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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1807 matches for " Sharon Cresci "
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PPAR Genomics and Pharmacogenomics: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease
Sharon Cresci
PPAR Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/374549
Abstract: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) consist of three related transcription factors that serve to regulate a number of cellular processes that are central to cardiovascular health and disease. Numerous pharmacologic studies have assessed the effects of specific PPAR agonists in clinical trials and have provided insight into the clinical effects of these genes while genetic studies have demonstrated clinical associations between PPAR polymorphisms and abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes. With the abundance of data available from these studies as a background, PPAR pharmacogenetics has become a promising and rapidly advancing field. This review focuses on summarizing the current state of understanding of PPAR genetics and pharmacogenetics and the important implications for the individualization of therapy for patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Factors influencing patient willingness to participate in genetic research after a myocardial infarction
David E Lanfear, Philip G Jones, Sharon Cresci, Fengming Tang, Saif S Rathore, John A Spertus
Genome Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/gm255
Abstract: We assessed correlates of participation in the genetic sub-study of TRIUMPH, a prospective MI registry (n = 4,340) from 24 US hospitals between April 2005 and December 2008. Factors examined included extensive socio-demographics factors, clinical variables, and study site. Predictors of consent were identified using hierarchical modified Poisson regression, adjusting for study site. Variation in consent rates across hospitals were quantified by the median rate ratio (MRR).Most subjects consented to donation of their genetic material (n = 3,484; 80%). Participation rates varied greatly between sites, from 40% to 100%. After adjustment for confounding factors, the MRR for hospital was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 1.29). The only patient-level factors associated with consent were race (RR 0.93 for African Americans versus whites, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99) and body mass index (RR 1.03 for BMI ≥ 25, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06).Among patients with an MI there were notable differences in genetic consent by study site, but little association with patient-level factors. This suggests that variation in the way information is presented during recruitment, or other site factors, strongly influence patients' decision to participate in genetic studies.As genetic research becomes more common and genetic factors are studied as a means for improving risk stratification and treatment, it is essential that participating subjects are representative of the general population of patients from which they are recruited. However, genetic research often attains lower participation rates compared with non-genetic studies [1]. Failure to recruit eligible subjects may also introduce selection biases into genetic studies, potentially jeopardizing both internal and external validity. Existing studies addressing this issue have revealed participation rates for genetic studies ranging from 21% to 99% [2-5]. This variability depends on many factors, including the disease under study [6], circumsta
Epithelial Neutrophil-Activating Peptide (ENA-78), Acute Coronary Syndrome Prognosis, and Modulatory Effect of Statins
Issam Zineh, Amber L. Beitelshees, Gregory J. Welder, Wei Hou, Nasser Chegini, Jun Wu, Sharon Cresci, Michael A. Province, John A. Spertus
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003117
Abstract: Endothelial inflammation with chemokine involvement contributes to acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We tested the hypothesis that variation in the chemokine gene CXCL5, which encodes epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide (ENA-78), is associated with ACS prognosis. We also investigated whether statin use, a potent modulator of inflammation, modifies CXCL5's association with outcomes and characterized the in vitro effect of atorvastatin on endothelial ENA-78 production. Using a prospective cohort of ACS patients (n = 704) the association of the CXCL5 ?156 G>C polymorphism (rs352046) with 3-year all-cause mortality was estimated with hazard ratios (HR). Models were stratified by genotype and race. To characterize the influence of statins on this association, a statin*genotype interaction was tested. To validate ENA-78 as a statin target in inflammation typical of ACS, endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with IL-1β and atorvastatin with subsequent quantification of CXCL5 expression and ENA-78 protein concentrations. C/C genotype was associated with a 2.7-fold increase in 3-year all-cause mortality compared to G/G+G/C (95%CI 1.19–5.87; p = 0.017). Statins significantly reduced mortality in G/G individuals only (58% relative risk reduction; p = 0.0009). In HUVECs, atorvastatin dose-dependently decreased IL-1β-stimulated ENA-78 concentrations (p<0.0001). Drug effects persisted over 48 hours (p<0.01). CXCL5 genotype is associated with outcomes after ACS with potential statin modification of this effect. Atorvastatin lowered endothelial ENA-78 production during inflammation typical of ACS. These findings implicate CXCL5/ENA-78 in ACS and the statin response.
A PPARα Promoter Variant Impairs ERR-Dependent Transactivation and Decreases Mortality after Acute Coronary Ischemia in Patients with Diabetes
Sharon Cresci,Janice M. Huss,Amber L. Beitelshees,Philip G. Jones,Matt R. Minton,Gerald W. Dorn II,Daniel P. Kelly,John A. Spertus,Howard L. McLeod
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012584
Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) occurs in animal models of diabetes (DM) and is implicated in pathological responses to myocardial ischemia. Using bioinformatics, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PPARα gene promoter (PPARA ?54,642 G>A; rs135561) that altered the consensus sequence for a nuclear receptor binding site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the domain bound two known PPARA transcriptional activators, estrogen-related receptor (ERR)-α and -γ and that PPARA G bound with greater affinity than PPARA A (>2-fold; P<0.05). Likewise, promoter-reporter analyses showed enhanced transcriptional activity for PPARA G vs. PPARA A for both ERR-α and -γ (3.1 vs.1.9-fold; P<0.05). Since PPARα activation impairs post-ischemic cardiac function in experimental models of DM, we tested whether decreased PPARA transcription in PPARA A carriers favorably impacted outcome after acute coronary ischemia in 705 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS; 552 Caucasian, 106 African American). PPARA A allele frequencies were similar to non-diseased subjects. However, PPARA genotype correlated with 5-year mortality in diabetic (22.2% AA vs. 18.8% AG vs. 39.5% GG; P = 0.008), but not non-diabetic (P = 0.96) subjects (genotype by diabetes interaction P = 0.008). In the diabetic ACS subjects, PPARA A carriers had strikingly reduced all-cause mortality compared to PPARA G homozygotes, (unadjusted HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26–0.75; P = 0.003; adjusted HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.27–0.83; P = 0.009). Consistent with previous descriptions of PPARα in experimental models and human disease, we describe a novel PPARA promoter SNP that decreases transcriptional activation of PPARA and protects against mortality in diabetic patients after ACS.
Galaxy metallicity near and far
F. Mannucci,G. Cresci
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Metallicity appears to be one the most important tool to study formation and evolution of galaxies. Recently, we have shown that metallicity of local galaxies is tightly related not only to stellar mass, but also to star formation rate (SFR). At low stellar mass, metallicity decreases sharply with increasing SFR, while at high stellar mass, metallicity does not depend on SFR. The residual metallicity dispersion across this Fundamental Metallicity Relation (FMR) is very small, about 0.05dex. High redshift galaxies, up to z~2.5, are found to follow the same FMR defined by local SDSS galaxies, with no indication of evolution. At z>2.5, evolution of about 0.6dex off the FMR is observed, with high-redshift galaxies showing lower metallicities. This result can be combined with our recent discover of metallicity gradients in three high redshift galaxies showing disk dynamics. In these galaxies, the regions with higher SFR also show lower metallicities. Both these evidences can be explained by the effect of smooth infall of gas into previously enriched galaxies, with the star-formation activity triggered by the infalling gas.
Aromatase Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Survival among Patients with Cardiovascular Disease in a Sex-Specific Manner
Amber L. Beitelshees,Julie A. Johnson,Megan L. Hames,Yan Gong,Rhonda M. Cooper-DeHoff,Jun Wu,Sharon Cresci,Cynthia X. Ma,Carl J. Pepine,Michael A. Province,John A. Spertus,Howard L. McLeod
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015180
Abstract: CYP19A1 encodes aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, and may play a role in variation in outcomes among men and women with cardiovascular disease. We sought to examine genetic variation in CYP19A1 for its potential role in sex differences in cardiovascular disease outcomes.
Primary CNS T-Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report on a Solitary Cerebellar Lesion and Review of Current Relevant Literature  [PDF]
Aden McLaughlin, Sharon Gabizon
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2013.32004

Primary central nervous system lymphoma of T-cell lineage (PCNSTL) is an extremely rare entity, with relatively few cases reported in the literature. Presented here is a case of a 44-year-old, HIV negative woman found to have a solitary cerebellar lesion following presentation to the Emergency Department with a fall. The lesion responded to emergent dexamethasone and was followed with serial MRI imaging, which continued to show lesion regression. The lesion was shown to have recurred on MRI 14 months post-presentation and found to be T-cell lymphoma following immunophenotyping and TCR gene rearrangement studies of tissue specimen obtained via excisional biopsy.

Rural nurses’ perceptions of a volunteer program in an acute setting: Volunteers delivering person-centred care for patients with dementia and delirium  [PDF]
Kaye Ervin, Sharon Moore
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.41005

Community volunteers were recruited and trained to deliver person-centred care to patients with dementia or delirium in an acute hospital setting, in a small rural Australian hospital. The volunteer program was grounded in action research methodology, and modelled on a previous research project. As a form of evaluation, interviews were conducted with nursing staff eight weeks after implementation of the volunteer program to explore their opinions. Data were analysed through a collaborative process and findings revealed strong benefits from the perspectives of the nursing staff. These benefits included overall improved patient care and improved time management for nursing tasks.

Farming Not Alone: Farmville Play and the Implications on Social Capital  [PDF]
Shaojung Sharon Wang
Social Networking (SN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sn.2014.35028
Abstract: This study explored the relationship between Farmville play and social capital. The implications of social game play for players’ psychological wellness were also assessed. Using survey data collected from Farmville players in Taiwan, it was found that the intensity of Farmville play was positively associated with players’ perceived bridging and bonding social capital. The extent to which intensive Farmville play may lead to the psychological benefits of enhanced life satisfaction and reduced loneliness was discussed. In addition, players who tended to add unacquaintances were more likely to perform better than those who added people they knew. However, connecting with existing contacts through the game provides higher sense of bonding social capital. Implications on the concept of weak and strong ties were also discussed.
Coupled IEEE 802.11ac and TCP Goodput Improvement Using Aggregation and Reverse Direction  [PDF]
Oran Sharon, Yaron Alpert
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2016.87011
Abstract: This paper suggests a new model for the transmission of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) traffic over IEEE 802.11 using the new features of IEEE 802.11ac. The paper examines the first step in this direction and as such we first consider a single TCP connection, which is typical in a home environment. We show that when the IEEE 802.11ac MAC is aware of QoS TCP traffic, using Reverse Direction improves the TCP Goodput in tens of percentages compared to the traditional contention based channel access. In an error-free channel this improvement is 20% while in an error-prone channel the improvement reaches 60% also using blind retransmission of frames. In our operation modes we also assume the use in Two-Level aggregation scheme, the Automatic Repeat-Request (ARQ) protocol of the IEEE 802.11ac MAC layer, the data rates and the four Access Categories defined in this standard.
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