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On the Study of Magneto-Hydrodynamic Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow throughout Curvilinear Channel with Corrugated Walls  [PDF]
Seyed Ali Madani Tonekaboni, Hamid Reza Gharahi, Mohammad Hossein Motevaselian, Seyed Fouad Karimian, Sara Jahromi
Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation (OJMSi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmsi.2014.24014
Abstract: This article aims to numerically investigate the flow pattern for Newtonian and power law non-Newtonian fluid in a semi-half circular channel with corrugated walls under the influence of a magnetic field. The results indicate that, presence of a magnetic field affects the flow field in several aspects, especially in the vortex creation and dissipation. In addition, the analysis is carried out for different Reynolds numbers to ascertain the influence of magnetic field on each flow regime. Eventually, the analysis is carried out for a range of power indices including pseudo plastic (shear-thinning) to dilatants (shear-thickening) fluids. The results show that by increasing the power-index, the vortices begin to form and grow gradually so that in the shear-thickening fluid an extra vortex is formed and created nearby the corrugated part of the channel.
Aphrodisiac Activity of Aqueous Extract of Phoenix dactylifera Pollen in Male Rats  [PDF]
Ali Abedi, Mohsen Parviz, Seyed Morteza Karimian, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour Rodsari
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2013.31006
Abstract:

Aim of study: Ancient literature alluded to the use of a number of plants/preparations as sex enhancer. One of such botanicals is Phoenix dactylifera in which the pollen grain has been acclaimed to be used as an aphrodisiac. However, the validity has not been scientifically tested. Dopamine is known to facilitate male sexual function. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera pollen on the sexual behavior of male rats and to measure of serum Estradiol and Testostrone. Also, dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbence (NAc) was studied in male rats using in vivo microdialysis. Methods and Materials: sixty male rats were randomized into 6 groups (A-F). Group A received 0.2 ml of Normal Saline mixed with Dimethyl Sulphate (DMSO), while groups B-F were injected same volume containing 35 mg/kg, 70 mg/kg, 105 mg/kg, 140 mg/kg and 350 mg/kg of DPP extract, respectively. Sexual behavioral parameters including mounting, intromission and ejaculation frequencies and latencies were recorded in male rats one hour after injection of extract by mating with a receptive female (1:1). The male serum testosterone and estradiol concentrations were also determined. Results: All doses stimulated male sexual behavior. Extract significantly increased mount, ejaculation, intromission frequencies and ejaculation latency in comparison to controlled ones (p < 0.001). Mount and intromission latencies significantly reduced (p < 0.001). Maximum effect was observed in dose 140 mg/kg. This extract was found to enhance Testestrone, Estradiol and the orientation of males toward female ones by increasing mounting and ano-genital investigatory behavior. Conclusions: Data from this study identified that the aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera pollen grain enhanced sexual behaviour in male rats. The improved sexual appetitive behaviour in male rats may be attributed, to the alkaloids, saponins, and or flavonoids since these phytochemicals has engorgement, androgen enhancing. Also, our findings support the traditional use of this plant as

Effect Of Different Doses Of Noradrenaline Against Ischemia-induced Ventricular Arrhythmias In Rat Heart In Vivo
Alireza Imani,Mahdieh Faghihi,Mansoor Keshavarz,Seyed Morteza Karimian
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2009,
Abstract: BackgroundThe present study was designed to evaluate the preconditioning effect of different doses of noradrenaline on ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias in open chest anesthetized rats.MethodsThe anaesthetized rats were subjected to 25 min of regional ischemia by left descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion. In sham group, surgical procedures were done but ischemia was not applied. In control rats, saline was injected prior to ischemia. In noradrenaline groups, rats pretreated with three different doses of noradrenaline (respectively, 0.5, 1 and 2 μg/kg, IV). ResultsIn control rats, induction of ischemia shortened the QTc (corrected QT) interval (ms) and led to occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Administration of low-dose of noradrenaline prevented shortening of the QTc interval during ischemia but could not significantly attenuate severity and incidences of arrhythmias. Injection of mid-dose of noradrenaline stabilized the QTc during ischemia and reduced severity of arrhythmias. Pretreatment with high-dose of noradrenaline significantly prolonged the QTc interval and declined severity and incidence of arrhythmias. ConclusionNoradrenaline dose-dependently attenuated ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias.
Flutamide Enhances Neuroprotective Effects of Testosterone during Experimental Cerebral Ischemia in Male Rats
Hamed Fanaei,Hamid Reza Sadeghipour,Seyed Morteza Karimian,Gholamreza Hassanzade
ISRN Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/592398
Abstract:
Flutamide Enhances Neuroprotective Effects of Testosterone during Experimental Cerebral Ischemia in Male Rats
Hamed Fanaei,Hamid Reza Sadeghipour,Seyed Morteza Karimian,Gholamreza Hassanzade
ISRN Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/592398
Abstract: Testosterone has been shown to worsen histological and neurological impairment during cerebral ischemia in animal models. Cell culture studies revealed that testosterone is implicated in protecting neural and glial cells against insults, and they started to elucidate testosterone pathways that underlie these protective effects. These studies support the hypothesis that testosterone can be neuroprotective throughout an episode of cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we evaluated the mechanisms underlying the shift between testosterone protective and deleterious effects via block testosterone aromatization and androgen receptors in rats subjected to 60-minute middle cerebral artery occlusion. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: gonadally intact male; castrated male; intact male?+?flutamide; intact male?+?letrozole; intact male?+?combination flutamide and letrozole. Our results indicated that castration has the ability to reduce histological damage and to improve neurological score 24 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Moreover, flutamide improved histologic and neurological impairment better than castration. Letrozole induced increases in striatal infarct volume and seizures in gonadally intact rats. Combination of flutamide and letrozole showed that letrozole can reverse beneficial effects of flutamide. In conclusion, it seems that the beneficial effects of flutamide are the prevention of the deleterious effects and enhancement of neuroprotective effects of testosterone during cerebral ischemia. 1. Introduction Stroke is a great reason of disability and death throughout the world [1]. Nowadays treatments are not very effective to reduce brain ischemia, whereas size of the infarct area will affect on patient’s chance of recovery from a stroke and it will keep growing if treatments are not appropriate [1–4]. So, for reducing damage we need to find more effective treatments. Among risk factors, sex has prominent role in stroke [5–8]. Epidemiological studies have shown that overall incidence of stroke is higher in men relative to age-matched women in most countries [9–12]. Present evidence suggests that mechanisms of cell death and neuroprotection are not similar and equal in males and females [9, 13, 14]. A large part of this difference between sexes is attributed to sex steroids [14–18]. Previous studies demonstrate that estrogen and progesterone give protection against cerebral ischemia by several mechanisms [19–23]. On the other hand, data about androgens are sparse and controversial [9, 18, 24, 25]. Human studies suggested male
Calcitonin gene related peptide and its functions
Karimian M
Tehran University Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP) was first reported in 1982. This peptide contains 37 amino acids which could be found in Alpha and Beta forms. CGRP shows diversity both in its receptors and biological effects and up to now four different types of receptors have been reported. It can act like a neurotransmitter, local hormone and neuromodulator. They have a variety of effects on different organs such as a potent effect on vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation. Ability of CGRP for induction of protein extravasation from blood vessels was uncertain. In this study intra-articular infusion of 10^-6 M CGRP to the rat knee joint induced significant protein extravasation into the rat knee joint space. The amount of protein was detected by modified Iawata method which could detect amount of protein between 5-500 mg/L. Higher and lower concentrations failed to induce protein extravasation. Failure in higher concentration was likely due to significant fall in blood pressure. In the presence of an arterial hypotension induced by an ? adenoreceptor antagonist, 10^-6 M of CGRP failed to produce protein extravasation. This effect of CGRP was a specific active effect and not a passive effect due to its potent vasodilation effect, as similar vasodilatory response induced by a ?-adrenoreceptor agonist failed to induce protein extravasation. There is more than 50% of sensory neurons which contain CGRP and they are spread in all over the body and joints, therefore CGRP induced protein extravasation can potentiate inflammation in different organs.
A Novel Immunological Technique for Detection of Gramicidin (S) Producing Bacteria  [PDF]
Fouad Houssein Kamel
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2012.22009
Abstract: A serological kit was prepared for the first time to detect bacteria that produce Gramicidin (S). Since, an immunocomplex of antibiotic Gramicidin (S) was prepared followed by immunonization of laboratory animales to obtain specific antibodies in their serum. Serial dilutions of the prepared antibodies were tested directly against samples of bacteria and compared with control samples, which include bacteria that produce Gramicidin (S) (as a positive control) and the bacteria that does not produce Gramicidin (S) (as a negative control) depending slide method after the incubation of bacteria in a suitable media for 3 - 4 hours at 37°C. The prepared kites were evaluated in reference Laboratories and they proved to be highly sensitive (100%), specific (100%), more economic and reliable procedure, in addition to its stability for more than one year. It was the first time to prepare a kit for detection of bacteria which produce Gramicidin (S) directly within few minutes.
Using Genetic Algorithm for Identification of Diabetic Retinal Exudates in Digital Color Images  [PDF]
Romany Fouad Mansour
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2012.43019
Abstract: Blood vessels in ophthalmoscope images play an important role in diagnosis of some serious pathology on retinal images. Hence, accurate extraction of vessels is becoming a main topic of this research area. In this paper, a new hybrid approach called the (Genetic algorithm and vertex chain code) for blood vessel detection. And this method uses geometrical parameters of retinal vascular tree for diagnosing of hypertension and identified retinal exudates automatically from color retinal images. The skeletons of the segmented trees are produced by thinning. Three types of landmarks in the skeleton must be detected: terminal points, bifurcation and crossing points, these points are labeled and stored as a chain code. Results of the proposed system can achieve a diagnostic accuracy with 96.0% sensitivity and 98.4% specificity for the identification of images containing any evidence of retinopathy.
Impact of the Human Activities on the Local Climate and Environment of the Suez City in Egypt  [PDF]
Mona Fouad Kaiser
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2014.57063
Abstract:

Surface temperature and vegetation are the major land cover changes that significantly affect on the thermal environment. In the present study, remote sensing techniques were applied to identify the relationship between anthropogenic activities and the thermal environment in the North Gulf of Suez area. Results have indicated that the urbanization and agricultural expansion have been increased during the last 25 years. Although urban areas increased from 49 km2 in 1987 to 57 km2 in 2012, the urban heat island-range declined from very high and high, to moderate and low. An expansion in cultivated areas from 3 km2 in 1987 to 26 km2 in 2012 was responsible for the decline. The results of this study provided valuable information for understanding the local thermal changes that associate rapid urbanization and expansion of cultivated areas. Consequently, this work recommends that proper planning and management regimes for land use and cover changes associated with rapid urbanization will result in positive impacts on the local climate and environment.

The influence of feeding linoleic, gamma-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid rich oils on rat brain tumor fatty acids composition and fatty acid binding protein 7 mRNA expression
Javad Nasrollahzadeh, Fereydoun Siassi, Mahmood Doosti, Mohammad Eshraghian, Fazel Shokri, Mohammad Modarressi, Javad Mohammadi-Asl, Khosro Abdi, Arash Nikmanesh, Seyed Karimian
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-7-45
Abstract: GLA oil (GLAO; 72% GLA), DHA oil (DHAO; 73% DHA) were fed to adult wistar rats (1 mL/rat/day) starting one week prior to C6 glioma cells implantation and continued for two weeks after implantation. Control group were fed same amount of high linoleic acid safflower oil (74–77% linoleic acid). Fatty acid composition of tumor samples was determined in a set of 8–12 animals in each group and serum fatty acid in 6 animals per each group. Gene expression of tumor fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and retinoid × receptor-α (RXR-α) were determined in a set of 18 animals per group.DHAO feeding increased EPA of brain tumors and decreased ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids. Serum levels of EPA were also increased in DHAO group. A similar trend in serum and tumor levels of DHA were observed in DHAO group but it did not achieve statistical significance. GLAO increased serum concentration of GLA but had no significant effect on tumor GLA or dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA) concentrations. Gene expression of FABP7 was up-regulated in tumors of DHAO group but no other significant effects were observed on EGFR, PPAR-γ or RXR-α expression, and expression of these genes in tumors of GLAO were not different from SFO group.Dietary supplementation of DHA containing oil could be an effective way to increase levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids in brain tumors and this increase may be mediated partly by up-regulation of FABP7 expression.Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have diverse functions in living cells and influence membrane composition and function, eicosanoid synthesis, cellular signaling and regulation of gene expression [1]. Experimental studies have shown that supplementation of tumor cells with specific fatty acids may decrease tumor proliferation. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), an n-6 fatty acid, and n-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ha
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