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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 168572 matches for " Shannon E Majowicz "
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Demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness in Canada: a population study
Shannon E Majowicz, Julie Horrocks, Kathryn Bocking
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-162
Abstract: We used data from two population-based studies conducted in select communities between 2001 and 2003. Together, the studies comprised 8,108 randomly selected respondents; proxies were used for all respondents under 12 years and for respondents under 19 years at the discretion of the parent or guardian. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression, we evaluated the following demographic determinants: age, gender, cultural group, and urban/rural status of the respondent, highest education level of the respondent or proxy, number of people in the household, and total annual household income. Two-way interaction terms were included in the multivariate analyses. The final multivariate model included income, age, gender, and the interaction between income and gender.After adjusting for income, gender, and their interaction, children under 10 years had the highest risk of acute gastrointestinal illness, followed by young adults aged 20 to 24 years. For males, the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was similar across all income levels, but for females the risk was much higher in the lowest income category. Specifically, in those with total annual household incomes of less than $20,000, the odds of acute gastrointestinal illness were 2.46 times higher in females than in males.Understanding the demographic determinants of acute gastrointestinal illness is essential in order to identify vulnerable groups to which intervention and prevention efforts can be targeted.Gastrointestinal illness (GI) remains an important global public health issue [1,2]. In developed countries, although GI tends to be self-limiting and mild, the associated morbidity and economic impact are significant [3-5]. To address this, numerous countries have estimated the incidence and burden of GI in the community via population-based studies [6-12], including two studies conducted recently in Canadian communities [13,14]. These population-based studies collect information on gastrointestinal sym
Exposure assessment in investigations of waterborne illness: a quantitative estimate of measurement error
Jones Andria Q,Dewey Catherine E,Doré Kathryn,Majowicz Shannon E
Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-5573-3-6
Abstract: Background Exposure assessment is typically the greatest weakness of epidemiologic studies of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, which largely stems from the difficulty in obtaining accurate data on individual-level water consumption patterns and activity. Thus, surrogate measures for such waterborne exposures are commonly used. Little attention however, has been directed towards formal validation of these measures. Methods We conducted a study in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada) in 2001–2002, to assess the accuracy of two surrogate measures of home water source: (a) urban/rural status as assigned using residential postal codes, and (b) mapping of residential postal codes to municipal water systems within a Geographic Information System (GIS). We then assessed the accuracy of a commonly-used surrogate measure of an individual's actual drinking water source, namely, their home water source. Results The surrogates for home water source provided good classification of residents served by municipal water systems (approximately 98% predictive value), but did not perform well in classifying those served by private water systems (average: 63.5% predictive value). More importantly, we found that home water source was a poor surrogate measure of the individuals' actual drinking water source(s), being associated with high misclassification errors. Conclusion This study demonstrated substantial misclassification errors associated with a surrogate measure commonly used in studies of drinking water disinfection byproducts. Further, the limited accuracy of two surrogate measures of an individual's home water source heeds caution in their use in exposure classification methodology. While these surrogates are inexpensive and convenient, they should not be substituted for direct collection of accurate data pertaining to the subjects' waterborne disease exposure. In instances where such surrogates must be used, estimation of the misclassification and its subsequent effects are recommended for the interpretation and communication of results. Our results also lend support for further investigation into the quantification of the exposure misclassification associated with these surrogate measures, which would provide useful estimates for consideration in interpretation of waterborne disease studies.
The association between farming activities, precipitation, and the risk of acute gastrointestinal illness in rural municipalities of Quebec, Canada: a cross-sectional study
Yossi Febriani, Patrick Levallois, Suzanne Gingras, Pierre Gosselin, Shannon E Majowicz, Manon D Fleury
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-48
Abstract: A cross-sectional telephone survey of randomly selected residents (n = 7006) of 54 rural municipalities in Quebec, Canada, was conducted between April 2007 and April 2008. AGI symptoms and several risk factors were investigated using a phone questionnaire. We calculated the monthly prevalence of AGI, and used multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for several demographic and risk factors, to evaluate the associations between AGI and both intensive farming activities and cumulative weekly precipitation. Cumulative precipitation over each week, from the first to sixth week prior to the onset of AGI, was analyzed to account for both the delayed effect of precipitation on AGI, and the incubation period of causal pathogens. Cumulative precipitation was treated as a four-category variable: high (≥90th percentile), moderate (50th to <90th percentile), low (10th to <50th percentile), and very low (<10th percentile) precipitation.The overall monthly prevalence of AGI was 5.6% (95% CI 5.0%-6.1%), peaking in winter and spring, and in children 0-4 years old. Living in a territory with intensive farming was negatively associated with AGI: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.70 (95% CI 0.51-0.96). Compared to low precipitation periods, high precipitation periods in the fall (September, October, November) increased the risk of AGI three weeks later (OR = 2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.44) while very low precipitation periods in the summer (June, July, August) increased the risk of AGI four weeks later (OR = 2.19; 95% CI 1.02-4.71). Further analysis supports the role of water source on the risk of AGI.AGI poses a significant burden in Quebec rural municipalities with a peak in winter. Intensive farming activities were found to be negatively associated with AGI. However, high and very low precipitation levels were positively associated with the occurrence of AGI, especially during summer and fall. Thus, preventive public health actions during such climate events may be warranted.Acute gastrointe
Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, Waltner-Toews David, Mathews Eric, Deborah J Carr, Spencer J Henson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-94
Abstract: A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information.Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two media reported most likely to be used.Although respondents rated their water quality highly, the majority had concerns regarding the water from their private supply, and the use of bottled water and water treatment devices was extensive. The results of this study suggest important lines of inquiry and provide support and input for public education programs, particularly those related to private water testing, in this population.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, such as private wells and cisterns, lies with their owners [2]. There are reports, however, that Canadians with private water supplies test their water intermittently, if at all [1,3], and that water treatment within their
Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, David Waltner-Toews, Spencer J Henson, Eric Mathews
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-129
Abstract: In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age.Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed.While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by users of different water systems and age groups may suggest the need for targeted public education strategies. These focus groups provided significant insight into the public perception of private water supplies and the need for public health outreach activities; however, to obtain a more representative understanding of the perceptions in this population, it is important that a larger scale investigation be performed.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. Numerous studies report that Canadian private water supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for microbial and chemical contamination [1-5], and it is estimated that 45 percent of all waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems, largely in rural or
Population distribution and burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada
M Kate Thomas, Shannon E Majowicz, Laura MacDougall, Paul N Sockett, Suzie J Kovacs, Murray Fyfe, Victoria L Edge, Kathryn Doré, James A Flint, Spencer Henson, Andria Q Jones
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-307
Abstract: The magnitude and distribution of acute GI in British Columbia (BC), Canada was evaluated via a cross-sectional telephone survey of 4,612 randomly selected residents, conducted from June 2002 to June 2003. Respondents were asked if they had experienced vomiting or diarrhoea in the 28 days prior to the interview.A response rate of 44.3% was achieved. A monthly prevalence of 9.2% (95%CI 8.4 – 10.0), an incidence rate of 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.4) episodes of acute GI per person-year, and an average probability that an individual developed illness in the year of 71.6% (95% CI 68.0–74.8), weighted by population size were observed. The average duration of illness was 3.7 days, translating into 19.2 million days annually of acute GI in BC.The results corroborate those from previous Canadian and international studies, highlighting the substantial burden of acute GI.Gastrointestinal illness (GI) is a global public health concern. In developed countries, GI is typically mild and self-limiting, but has considerable economic impact due to high morbidity [1-3]. Recent studies on the burden of GI in the general population of a number of countries have been reported [4-12]. To estimate the burden of GI in the Canadian population, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC; formerly Health Canada) developed the National Studies on Acute Gastrointestinal Illness (NSAGI) initiative in 2000. Population-based studies, designed to describe self-reported, acute GI in selected Canadian populations, are part of this initiative. In March 2002, the PHAC completed the first such population study in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada [13]. In order to determine if the burden of GI was the same across the country, a second population study was completed in the province of British Columbia (BC) in June 2003. Additionally, since public health in Canada is primarily a provincial responsibility, this study was conducted to provide information to BC policy makers. The current paper describes the frequen
The Impact of Infection on Population Health: Results of the Ontario Burden of Infectious Diseases Study
Jeffrey C. Kwong, Sujitha Ratnasingham, Michael A. Campitelli, Nick Daneman, Shelley L. Deeks, Douglas G. Manuel, Vanessa G. Allen, Ahmed M. Bayoumi, Aamir Fazil, David N. Fisman, Andrea S. Gershon, Effie Gournis, E. Jenny Heathcote, Frances B. Jamieson, Prabhat Jha, Kamran M. Khan, Shannon E. Majowicz, Tony Mazzulli, Allison J. McGeer, Matthew P. Muller, Abhishek Raut, Elizabeth Rea, Robert S. Remis, Rita Shahin, Alissa J. Wright, Brandon Zagorski, Natasha S. Crowcroft
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044103
Abstract: Background Evidence-based priority setting is increasingly important for rationally distributing scarce health resources and for guiding future health research. We sought to quantify the contribution of a wide range of infectious diseases to the overall infectious disease burden in a high-income setting. Methodology/Principal Findings We used health-adjusted life years (HALYs), a composite measure comprising premature mortality and reduced functioning due to disease, to estimate the burden of 51 infectious diseases and associated syndromes in Ontario using 2005–2007 data. Deaths were estimated from vital statistics data and disease incidence was estimated from reportable disease, healthcare utilization, and cancer registry data, supplemented by local modeling studies and national and international epidemiologic studies. The 51 infectious agents and associated syndromes accounted for 729 lost HALYs, 44.2 deaths, and 58,987 incident cases per 100,000 population annually. The most burdensome infectious agents were: hepatitis C virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Staphylococcus aureus, influenza virus, Clostridium difficile, and rhinovirus. The top five, ten, and 20 pathogens accounted for 46%, 67%, and 75% of the total infectious disease burden, respectively. Marked sex-specific differences in disease burden were observed for some pathogens. The main limitations of this study were the exclusion of certain infectious diseases due to data availability issues, not considering the impact of co-infections and co-morbidity, and the inability to assess the burden of milder infections that do not result in healthcare utilization. Conclusions/Significance Infectious diseases continue to cause a substantial health burden in high-income settings such as Ontario. Most of this burden is attributable to a relatively small number of infectious agents, for which many effective interventions have been previously identified. Therefore, these findings should be used to guide public health policy, planning, and research.
Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey
Andrea Nesbitt, Shannon Majowicz, Rita Finley, Frank Pollari, Katarina Pintar, Barbara Marshall, Angela Cook, Jan Sargeant, Jeff Wilson, Carl Ribble, Lewinda Knowles
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-370
Abstract: A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method.Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal.Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations.Factors that influence food consumption choices among individuals and populations include cultural, social, and economic factors [1]. As food consumption patterns change over time, public health authorities and the food industry need to monitor the dietary intakes of the population [2].In Canada, several sources provide information on food consumption patterns and nutrient intake. Food disappearance data and household food expenditure data have been used to identify national trends in food availability, and illustrate the dynamics of the food supply and consumer demands [3,4]. However, these data have limitations in that they do not measure individual consumption [5-7].Individual dietary habits were first assessed by the Nutrition Canada Survey in 1970, providing valuable data on the intakes of several nutrients and the food consumption patterns of various sub-populations within Canada [8]. Current data on Canadian food consumption is limited to nutritional intake and status [9-11], or to specific subgroups such as adults [1
DNA/RNA Degradation Rate in Long Term Fixed Museum Specimens  [PDF]
Shannon Cook, Chelsea Dodge, Randy Morgan, George E. Sandusky
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2015.31001
Abstract: In today’s research driven society, it has become commonplace for institutions to rely upon DNA and RNA extraction techniques to help obtain genomic data from old specimens. Generally, specimens are preserved for future gross examination and/or teaching. Using histological examination of specimens from museum jars from the Pathology Department at the Indiana University School of Medicine, the sequential and chronological degradation of DNA and RNA has been studied. We examined gross specimens from 1920 to 2000. We evaluated histologic preservation of kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, uterus and brain for nuclear structure in these samples. Nuclear preservation was based on amount of nuclei per microscopic field and the crispness of the nuclear membrane and internal features. The nuclei in high lipid tissues such as the brain were found to degrade at a quicker rate than dense tissues such as the heart and uterus. Our study has shown that specimens preserved beyond fifty years were likely to have little to no nuclei left, thus indicating that there was little to no DNA and RNA remaining. This technique of histologic evaluation is an important finding and a general guideline which may save research institutions from the expensive process of DNA and RNA extraction.
Lower limb biomechanics during running in individuals with achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review
Shannon E Munteanu, Christian J Barton
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-4-15
Abstract: We searched electronic bibliographic databases (Medline, EMBASE, Current contents, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus) in November 2010. All prospective cohort and case-control studies that evaluated biomechanical factors (temporospatial parameters, lower limb kinematics, dynamic plantar pressures, kinetics [ground reaction forces and joint moments] and muscle activity) associated with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy were included. Quality of included studies was evaluated using the Quality Index. The magnitude of differences (effect sizes) between cases and controls was calculated using Cohen's d (with 95% CIs).Nine studies were identified; two were prospective and the remaining seven case-control study designs. The quality of 9 identified studies was varied, with Quality Index scores ranging from 4 to 15 out of 17. All studies analysed running biomechanics. Cases displayed increased eversion range of motion of the rearfoot (d = 0.92 and 0.67 in two studies), reduced maximum lower leg abduction (d = -1.16), reduced ankle joint dorsiflexion velocity (d = -0.62) and reduced knee flexion during gait (d = -0.90). Cases also demonstrated a number of differences in dynamic plantar pressures (primarily the distribution of the centre of force), ground reaction forces (large effects for timing variables) and also showed reduced peak tibial external rotation moment (d = -1.29). Cases also displayed differences in the timing and amplitude of a number of lower limb muscles but many differences were equivocal.There are differences in lower limb biomechanics between those with and without Achilles tendinopathy that may have implications for the prevention and management of the condition. However, the findings need to be interpreted with caution due to the limited quality of a number of the included studies. Future well-designed prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.Achilles tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder that can impair physical function in daily li
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