Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
N-body simulations of the Sun, the planets,
and small celestial bodies are frequently used to model the evolution of the Solar
System. Large numbers of numerical integrators for performing such simulations
have been developed and used; see, for example, [1,2]. The primary
objective of this paper is to analyse and compare the efficiency and the error
growth for different numerical integrators. Throughout the paper, the
error growth is examined in terms of the global errors in the positions and
velocities, and the relative errors in the energy and angular momentum of the
system. We performed numerical experiments for the different integrators
applied to the Jovian problem over a long interval of duration, as long as one
million years, with the local error tolerance ranging from 10-16 to 10-18.
oriented software development is an emerging paradigm of software development.
The notion of this technique is separation of concerns which means to implement
each concern in a single object in object oriented programming but still there
are concerns which are distributed on different objects and are called
crosscutting concerns while another form is Core concerns are the core
functionality provided by the system but crosscutting concerns are the concerns
like logging, performance etc. Modeling of aspect oriented software is
different from the normal modeling of object-oriented or procedural language
software, because aspects don’t have the independent identity or existence and
they are tightly coupled to their woven context so it is difficult to model
them. The one aim of our research paper is to explore the domain of Modeling of
the aspect-oriented software. The goal of this research paper is to give a UML
Behavioral modeling techniques in the domain of aspect oriented software
development. This technique of generating UML Behavioral Model for aspects will
give better understating of separations concerns.
This paper presents the impact of mean maximum temperature on Chitral river basin situated at Chitral district and high altitude (>6000 m) peaks of the Hindukush range under changing climate in Pakistan. The analysis of Chitral River as one of the tributary of Kabul River—the second largest river of Pakistan—revealed that change in temperature has a profound influence on the snow/glacial melt in comparison to the mean monthly rainfall. This is because the studied river is faded by the snow and glacial melt and receives a lot of snowfall from winter (DecFeb) to pre-monsoon (April-May). In monsoon period (Jul-Sep), 30% of the time the discharge rate remains above the mean while 60% of the time the discharge is less than the mean in the pre-monsoon (April-May) period. It means that 10% of the time the discharge is in reach of 300% to 900% of the mean flow, showing a rise in water yield and river discharge rate due to increase in mean monthly maximum temperature. Due to this significant increase (p < 0.05), the glaciers start melting faster and disappear in early summer, hence, reducing their residency period to convert into ice. This shows the signals of changing climate transfer into hydrological changes in Pakistan. Our findings are important for agriculture, hydropower and water management sectors for future planning especially in dry season for sustainable food security and for operation of ydrological installations in the country.