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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402875 matches for " Sharon M. Moe "
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Worsening Endothelial Function with Efavirenz Compared to Protease Inhibitors: A 12-Month Prospective Study
Samir K. Gupta, Changyu Shen, Sharon M. Moe, Lisa M. Kamendulis, Mitchell Goldman, Michael P. Dubé
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045716
Abstract: Objective Changes in endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, has not been systematically assessed beyond 6 months of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) when drug-related effects might offset initial improvements with virologic control. Design We assessed 6 and 12 month changes in FMD [presented as median (quartile 1, quartile 3)] and circulating HIV and cardiovascular biomarkers in 23 subjects initiating ART. Results There were no significant changes in FMD at 6 or 12 months overall despite significant increases in CD4 cell count and HDL-C and reductions in HIV RNA level, MCP-1, IP-10, sVCAM-1, sTNFR2, and sCD14. However, there were significant differences (P = 0.04) in the changes in FMD between those receiving efavirenz [N = 12; ?3.50% (?4.90%, 0.68%)] vs. protease inhibitors at 12 months [N = 11; 1.50% (?0.86%, 4.56%)]. The differences in changes in FMD between those receiving and not receiving emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz were more pronounced and were significantly different at both 6 and 12 months (P<0.02 for both). Additional studies showed no significant differences in changes in 25-(OH)-vitamin D, PTH, FGF-23, of F2-isoprostane levels between efavirenz and PI use or between those receiving and not receiving emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz. Conclusion Efavirenz use was associated with reduced FMD at 12 months compared to PI-based regimens while emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was associated with reduced FMD at both 6 and 12 months compared to those not receiving this combination. Long-term effects of antiretrovirals on endothelial function may play an important role in the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients.
Cortical Bone Mechanical Properties Are Altered in an Animal Model of Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease
Christopher L. Newman, Sharon M. Moe, Neal X. Chen, Max A. Hammond, Joseph M. Wallace, Jeffry S. Nyman, Matthew R. Allen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099262
Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which leads tocortical bone loss and increasedporosity,increases therisk of fracture. Animal models have confirmed that these changes compromise whole bone mechanical properties. Estimates from whole bone testing suggest that material properties are negatively affected, though tissue-level assessmentshavenot been conducted. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine changes in cortical bone at different length scales using a rat model with theprogressive development of CKD. At 30 weeks of age (~75% reduction in kidney function), skeletally mature male Cy/+ rats were compared to their normal littermates. Cortical bone material propertieswere assessed with reference point indentation (RPI), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy,and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bones from animals with CKD had higher (+18%) indentation distance increase and first cycle energy dissipation (+8%) as measured by RPI.AFM indentation revealed a broader distribution of elastic modulus values in CKD animals witha greater proportion of both higher and lower modulus values compared to normal controls. Yet, tissue composition, collagen morphology, and collagen cross-linking fail to account for these differences. Though the specific skeletal tissue alterations responsible for these mechanical differences remain unclear, these results indicate that cortical bone material properties are altered in these animals and may contribute to the increased fracture risk associated with CKD.
Decreased MicroRNA Is Involved in the Vascular Remodeling Abnormalities in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
Neal X. Chen, Kraiwiporn Kiattisunthorn, Kalisha D. O'Neill, Xianming Chen, Ranjani N. Moorthi, Vincent H. Gattone, Matthew R. Allen, Sharon M. Moe
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064558
Abstract: Patients with CKD have abnormal vascular remodeling that is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control mRNA expression intracellularly and are secreted into the circulation; three miRNAs (miR-125b, miR-145 and miR-155) are known to alter vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and differentiation. We measured these vascular miRNAs in blood from 90 patients with CKD and found decreased circulating levels with progressive loss of eGFR by multivariate analyses. Expression of these vascular miRNAs miR-125b, miR-145, and miR-155 was decreased in the thoracic aorta in CKD rats compared to normal rats, with concordant changes in target genes of RUNX2, angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and myocardin. Furthermore, the expression of miR-155 was negatively correlated with the quantity of calcification in the aorta, a process known to be preceded by vascular de-differentiation in these animals. We then examined the mechanisms of miRNA regulation in primary VSMC and found decreased expression of miR-125b, 145, and 155 in VSMC from rats with CKD compared to normal littermates but no alteration in DROSHA or DICER, indicating that the low levels of expression is not due to altered intracellular processing. Finally, overexpression of miR-155 in VSMC from CKD rats inhibited AT1R expression and decreased cellular proliferation supporting a direct effect of miR-155 on VSMC. In conclusion, we have found ex vivo and in vitro evidence for decreased expression of these vascular miRNA in CKD, suggesting that alterations in miRNAs may lead to the synthetic state of VSMC found in CKD. The decreased levels in the circulation may reflect decreased vascular release but more studies are needed to confirm this relationship.
The Characteristics and the Present Situations of Japanese Couples in Child-Rearing Period  [PDF]
Moe Onojima
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.610126
Abstract: This study aims to find the characteristics of Japanese couples in child-rearing period through surveying Japanese studies of the couples and to discuss the present situation and the future of them in Japan in terms of psychological viewpoint. 115 studies which are found from the Japanese database of CiNii and Ichu-shi are classified into 4 main themes: 1) the role, 2) husband’s support, 3) marital relationship, and 4) child-rearing stress and child-rearing anxiety. Results show 1) wife mainly carries parental role and though husband wants to participate in child-rearing, he can’t because of working time, 2) mental support from husband and couple’s communication reduce child-rearing stress, 3) wife’s satisfaction with marital relationship dramatically decreases in child-rearing period, and 4) how to feel child-rearing stress depends on working styles. The facts that wife’s satisfaction of marital relationship dramatically decreases in the child-rearing period and that wife mainly carries child-rearing work are common characteristics of the child-rearing period. On the other hands, little time of husband’s participation in child-rearing is remarkable characteristic of Japan. From this characteristic, the problem that Japanese social support for couples in child-rearing period isn’t enough can be pointed out. In Japanese current situation, couples need to have time to communicate and to share the idea of child-rearing to maintain good marital relationship in child-rearing period.
Individual and Combined Effects of Nucleotides and Human Milk Oligosaccharides on Proliferation, Apoptosis and Necrosis in a Human Fetal Intestinal Cell Line  [PDF]
Shelly N. Hester, Sharon M. Donovan
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.311205
Abstract: Nucleotides (NT) and human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) individually affect epithelial cell growth, but their combined effects had not been studied. Herein, the impact of NT and HMO on cell proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis and cell cycle in the fetal epithelial cell line (FHs-74 Int) was determined. Cells were incubated with media containing 2.5% FBS and no epidermal growth factor (Control); fucosyllactose (FL) mix [85% 2’FL/15% 3’FL], sialyllactose (SL) mix [40% 6’SL/10% 3’SL/50% sialic acid (SA)] or LNnT at 125, 250, 500 or 1000 μg/mL with and without 250 μg/mL NT (43% CMP, 18.5% UMP, 16.4% AMP, and 22.0% GMP) for 24 or 72 h. NT alone significantly increased proliferation, but did not affect cell cycle or apoptosis/necrosis. All HMO treatments at 1000 μg/mL significantly decreased proliferation and some were also inhibitory at 250 or 500 μg/mL. When NT and HMO were simultaneously added, NT ameliorated the anti-proliferative effect of HMO. FL significantly increased cells in S phase and SL and LNnT treatments significantly increased cells in G2/M and S phases, which concomitantly decreased cells in G0/G1. HMO with NT significantly decreased the percent of cells in the G2/M phase compared to HMO alone. Higher HMO doses significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells compared to control. In conclusion, HMO reduced cell proliferation and this effect is partially ameliorated by NT. It appears that HMO initially induced apoptosis/necrosis, which was later evidenced by G2/M cell cycle arrest and decreased proliferation.
An Antibody to De-N-Acetyl Sialic Acid Containing-Polysialic Acid Identifies an Intracellular Antigen and Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cell Lines
Lindsay M. Steirer, Gregory R. Moe
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027249
Abstract: Polysialic acid (PSA), an α2,8-linked homopolymer of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), is developmentally regulated and its expression is thought to be restricted to a few tissues in adults. Recently, we showed that two human pathogens expressed a derivative of PSA containing de-N-acetyl sialic acid residues (NeuPSA). Here we show that an epitope identified by the anti-NeuPSA monoclonal antibody, SEAM 3 (SEAM 3-reactive antigen or S3RA), is expressed in human melanomas, and also intracellularly in a human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28), a human T cell leukemia cell line (Jurkat), and two neuroblastoma cell lines (CHP-134 and SH-SY5Y). SEAM 3 binding induced apoptosis in the four cell lines tested. The unusual intracellular distribution of S3RA was similar to that described for the PSA polysialyltransferases, STX and PST, which are also expressed in the four cell lines used here. Interestingly, suppression of PST mRNA expression by transfection of SK-MEL-28 cells with PST-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in decreased SEAM 3 binding. The results suggest further studies of the utility of antibodies such as SEAM 3 as therapeutic agents for certain malignancies.
Simple Correlations between Rock Abrasion and Other Significant Rock Properties for Rock Mass and Intact Quartzite  [PDF]
Scott Ureel, Moe Momayez
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2017.72012
Abstract: Rock abrasion plays a significant role in geotechnical design, tunneling operations and the safety of foundations from scour. It is imperative to determine such properties of uniaxial compression strength (UCS), rock quality designation (RQD) and hardness for rock engineering to help determine the amount of scour at foundation locations in order to prevent structural collapse, wear on drilling tools and help predict unstable rock conditions. Current practice for estimating maximum rock abrasion is based on the Los Angeles abrasion test; however, more research is needed to provide a more accurate and compatible method for all subsurface materials used in mining and civil engineering projects. This report will provide simple correlations relating abrasion resistance to RQD, UCS, Geological Strength Index (GSI) and Rock Mass Rating (RMR) and shear strength of metamorphic rock (Quartzite). Methods, results, recommendations and conclusions are presented. The paper also introduces recommendations for future rock abrasion techniques and discusses the use of these correlations exhibiting strong relationships between the mentioned rock properties.
A new extended release formulation (OROS ) of hydromorphone in the management of pain
Sharon M Weinstein
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S1124
Abstract: new extended release formulation (OROS ) of hydromorphone in the management of pain Review (4779) Total Article Views Authors: Sharon M Weinstein Published Date December 2008 Volume 2009:5 Pages 75 - 80 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S1124 Sharon M Weinstein University of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Abstract: Opioid analgesics are essential in the treatment of moderate to severe cancer-related pain. Opioids are also recognized as important in the management of other severe, persistent refractory painful conditions, such as sickle cell disease and arthritis. In the clinical practice of pain management, stable opioid dosing generally depends on achieving maximal analgesia with tolerable side effects typical of opioid analgesics. There is a wide interindividual variability of responsiveness to exogenous opioids both in terms of analgesic efficacy and side effects. Optimizing pain management for the individual patient may require sequential trials of opioid medications until the regimen with the most favorable therapeutic ratio of efficacy to side effects is determined.
REVIEW: Whose Security Counts? Participatory Research on Armed Violence and Human Security in Southeast Asia (Chutimas Suksai, Raymond Narag, Daraaceh and Keng Menglang)
Sharon M. Quinsaat
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2004,
Abstract: Review of Whose Security Counts? Participatory Research on Armed Violence and Human Security in Southeast Asia by Chutimas Suksai, Raymond Narag, Daraaceh and Keng Menglang.
A new extended release formulation (OROS®) of hydromorphone in the management of pain
Sharon M Weinstein
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2008,
Abstract: Sharon M WeinsteinUniversity of Utah, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah, USAAbstract: Opioid analgesics are essential in the treatment of moderate to severe cancer-related pain. Opioids are also recognized as important in the management of other severe, persistent refractory painful conditions, such as sickle cell disease and arthritis. In the clinical practice of pain management, stable opioid dosing generally depends on achieving maximal analgesia with tolerable side effects typical of opioid analgesics. There is a wide interindividual variability of responsiveness to exogenous opioids both in terms of analgesic efficacy and side effects. Optimizing pain management for the individual patient may require sequential trials of opioid medications until the regimen with the most favorable therapeutic ratio of efficacy to side effects is determined.Keywords: analgesics, opioid, hydromorphone, OROS , extended-release
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