisms and sequence conversion of expressed genes using information from silent loci. Comparison of the genome sequences of two N. meningitidis strains, serogroup B MC58 and serogroup A Z2491, suggested further mechanisms of variation, including C-terminal exchange in specific genes and enhanced localised recombination and variation related to repeat arrays. We have sequenced the genome of N. meningitidis strain FAM18, a representative of the ST-11/ET-37 complex, providing the first genome sequence for the disease-causing serogroup C meningococci; it has 1,976 predicted genes, of which 60 do not have orthologues in the previously sequenced serogroup A or B strains. Through genome comparison with Z2491 and MC58 we have further characterised specific mechanisms of genetic variation in N. meningitidis, describing specialised loci for generation of cell surface protein variants and measuring the association between noncoding repeat arrays and sequence variation in flanking genes. Here we provide a detailed view of novel genetic diversification mechanisms in N. meningitidis. Our analysis provides evidence for the hypothesis that the noncoding repeat arrays in neisserial genomes (neisserial intergenic mosaic elements) provide a crucial mechanism for the generation of surface antigen variants. Such variation will have an impact on the interaction with the host tissues, and understanding these mechanisms is important to aid our understanding of the intimate and complex relationship between the human nasopharynx and the meningococcus.
Reciprocal Analysis of Francisella novicida Infections of a Drosophila melanogaster Model Reveal Host-Pathogen Conflicts Mediated by Reactive Oxygen and imd-Regulated Innate Immune Response
Madeleine G. Moule,Denise M. Monack,David S. Schneider
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001065
Abstract: The survival of a bacterial pathogen within a host depends upon its ability to outmaneuver the host immune response. Thus, mutant pathogens provide a useful tool for dissecting host-pathogen relationships, as the strategies the microbe has evolved to counteract immunity reveal a host's immune mechanisms. In this study, we examined the pathogen Francisella novicida and identified new bacterial virulence factors that interact with different parts of the Drosophila melanogaster innate immune system. We performed a genome-wide screen to identify F. novicida genes required for growth and survival within the fly and identified a set of 149 negatively selected mutants. Among these, we identified a class of genes including the transcription factor oxyR, and the DNA repair proteins uvrB, recB, and ruvC that help F. novicida resist oxidative stress. We determined that these bacterial genes are virulence factors that allow F. novicida to counteract the fly melanization immune response. We then performed a second in vivo screen to identify an additional subset of bacterial genes that interact specifically with the imd signaling pathway. Most of these mutants have decreased resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. Characterization of a mutation in the putative transglutaminase FTN_0869 produced a curious result that could not easily be explained using known Drosophila immune responses. By using an unbiased genetic screen, these studies provide a new view of the Drosophila immune response from the perspective of a pathogen. We show that two branches of the fly's immunity are important for fighting F. novicida infections in a model host: melanization and an imd-regulated immune response, and identify bacterial genes that specifically counteract these host responses. Our work suggests that there may be more to learn about the fly immune system, as not all of the phenotypes we observe can be readily explained by its interactions with known immune responses.
Co-operative cross-platform courseware development
R. D. Harding,S. W. Lay,H. Moule
Research in Learning Technology , 1996, DOI: 10.3402/rlt.v4i1.9948
Abstract: Of all the TLTP projects, the UKMCC (UK Mathematics Courseware Consortium) has involved the largest number of institutions in authoring courseware. This was part of a deliberate attempt to set up an 'open courseware' system which can continue to be adapted and grow even after the end of TLTP funding. In turn, such an objective requires a cross-platform approach to courseware development. Even when considering the academic community across a single subject at just one time, there will be a variety of hardware and software that people will want to use, but a ghost of a case can be made out for attempting some sort of standardization. When change over time is considered, it is inconceivable that hardware and software platforms will remain unchanging, and one way to manage changing standards is to have a courseware structure that permits variety. This allows different parts of a collection of materials to evolve at different speeds.
The genome of Rhizobium leguminosarum has recognizable core and accessory components
J Peter W Young, Lisa C Crossman, Andrew WB Johnston, Nicholas R Thomson, Zara F Ghazoui, Katherine H Hull, Margaret Wexler, Andrew RJ Curson, Jonathan D Todd, Philip S Poole, Tim H Mauchline, Alison K East, Michael A Quail, Carol Churcher, Claire Arrowsmith, Inna Cherevach, Tracey Chillingworth, Kay Clarke, Ann Cronin, Paul Davis, Audrey Fraser, Zahra Hance, Heidi Hauser, Kay Jagels, Sharon Moule, Karen Mungall, Halina Norbertczak, Ester Rabbinowitsch, Mandy Sanders, Mark Simmonds, Sally Whitehead, Julian Parkhill
Genome Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2006-7-4-r34
Abstract: The 7.75 Mb genome comprises a circular chromosome and six circular plasmids, with 61% G+C overall. All three rRNA operons and 52 tRNA genes are on the chromosome; essential protein-encoding genes are largely chromosomal, but most functional classes occur on plasmids as well. Of the 7,263 protein-encoding genes, 2,056 had orthologs in each of three related genomes (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Mesorhizobium loti), and these genes were over-represented in the chromosome and had above average G+C. Most supported the rRNA-based phylogeny, confirming A. tumefaciens to be the closest among these relatives, but 347 genes were incompatible with this phylogeny; these were scattered throughout the genome but were over-represented on the plasmids. An unexpectedly large number of genes were shared by all three rhizobia but were missing from A. tumefaciens.Overall, the genome can be considered to have two main components: a 'core', which is higher in G+C, is mostly chromosomal, is shared with related organisms, and has a consistent phylogeny; and an 'accessory' component, which is sporadic in distribution, lower in G+C, and located on the plasmids and chromosomal islands. The accessory genome has a different nucleotide composition from the core despite a long history of coexistence.The symbiosis between legumes and N2-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) is of huge agronomic benefit, allowing many crops to be grown without N fertilizer. It is a sophisticated example of coupled development between bacteria and higher plants, culminating in the organogenesis of root nodules [1]. There have been many genetic analyses of rhizobia, notably of Sinorhizobium meliloti (the symbiont of alfalfa), Bradyrhizobium japonicum (soybean), and Rhizobium leguminosarum, which has biovars that nodulate peas and broad beans (biovar viciae), clovers (biovar trifolii), or kidney beans (biovar phaseoli).The Rhizobiales, an α-proteobacterial order that also includes mammalian pathogens B
Primary CNS T-Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report on a Solitary Cerebellar Lesion and Review of Current Relevant Literature  [PDF]
Aden McLaughlin, Sharon Gabizon
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2013.32004

Primary central nervous system lymphoma of T-cell lineage (PCNSTL) is an extremely rare entity, with relatively few cases reported in the literature. Presented here is a case of a 44-year-old, HIV negative woman found to have a solitary cerebellar lesion following presentation to the Emergency Department with a fall. The lesion responded to emergent dexamethasone and was followed with serial MRI imaging, which continued to show lesion regression. The lesion was shown to have recurred on MRI 14 months post-presentation and found to be T-cell lymphoma following immunophenotyping and TCR gene rearrangement studies of tissue specimen obtained via excisional biopsy.

Rural nurses’ perceptions of a volunteer program in an acute setting: Volunteers delivering person-centred care for patients with dementia and delirium  [PDF]
Kaye Ervin, Sharon Moore
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.41005

Community volunteers were recruited and trained to deliver person-centred care to patients with dementia or delirium in an acute hospital setting, in a small rural Australian hospital. The volunteer program was grounded in action research methodology, and modelled on a previous research project. As a form of evaluation, interviews were conducted with nursing staff eight weeks after implementation of the volunteer program to explore their opinions. Data were analysed through a collaborative process and findings revealed strong benefits from the perspectives of the nursing staff. These benefits included overall improved patient care and improved time management for nursing tasks.

Farming Not Alone: Farmville Play and the Implications on Social Capital  [PDF]
Shaojung Sharon Wang
Social Networking (SN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2014.35028
Abstract: This study explored the relationship between Farmville play and social capital. The implications of social game play for players’ psychological wellness were also assessed. Using survey data collected from Farmville players in Taiwan, it was found that the intensity of Farmville play was positively associated with players’ perceived bridging and bonding social capital. The extent to which intensive Farmville play may lead to the psychological benefits of enhanced life satisfaction and reduced loneliness was discussed. In addition, players who tended to add unacquaintances were more likely to perform better than those who added people they knew. However, connecting with existing contacts through the game provides higher sense of bonding social capital. Implications on the concept of weak and strong ties were also discussed.
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