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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2115 matches for " Shafiq Ur Rehman "
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Jovian Problem: Performance of Some High-Order Numerical Integrators  [PDF]
Shafiq Ur Rehman
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2013.33028

N-body simulations of the Sun, the planets, and small celestial bodies are frequently used to model the evolution of the Solar System. Large numbers of numerical integrators for performing such simulations have been developed and used; see, for example, [1,2]. The primary objective of this paper is to analyse and compare the efficiency and the error growth for different numerical integrators. Throughout the paper, the error growth is examined in terms of the global errors in the positions and velocities, and the relative errors in the energy and angular momentum of the system. We performed numerical experiments for the different integrators applied to the Jovian problem over a long interval of duration, as long as one million years, with the local error tolerance ranging from 10-16 to 10-18.

Accuracy and Computational Cost of Interpolation Schemes While Performing N-Body Simulations  [PDF]
Shafiq Ur Rehman
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.45037
Abstract: The continuous approximations play a vital role in N-body simulations. We constructed three different types, namely, one-step (cubic and quintic Hermite), two-step, and three-step Hermite interpolation schemes. The continuous approximations obtained by Hermite interpolation schemes and interpolants for ODEX2 and ERKN integrators are discussed in this paper. The primary focus of this paper is to measure the accuracy and computational cost of different types of interpolation schemes for a variety of gravitational problems. The gravitational problems consist of Kepler’s two-body problem and the more realistic problem involving the Sun and four gas-giants—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The numerical experiments are performed for the different integrators together with one-step, two-step, and three-step Hermite interpolation schemes, as well as the interpolants.
Measuring service quality in public and private sector university libraries of Pakistan
Shafiq ur Rehman
Pakistan Journal of Library and Information Science , 2012,
Using UML Behavioral Model to Support Aspect Oriented Model  [PDF]
Zahid Hussain Qaisar, Nauman Anwar, Shafiq Ur Rehman
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2013.63014

Aspect oriented software development is an emerging paradigm of software development. The notion of this technique is separation of concerns which means to implement each concern in a single object in object oriented programming but still there are concerns which are distributed on different objects and are called crosscutting concerns while another form is Core concerns are the core functionality provided by the system but crosscutting concerns are the concerns like logging, performance etc. Modeling of aspect oriented software is different from the normal modeling of object-oriented or procedural language software, because aspects don’t have the independent identity or existence and they are tightly coupled to their woven context so it is difficult to model them. The one aim of our research paper is to explore the domain of Modeling of the aspect-oriented software. The goal of this research paper is to give a UML Behavioral modeling techniques in the domain of aspect oriented software development. This technique of generating UML Behavioral Model for aspects will give better understating of separations concerns.

Structural Styles and Petroleum Potential of Miano Block, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan  [PDF]
Saif-Ur-Rehman K. Jadoon, Muhammad F. Mehmood, Zohaib Shafiq, Ishtiaq A. K. Jadoon
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2016.710086
Abstract: The main purpose of this research article is to evaluate the structural styles and hydrocarbon potential of Miano Block using seismic and well log data. The Miano Block discovered in 1993 is located in the Central Indus Basin which is a part of an extensional regime exhibiting normal faulting, formed as a result of split of the Indian Plate firstly from Africa and then from Madagascar and Seychelles. Tectonically, the Miano Block lies on the Panno-Aqil graben between two extensive regional highs i.e. Jacobabad-Khairpur High and Mari Kandhkot High. Four migrated seismic lines were used for structural enhancement; P2092-111, P2092-113 and P2092-115 (dip lines) and P2092-110 (strike line). Time and depth contours were generated for four horizons, HabibRahi Formation, Sui Main Limestone, Ranikot Formation and Lower Goru Formation which showed the presence of horst and graben structures in the subsurface. The interpretation of horst and graben structures is based on a parallel set of NS-oriented high-angle planar normal faults with dips either towards SE or SW with majority of the faults dipping towards the SW. The faults are observed to exhibit slight disruption of strata with limited displacement to the order of about 50 m in Lower Goru Formation. Thus, horst and graben structures with NS trend in the study area are interpreted. The NS trend of these structures along with similar structural dip is inconsistent to the NW-SE orientation of regional structures i.e. Panno- Aqil graben and the Jacobabad-Kharipur and Mari-Kandhkot Highs indicating about the presence of a second minor set of faults and complexity of deformation. In this setting, Maino-02 well was drilled with the primary target as B-Sands of Lower Goru Formation belonging to Lower Cretaceous age while secondary target was A-Sands of Lower Goru belonging to the same age. The result of the petrophysical analysis supports two potential zones (zone 1 and zone 2) within the Lower Goru Formation. Potential reservoir zones were marked with average hydrocarbon saturation of zone 1 calculated as 63.5% and that of zone 2 as 68.9%.
Hydro-meteorological characteristics of Chitral River basin at the peak of the Hindukush range  [PDF]
Salma Khalid, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Syed Mushtaq Ali Shah, Alia Naz, Beena Saeed, Sadia Alam, Farman Ali, Hasina Gul
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59120

This paper presents the impact of mean maximum temperature on Chitral river basin situated at Chitral district and high altitude (>6000 m) peaks of the Hindukush range under changing climate in Pakistan. The analysis of Chitral River as one of the tributary of Kabul River—the second largest river of Pakistan—revealed that change in temperature has a profound influence on the snow/glacial melt in comparison to the mean monthly rainfall. This is because the studied river is faded by the snow and glacial melt and receives a lot of snowfall from winter (DecFeb) to pre-monsoon (April-May). In monsoon period (Jul-Sep), 30% of the time the discharge rate remains above the mean while 60% of the time the discharge is less than the mean in the pre-monsoon (April-May) period. It means that 10% of the time the discharge is in reach of 300% to 900% of the mean flow, showing a rise in water yield and river discharge rate due to increase in mean monthly maximum temperature. Due to this significant increase (p < 0.05), the glaciers start melting faster and disappear in early summer, hence, reducing their residency period to convert into ice. This shows the signals of changing climate transfer into hydrological changes in Pakistan. Our findings are important for agriculture, hydropower and water management sectors for future planning especially in dry season for sustainable food security and for operation of ydrological installations in the country.

Problems of Government Secondary School System in Pakistan: Critical Analysis of Literature and Finding a Way Forward
Iqbal Ahmad,Shafiq ur Rehman,Shawkat Ali,Sajid Iqbal
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: This study critically analyses the problems of government secondary school system in Pakistan. For this purpose a vast existing literature was critically reviewed. Analysis of literature showed that the system is affected due to the following main reasons. The system is financed poorly. There is a lack of motivation among teachers. In some places the teachers are transferred from one place to another on the basis of favoritism and nepotism. The study further found that the system is affected due to political interference in the process of selection. As a result under-qualified teachers are appointed who cannot effectively manage the process of teaching and learning in schools effectively which is reflect in poor performances of students and dissatisfaction among parents regarding the performance of government schools. The study also discovered that teachers are overburdened with more classes due to acute shortage of teaching staff in schools. Lack of teaching and learning resources in schools has affected the quality of teaching and learning. There are meager professional development opportunities for teachers to improve their teaching skills. Last but not least, incessant political interference has gravely affected the process of smooth teaching and learning in schools. On the basis of the findings of this study it is recommended that the problems of teachers could be solved by creating an environment of trust and strengthening the mechanism of accountability in the school systems. Government may increase facilities for teachers and provided resources for teaching and learning. Political interference should be eradicated.
An intervention to stop smoking among patients suspected of TB - evaluation of an integrated approach
Kamran Siddiqi, Amir Khan, Maqsood Ahmad, Shafiq-ur-Rehman
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-160
Abstract: We aim to develop and trial a complex intervention to reduce tobacco dependence among TB suspects based on the WHO 'five steps to quit' model. This model relies on assessing personal motivation to quit tobacco use and uses it as the basis for assessing suitability for the different therapeutic options for tobacco dependence.We will use the Medical Research Council framework approach for evaluating complex interventions to: (a) design an evidence-based treatment package (likely to consist of training materials for health professionals and education tools for patients); (b) pilot the package to determine the delivery modalities in TB programme (c) assess the incremental cost-effectiveness of the package compared to usual care using a cluster RCT design; (d) to determine barriers and drivers to the provision of treatment of tobacco dependence within TB programmes; and (e) support long term implementation. The main outcomes to assess the effectiveness would be point abstinence at 4 weeks and continuous abstinence up to 6 months.This work will be carried out in Pakistan and is expected to have relevance for other low and middle income countries with high tobacco use and TB incidence. This will enhance our knowledge of the cost-effectiveness of treating tobacco dependence in patients suspected of TB.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN08829879Eight out of every ten smokers live in low- and middle-income countries[1]. In several of these countries, tobacco use is on the increase. Consequently, 70% of the projected mortality secondary to tobacco use is likely to be borne by low- and middle-income countries[1]. In addition, people die at an earlier age in such countries, causing the loss of 20-25 years of productive life[2]. Cost of cigarettes is relatively high in low- and middle-income countries compared to food and other essential commodities, resulting sometimes in their substitution. Therefore, tobacco use puts enormous burdens on countries' already ailing economies and co
4-Hydroxy-N-(2,4,6-tribromophenyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide
Muhammad Nadeem Arshad,Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman,Islam Ullah Khan,Muhammad Shafiq
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809046029
Abstract: In the title compound, C15H19Br3N2O4S, the thiazine ring adopts a distorted half-chair conformation. The enolic H atom is involved in an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond, forming a six-membered ring. In the crystal, the molecules are linked into a three-dimensional network through intermolecular N—H...O, N—H...Br and O—H...Br hydrogen bonds.
Muhammad Nadeem Arshad,Hafiz Mubashar-ur-Rehman,Islam Ullah Khan,Muhammad Shafiq
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810004034
Abstract: In the title compound, C11H14N2O5S, the amide O atom acts as a hydrogen-bond acceptor from a carboxylate O atom and a secondary amino N atom. In addition, one of the sulfonyl O atoms and the carbonyl O atom of the carboxyl group also form hydrogen bonds with the primary amido N atom. These intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions give rise to a layer structure, with the layers parallel to the ac plane.
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