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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 432409 matches for " Shao S Zhang "
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Manipulating Biopolymer Dynamics by Anisotropic Nanoconfinement
Shao-Qing Zhang,Margaret S. Cheung
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1021/nl071948v
Abstract: How the geometry of nano-sized confinement affects dynamics of biomaterials is interesting yet poorly understood. An elucidation of structural details upon nano-sized confinement may benefit manufacturing pharmaceuticals in biomaterial sciences and medicine. The behavior of biopolymers in nano-sized confinement is investigated using coarse-grained models and molecular simulations. Particularly, we address the effects of shapes of a confinement on protein folding dynamics by measuring folding rates and dissecting structural properties of the transition states in nano-sized spheres and ellipsoids. We find that when the form of a confinement resembles the geometrical properties of the transition states, the rates of folding kinetics are most enhanced. This knowledge of shape selectivity in identifying optimal conditions for reactions will have a broad impact in nanotechnology and pharmaceutical sciences.
Image Mathematics—Mathematical Intervening Principle Based on “Yin Yang Wu Xing” Theory in Traditional Chinese Mathematics (I)  [PDF]
Yingshan Zhang, Weilan Shao
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.36096
Abstract: By using mathematical reasoning, this paper demonstrates the mathematical intervening principle: “Virtual disease is to fill his mother but real disease is to rush down his son” (虚则补其母, 实则泄其子) and “Strong inhibition of the same time, support the weak” (抑强扶弱) based on “Yin Yang Wu Xing” Theory in image mathematics of Traditional Chinese Mathematics (TCMath). We defined generalized relations and generalized reasoning, introduced the concept of steady multilateral systems with two non-compatibility relations, and discussed its energy properties. Later based on the intervention principle in image mathematics of TCMath and treated the research object of the image mathematics as a steady multilateral system, it has been proved that the mathematical intervening principle is true. The kernel of this paper is the existence and reasoning of the non-compatibility relations in steady multilateral systems, and it accords with the oriental thinking model.
Novel Soil Strength Criterion Compared with Conventional Criteria  [PDF]
Shuai Shao, Shengjun Shao, Yu Zhang, Changlu Chen
Geomaterials (GM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2017.71003
Abstract: A novel soil strength criterion is proposed based on the shear stress ratio on a new spatially mobilized plane, where the cube root of principal stresses is constant. The strength failure surface depicted in the principal stress space by this criterion was smoothly conical, with a curved triangle shape on the octahedral plane. A comparative analysis of the strength failure surfaces of the Mohr-Coulomb (M-C), the Drucker-Prager (D-P), the Matsuoka-Nakai (M-N), the Lade-Duncan (L-D), the new criteria, and the shear strength laws of different criteria with parameter b on the π plane showed that the L-D criterion and the new spatially mobilized plane strength criterion were comparable, which revealed the physical essence of the L-D criterion. Comparing the new strength criterion with the measured results of true triaxial tests of 4 kinds of intact loess under conditions of consolidation and drain, the strength law of loess could be described by the new strength criterion under complex stress conditions, and the rationality and reliability of the strength criterion were verified by the correspondence between the criterion and experimental values.
Source apportionment of fine organic aerosols in Beijing
Q. Wang, M. Shao, Y. Zhang, Y. Wei, M. Hu,S. Guo
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: Fine particles (PM2.5, i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm) were collected from the air in August 2005, August–September 2006, and January–February 2007, in Beijing, China. The chemical compositions of particulate organic matter in the ambient samples were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dominant compounds identified in summertime were n-alkanoic acids, followed by dicarboxylic acids and sugars, while sugars became the most abundant species in winter, followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, and n-alkanoic acids. The contributions of seven emission sources (i.e., gasoline/diesel vehicles, coal burning, wood/straw burning, cooking, and vegetative detritus) to particulate organic matter in PM2.5 were estimated using a chemical mass balance receptor model. The model results present the seasonal trends of source contributions to organic aerosols. Biomass burning (straw and wood) had the highest contribution in winter, followed by coal burning, vehicle exhaust, and cooking. The contribution of cooking was the highest in summer, followed by vehicle exhaust and biomass burning, while coal smoke showed only a minor contribution to ambient organic carbon.
Individual particle analysis of aerosols collected under haze and non-haze conditions at a high-elevation mountain site in the North China plain
W. J. Li,D. Z. Zhang,L. Y. Shao,S. Z. Zhou
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-11733-2011
Abstract: The North China plain is a region with megacities and huge populations. Aerosols over the highly polluted area have a significant impact on the regional and global climate. In order to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosol particles in elevated layers there, observations were carried out at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m a.s.l.) from 19 to 28 April, 2010, when the air masses were advected from the east (phase-I: 19–21 April), from the south (phase-II: 22–25 April), and from the northwest (phase-III: 26–28 April). Individual aerosol particles were identified with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), new particle formation (NPF) and growth events were monitored by a wide-range particle spectrometer, and ion concentrations in PM2.5 were analyzed. During phase-I and phase-II, haze layers caused by anthropogenic pollution were observed, and a high percentage of particles were sulfur-rich (47–49%). In phase-III, the haze disappeared due to the intrusion of cold air from the northwest, and mineral dust particles from deserts were dominant (43%). NPF followed by particle growth during daytime was more pronounced on hazy than on clear days. Particle growth during daytime resulted in an increase of particle geometric mean diameter from 10–22 nm in the morning to 56–96 nm in the evening. TEM analysis suggests that sulfuric acid and secondary organic compounds should be important factors for particle nucleation and growth. However, the presence of fine anthropogenic particles (e.g., soot, metal, and fly ash) embedded within S-rich particles indicates that they could weaken NPF and enhance particle growth through condensation and coagulation. Abundant mineral particles in phase-III likely suppressed the NPF processes because they supplied sufficient area on which acidic gases or acids condensed.
Comparison of ESWL and Ureteroscopic Holmium Laser lithotripsy in Management of Ureteral Stones
Yon Cui, Wenzhou Cao, Hua Shen, Jianjun Xie, Tamara S. Adams, Yuanyuan Zhang, Qiang Shao
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087634
Abstract: Background There are many options for urologists to treat ureteral stones that range from 8 mm to 15 mm, including ESWL and ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy. While both ESWL and ureteroscopy are effective and minimally invasive procedures, there is still controversy over which one is more suitable for ureteral stones. Objective To perform a retrospective study to compare the efficiency, safety and complications using ESWL vs. ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy in management of ureteral stones. Methods Between October 2010 and October 2012, 160 patients who underwent ESWL or ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy at Suzhou municipal hospital for a single radiopaque ureteral stone (the size 8–15 mm) were evaluated. All patients were followed up with ultrasonography for six months. Stone clearance rate, costs and complications were compared. Results Similarity in stone clearance rate and treatment time between the two procedures; overall procedural time, analgesia requirement and total cost were significantly different. Renal colic and gross hematuria were more frequent with ESWL while voiding symptoms were more frequent with ureteroscopy. Both procedures used for ureteral stones ranging from 8 to 15 mm were safe and minimally invasive. Conclusion ESWL remains first line therapy for proximal ureteral stones while ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy costs more. To determining which one is preferable depends on not only stone characteristics but also patient acceptance and cost-effectiveness ratio.
Negative differential resistance: another banana?
J. Li,H. -F. Zhang,G. -Q. Shao,B. -L. Wu,S. -X. Ouyang
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/108/27005
Abstract: Just like the artefact found in ferroelectric hysteresis loops, the nearly identical NDR effect shown in Sr3Co2Fe24O41, TiO2, Al2O3, glass and even banana skins is confirmed to be a kind of water behavior. The combination of water induced tunneling effect, water decomposition and absorption plays a crucial role in the NDR effect. The results and mechanism demonstrated here illustrate that much attention should be paid to the chemical environment when studying electrical properties of materials / devices.
Partial Network Alignment with Anchor Meta Path and Truncated Generic Stable Matching
Jiawei Zhang,Weixiang Shao,Senzhang Wang,Xiangnan Kong,Philip S. Yu
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: To enjoy more social network services, users nowadays are usually involved in multiple online social networks simultaneously. The shared users between different networks are called anchor users, while the remaining unshared users are named as non-anchor users. Connections between accounts of anchor users in different networks are defined as anchor links and networks partially aligned by anchor links can be represented as partially aligned networks. In this paper, we want to predict anchor links between partially aligned social networks, which is formally defined as the partial network alignment problem. The partial network alignment problem is very difficult to solve because of the following two challenges: (1) the lack of general features for anchor links, and (2) the "one-to-one$_\le$" (one to at most one) constraint on anchor links. To address these two challenges, a new method PNA (Partial Network Aligner) is proposed in this paper. PNA (1) extracts a set of explicit anchor adjacency features and latent topological features for anchor links based on the anchor meta path concept and tensor decomposition techniques, and (2) utilizes the generic stable matching to identify the non-anchor users to prune the redundant anchor links attached to them. Extensive experiments conducted on two real-world partially aligned social networks demonstrate that PNA can solve the partial network alignment problem very well and outperform all the other comparison methods with significant advantages.
Concentration Wave for a Class of Reaction Chromatography System with Pulse Injections  [PDF]
Jing Zhang, Maofei Shao, Tao Pan
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2016.63023
Abstract: By using fluid dynamics theory with the effects of adsorption and reaction, the chromatography model with a reaction AB was established as a system of two hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDE’s). In some practical situations, the reaction chromatography model was simplified a semi-coupled system of two linear hyperbolic PDE’s. In which, the reactant concentration wave model was the initial-boundary value problem of a self-closed hyperbolic PDE, while the resultant concentration wave model was the initial-boundary value problem of hyperbolic PDE coupling reactant concentration. The general explicit expressions for the concentration wave of the reactants and resultants were derived by Laplace transform. The δ-pulse and wide pulse injections were taken as the examples to discuss detailedly, and then the stability analysis between the resultant solutions of the two modes of pulse injection was further discussed. It was significant for further analysis of chromatography, optimizing chromatographic separation, determining the physical and chemical characters.
Asymptotic solutions of diffusion models for risk reserves
S. Shao
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171203208231
Abstract: We study a family of diffusion models for risk reserves which account for the investment income earned and for the inflation experienced on claim amounts. After we defined the process of the conditional probability of ruin over finite time and imposed the appropriate boundary conditions, classical results from the theory of diffusion processes turn the stochastic differential equation to a special class of initial and boundary value problems defined by a linear diffusion equation. Armed with asymptotic analysis and perturbation theory, we obtain the asymptotic solutions of the diffusion models (possibly degenerate) governing the conditional probability of ruin over a finite time in terms of interest rate.
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