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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11 matches for " Shalaka Hampras "
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Predictors of Immunosuppressive Regulatory T Lymphocytes in Healthy Women
Shalaka S. Hampras,Mary Nesline,Paul K. Wallace,Kunle Odunsi,Nicholas Furlani,Warren Davis,Kirsten B. Moysich
Journal of Cancer Epidemiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/191090
Abstract: Immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in antitumor immunity, self-tolerance, transplantation tolerance, and attenuation of allergic response. Higher proportion of Treg cells has been observed in peripheral blood of cancer cases compared to controls. Little is known about potential epidemiological predictors of Treg cell levels in healthy individuals. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 75 healthy women, between 20 and 80 years of age, who participated in the Data Bank and BioRepository (DBBR) program at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), Buffalo, NY, USA. Peripheral blood levels of CD4
Inherited Variants in Regulatory T Cell Genes and Outcome of Ovarian Cancer
Ellen L. Goode, Melissa DeRycke, Kimberly R. Kalli, Ann L. Oberg, Julie M. Cunningham, Matthew J. Maurer, Brooke L. Fridley, Sebastian M. Armasu, Daniel J. Serie, Priya Ramar, Krista Goergen, Robert A. Vierkant, David N. Rider, Hugues Sicotte, Chen Wang, Boris Winterhoff, Catherine M. Phelan, Joellen M. Schildkraut, Rachel P. Weber, Ed Iversen, Andrew Berchuck, Rebecca Sutphen, Michael J. Birrer, Shalaka Hampras, Leah Preus, Simon A. Gayther, Susan J. Ramus, Nicolas Wentzensen, Hannah P. Yang, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Honglin Song, Jonathan Tyrer, Paul P. D. Pharoah, Gottfried Konecny, Thomas A. Sellers, Roberta B. Ness, Lara E. Sucheston, Kunle Odunsi, Lynn C. Hartmann, Kirsten B. Moysich, Keith L. Knutson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053903
Abstract: Although ovarian cancer is the most lethal of gynecologic malignancies, wide variation in outcome following conventional therapy continues to exist. The presence of tumor-infiltrating regulatory T cells (Tregs) has a role in outcome of this disease, and a growing body of data supports the existence of inherited prognostic factors. However, the role of inherited variants in genes encoding Treg-related immune molecules has not been fully explored. We analyzed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and sequence-based tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for 54 genes associated with Tregs in 3,662 invasive ovarian cancer cases. With adjustment for known prognostic factors, suggestive results were observed among rarer histological subtypes; poorer survival was associated with minor alleles at SNPs in RGS1 (clear cell, rs10921202, p = 2.7×10?5), LRRC32 and TNFRSF18/TNFRSF4 (mucinous, rs3781699, p = 4.5×10?4, and rs3753348, p = 9.0×10?4, respectively), and CD80 (endometrioid, rs13071247, p = 8.0×10?4). Fo0r the latter, correlative data support a CD80 rs13071247 genotype association with CD80 tumor RNA expression (p = 0.006). An additional eQTL SNP in CD80 was associated with shorter survival (rs7804190, p = 8.1×10?4) among all cases combined. As the products of these genes are known to affect induction, trafficking, or immunosuppressive function of Tregs, these results suggest the need for follow-up phenotypic studies.
Four signature motifs define the first class of structurally related large coiled-coil proteins in plants.
Frank Gindullis, Annkatrin Rose, Shalaka Patel, Iris Meier
BMC Genomics , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-3-9
Abstract: We have searched the completed Arabidopsis genome and have identified a family of structurally related long coiled-coil proteins. Filament-like plant proteins (FPP) were identified by sequence similarity to a tomato cDNA that encodes a coiled-coil protein which interacts with the nuclear envelope-associated protein, MAF1. The FPP family is defined by four novel unique sequence motifs and by two clusters of long coiled-coil domains separated by a non-coiled-coil linker. All family members are expressed in a variety of Arabidopsis tissues. A homolog sharing the structural features was identified in the monocot rice, indicating conservation among angiosperms.Except for myosins, this is the first characterization of a family of long coiled-coil proteins in plants. The tomato homolog of the FPP family binds in a yeast two-hybrid assay to a nuclear envelope-associated protein. This might suggest that FPP family members function in nuclear envelope biology. Because the full Arabidopsis genome does not appear to contain genes for lamins, it is of interest to investigate other long coiled-coil proteins, which might functionally replace lamins in the plant kingdom.Coiled-coil domains are protein oligomerization motifs, which consist of two or more alpha helices that twist around one another to form a supercoil [1]. Peptides with the capacity to form coiled coils are characterized by a heptad repeat pattern in which residues in the first and fourth position are hydrophobic, and residues in the fifth and seventh position are predominantly charged or polar. This pattern can be used by computational methods to predict coiled-coil domains in amino acid sequences [2,3].Coiled-coil proteins can be grouped into two general classes. The first class is comprised of short coiled-coil domains of six or seven heptad repeats, also called leucine zippers. They are frequently found as homo- and hetero-dimerization domains in transcription factors (e.g. [4]). The second class is defined by lo
IMAGE STITCHING USING MATLAB
Tejasha Patil, Shweta Mishra ,Poorva Chaudhari , Shalaka Khandale
International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Images are an integral part of our daily lives. Image stitching is the process performed to generate one panoramic image from a series of smaller, overlapping images. Stitched images are used in applications such as interactive panoramic viewing of images, architectural walk-through, multi-node movies and other applications associated with modeling the 3D environment using images acquired from the real world.Image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or, a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image processingtechniques involve treating the image as a two-dimensional signal and applying standard signal processing techniques to it. Specifically, image stitching presents different stages torender two or more overlapping images into a seamless stitched image, from the detection of features to blending in a final image. In this process, Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) algorithm[1] can be applied to perform the detection and matching control points step, due to its good properties. The process of create an automatic and effective whole stitching process leads to analyze different methods of the stitching stages. Several commercial and online software tools are available to perform the stitching process, offering diverse options in different situations.
Medicated Chewing Gum: New Reformulation Technique
Bumrela Shrinivas B.,Kane Rajesh N.,Dhat Shalaka P.
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2005,
Abstract: Medicated Chewing Gum (MCG) is a novel drug delivery system containing masticatory gum base with pharmacologically active ingredient and intended to use for local treatment of mouth diseases or systemic absorption through oral mucosa. MCG is considered as vehicle or a drug delivery system to administer active principles that can improve health and nutrition. The present article reviews MCG Drug Delivery System concepts including its merits and demerits.INTRODUCTION:Pharmacological Active Agents or Drugs are formulated into variety ofdosage forms like Tablets, Capsules, Injectables, Inhalers, Ointments etc consideringPhysicochemical properties, Pharmacokinetic & Pharmacodynamic parametersand Biopharmaceutical aspects of Drugs. In addition to its confectionary role,Chewing Gum (CG) also has proven value as a delivery vehicle for pharmaceuticaland nutraceutical ingredients1. Today CG is convenient drug deliverysystem which is appropriate for a wide range of active substances2.Many therapeutic agents are absorbed in the oral cavity. For the drugs havingsignificant buccal absorption, dosage forms such as Lozenges, Chewable tabletsand Chewing Gum permits more rapid therapeutic action compared to per-oral dosageforms3. Chewable tablets and chewing gum have been very well receivedby the parents for use in children with full dentition. Children in particularmay consider chewing gum as a more preferred method of drug administration comparedwith oral liquids and tablets. The use of MCG is feasible in local treatmentof diseases of oral cavity as well as treatment of systemic conditions.
Exflagellated microgametes of Plasmodium vivax in human peripheral blood: A case report and review of the literature
Tembhare Prashant,Shirke Shalaka,Subramanian P,Sehgal Kunal
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2009,
Abstract: Peripheral blood smear examination is the most specific as well as the most common test performed for the diagnosis of malaria. Schizonts, ring forms (trophozoites) and gametocytes are the stages of malarial parasite that are commonly seen in the peripheral blood smear of a patient. Here, we report an extremely rare case of a 40-year-old male patient who presented with Plasmodium vivax infection with multiple exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear with review of the literature. Exflagellation of microgametes in malarial parasites is only seen in the definitive host, mosquito, and is very unusual to see during the developmental phases in the intermediate host, human. It is important to recognize these exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear as they may lead to diagnostic confusion with organisms such as spirochetes and trypanosomes.
Mitigating Denial Of Services Using Secure Overlay Service Model
Madhulika Mool,Prajyoti Sabale,Sneha Parpelli,Shalaka Chowriwar,Nilesh Sambhe
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Denial of service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks continue to threaten the reliability of networking systems. Previous approaches for protecting networks from DoS attacks are reactive in that they wait for an attack to be launched before taking appropriate measures to protect the network. This leaves the door open for other attacks that use more sophisticated methods to mask their traffic. A secure overlay services (SOS) architecture has been proposed to provide reliable communication between clients and a target under DoS attacks. The SOS architecture employs a set of overlay nodes arranged in three hierarchical layers that controls access to the target. We propose an architecture called secure overlay services (SOS) that proactively prevents denial of service (DoS) attacks, which works toward supporting emergency services, or similar types of communication. The architecture uses a combination of secure overlay tunneling, routing via consistent hashing, and filtering. We reduce the probability of successful attacks by: 1) performing intensive filtering near protected network edges, pushing the attack point into the core of the network, where high-speed routers can handle the volume of attack traffic and 2) introducing randomness and anonymity into the forwarding architecture, making it difficult for an attacker to target nodes along the path to a specific SOSprotected destination. Using simple analytical models, we evaluate the likelihood that an attacker can successfully launch a DoS attack against an SOS protected network. Our analysis demonstrates that such an architecture reduces the likelihood of a successful attack to minuscule levels.
Nucleotide Biosynthesis Is Critical for Growth of Bacteria in Human Blood
Shalaka Samant,Hyunwoo Lee,Mahmood Ghassemi,Juan Chen,James L Cook,Alexander S Mankin ,Alexander A Neyfakh
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0040037
Abstract: Proliferation of bacterial pathogens in blood represents one of the most dangerous stages of infection. Growth in blood serum depends on the ability of a pathogen to adjust metabolism to match the availability of nutrients. Although certain nutrients are scarce in blood and need to be de novo synthesized by proliferating bacteria, it is unclear which metabolic pathways are critical for bacterial growth in blood. In this study, we identified metabolic functions that are essential specifically for bacterial growth in the bloodstream. We used two principally different but complementing techniques to comprehensively identify genes that are required for the growth of Escherichia coli in human serum. A microarray-based and a dye-based mutant screening approach were independently used to screen a library of 3,985 single-gene deletion mutants in all non-essential genes of E. coli (Keio collection). A majority of the mutants identified consistently by both approaches carried a deletion of a gene involved in either the purine or pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway and showed a 20- to 1,000-fold drop in viable cell counts as compared to wild-type E. coli after 24 h of growth in human serum. This suggests that the scarcity of nucleotide precursors, but not other nutrients, is the key limitation for bacterial growth in serum. Inactivation of nucleotide biosynthesis genes in another Gram-negative pathogen, Salmonella enterica, and in the Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis, prevented their growth in human serum. The growth of the mutants could be rescued by genetic complementation or by addition of appropriate nucleotide bases to human serum. Furthermore, the virulence of the B. anthracis purE mutant, defective in purine biosynthesis, was dramatically attenuated in a murine model of bacteremia. Our data indicate that de novo nucleotide biosynthesis represents the single most critical metabolic function for bacterial growth in blood and reveal the corresponding enzymes as putative antibiotic targets for the treatment of bloodstream infections.
The Small GTPase RhoA Is Required for Proper Locomotor Circuit Assembly
Shalaka Mulherkar, Feng Liu, Qin Chen, Anjana Narayanan, Anthony D. Couvillon, H. David Shine, Kimberley F. Tolias
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067015
Abstract: The assembly of neuronal circuits during development requires the precise navigation of axons, which is controlled by attractive and repulsive guidance cues. In the developing spinal cord, ephrinB3 functions as a short-range repulsive cue that prevents EphA4 receptor-expressing corticospinal tract and spinal interneuron axons from crossing the midline, ensuring proper formation of locomotor circuits. Here we report that the small GTPase RhoA, a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, is also required for ephrinB3/EphA4-dependent locomotor circuit formation. Deletion of RhoA from neural progenitor cells results in mice that exhibit a rabbit-like hopping gait, which phenocopies mice lacking ephrinB3 or EphA4. Consistent with this locomotor defect, we found that corticospinal tract axons and spinal interneuron projections from RhoA-deficient mice aberrantly cross the spinal cord midline. Furthermore, we determined that loss of RhoA blocks ephrinB3-induced growth cone collapse of cortical axons and disrupts ephrinB3 expression at the spinal cord midline. Collectively, our results demonstrate that RhoA is essential for the ephrinB3/EphA4-dependent assembly of cortical and spinal motor circuits that control normal locomotor behavior.
A Pseudomonas aeruginosa EF-Hand Protein, EfhP (PA4107), Modulates Stress Responses and Virulence at High Calcium Concentration
Svetlana A. Sarkisova, Shalaka R. Lotlikar, Manita Guragain, Ryan Kubat, John Cloud, Michael J. Franklin, Marianna A. Patrauchan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098985
Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a facultative human pathogen, and a major cause of nosocomial infections and severe chronic infections in endocarditis and in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Calcium (Ca2+) accumulates in pulmonary fluids of CF patients, and plays a role in the hyperinflamatory response to bacterial infection. Earlier we showed that P. aeruginosa responds to increased Ca2+ levels, primarily through the increased production of secreted virulence factors. Here we describe the role of putative Ca2+-binding protein, with an EF-hand domain, PA4107 (EfhP), in this response. Deletion mutations of efhP were generated in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and CF pulmonary isolate, strain FRD1. The lack of EfhP abolished the ability of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to maintain intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Quantitative high-resolution 2D-PAGE showed that the efhP deletion also affected the proteomes of both strains during growth with added Ca2+. The greatest proteome effects occurred when the pulmonary isolate was cultured in biofilms. Among the proteins that were significantly less abundant or absent in the mutant strains were proteins involved in iron acquisition, biosynthesis of pyocyanin, proteases, and stress response proteins. In support, the phenotypic responses of FRD1 ΔefhP showed that the mutant strain lost its ability to produce pyocyanin, developed less biofilm, and had decreased resistance to oxidative stress (H2O2) when cultured at high [Ca2+]. Furthermore, the mutant strain was unable to produce alginate when grown at high [Ca2+] and no iron. The effect of the ΔefhP mutations on virulence was determined in a lettuce model of infection. Growth of wild-type P. aeruginosa strains at high [Ca2+] causes an increased area of disease. In contrast, the lack of efhP prevented this Ca2+-induced increase in the diseased zone. The results indicate that EfhP is important for Ca2+ homeostasis and virulence of P. aeruginosa when it encounters host environments with high [Ca2+].
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