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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 598 matches for " Seshadri Ramaswamy "
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The Pancreas Is Altered by In Utero Androgen Exposure: Implications for Clinical Conditions Such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Mick Rae, Cathal Grace, Kirsten Hogg, Lisa Marie Wilson, Sophie L. McHaffie, Seshadri Ramaswamy, Janis MacCallum, Fiona Connolly, Alan S. McNeilly, Colin Duncan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056263
Abstract: Using an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), (pregnant ewes injected with testosterone propionate (TP) (100 mg twice weekly) from day (d)62 to d102 of d147 gestation (maternal injection – MI-TP)), we previously reported female offspring with normal glucose tolerance but hyperinsulinemia. We therefore examined insulin signalling and pancreatic morphology in these offspring using quantitative (Q) RT-PCR and western blotting. In addition the fetal pancreatic responses to MI-TP, and androgenic and estrogenic contributions to such responses (direct fetal injection (FI) of TP (20 mg) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) (20 mg) at d62 and d82 gestation) were assessed at d90 gestation. Fetal plasma was assayed for insulin, testosterone and estradiol, pancreatic tissue was cultured, and expression of key β-cell developmental genes was assessed by QRT-PCR. In female d62MI-TP offspring insulin signalling was unaltered but there was a pancreatic phenotype with increased numbers of β-cells (P<0.05). The fetal pancreas expressed androgen receptors in islets and genes involved in β-cell development and function (PDX1, IGF1R, INSR and INS) were up-regulated in female fetuses after d62MI-TP treatment (P<0.05–0.01). In addition the d62MI-TP pancreas showed increased insulin secretion under euglycaemic conditions (P<0.05) in vitro. The same effects were not seen in the male fetal pancreas or when MI-TP was started at d30, before the male programming window. As d62MI-TP increased both fetal plasma testosterone (P<0.05) and estradiol concentrations (P<0.05) we assessed the relative contribution of androgens and estrogens. FI-TP (commencing d62) (not FI-DES treatment) caused elevated basal insulin secretion in vitro and the genes altered by d62MI-TP treatment were similarly altered by FI-TP but not FI-DES. In conclusion, androgen over-exposure alters fetal pancreatic development and β-cell numbers in offspring. These data suggest that that there may be a primary pancreatic phenotype in models of PCOS, and that there may be a distinct male and female pancreas.
Significance of Impurity Mineral Identification in the Value Addition of Kaolin – A Case Study with Reference to an Acidic Kaolin from India  [PDF]
S. Ramaswamy, P. Raghavan
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1011077
Abstract: Kaolin or china clay is a versatile industrial mineral with wide technological applications and is abundantly available in India. The major mineral in kaolin is kaolinite (Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O). The common ancillary / impurity minerals occurring with kaolin include parent rocks like feldspar and mica, quartz, ferruginous, titanoferrous and carbonaceous materials. The most deleterious impurities in kaolin are iron minerals which imparts colour to the white kaolin. Iron exists as oxides, hydroxides, oxy hydroxides, sulphides and carbonates along with iron stained quartz/anatase and mica in kaolin. Kaolin finds extensive applications in paper, paint, rubber, ceramics, plastics etc. One of the highest value additions for kaolin is as pigment in paper and paint industries. The optical properties are important for pigment applications and removal of the iron impurity is very important to improve this property. Extensive research has been carried out on the nature of iron impurities present in kaolin, which leads to the conclusion that iron is present as a part of the kaolinite or ancillary mineral (mica or titania) structure, which can be termed as “structural iron” or as independent iron minerals such as oxides, hydroxides, oxyhydroxides, sulphides and carbonates, which can be termed as “free iron” [1]. The present paper discusses the iron speciation studies carried out on a typical china clay sample collected from Koraput district of Orissa State in the Union of India. Studies have shown that the major impurity mineral species is in “pyritic” (Iron sulphide) form along with other hydroxides, oxyhydoxides and oxides of Iron. Presence of limonite is also observed in the sample. The identification/quantification of the impurity minerals have played a crucial role in the selection / modification and sequentialisation of beneficiation processes and subsequent processing studies have shown that the sample can be value added to ceramic grade.
A Mixed Method Approach for Efficient Component Retrieval from a Component Repository  [PDF]
Jasmine Kalathipparambil Sudhakaran, Ramaswamy Vasantha
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.47051
Abstract: A continuing challenge for software designers is to develop efficient and cost-effective software implementations. Many see software reuse as a potential solution; however, the cost of reuse tends to outweigh the potential benefits. The costs of software reuse include establishing and maintaining a library of reusable components, searching for applicable components to be reused in a design, as well as adapting components toward a proper implementation. In this context, a new method is suggested here for component classification and retrieval which consists of K-nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm and Vector space Model Approach. We found that this new approach gives a higher accuracy and precision in component selection and retrieval process compared to the existing formal approaches.
Progeria: Too Old, Too Soon
Madhumathi Seshadri
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare paediatric syndrome causing physical changes that resemble greatly accelerated aging in sufferers.Currently, there are less than 50 known cases of HGPS in the world and most progeria patients die at around 13 years of age. HGPS is caused by a mutation in the Lamin A gene (LMNA) that results in the synthesis of a mutant prelamin A (also called progerin). Progerin undergoes farnesylation but cannot be further processed to mature lamin A, a key structural component of the cell nucleus. In HGPS cells, progerin accumulates at the rim of the nucleus, causing misshapen nuclei.DescriptionDr. Jonathan Hutchinson in 1886 and Dr. Hastings Gilford in 1904 first described this syndrome. The word progeria is coined from the Greek word geras, which means old age. Progeria syndrome is also known as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, HGPS or Gilford syndrome.
Inherited Arrhythmias in Children
Seshadri Balaji
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2008,
Abstract: As our ability to discover new genetic mutations has increased, the list of inherited arrhythmias grows with each year. Virtually every form of arrhythmia has an inherited form, whether it is bradycardia, tachycardia or arrhythmic sudden death. This paper will therefore only focus mainly on those that are clinically most important in children.
Indications for Electrophysiology Study in children
Seshadri Balaji
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The advent of electrophysiology (EP) testing revolutionized the care of children with arrhythmia. Precise mechanistic and anatomical diagnosis of arrhythmias became possible. The later development of catheter-based ablation transformed the care of these children by allowing many arrhythmias to be cured during the same procedure. Indications for EP testing vary depending on the age of the child, the underlying cardiac anatomy, and the suspected arrhythmia. In the current era, the indications for EPS and for ablation are virtually identical. There are a few situations where EPS is sometimes performed without the use of ablation, and these will be pointed out. This paper will address the common conditions for which EP testing is performed.
Journal Reviews
Seshadri Savitha
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2009,
Journal Reviews
Seshadri Savitha
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2009,
Lone pairs in insulating pyrochlores: Ice rules and high-$k$ behavior
Ram Seshadri
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2006.02.020
Abstract: Pyrochlore dielectric materials such as (Bi$_{1.5}$Zn$_{0.5}$)(Nb$_{1.5}$Zn$_{0.5}$)O$_7$ (BZN) have generated interest because they combine high dielectric constants with small dielectric loss tangents and yet are cubic at all temperatures. The recent low-temperature preparation and structural characterization of Bi$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$, which remains cubic down to 2 K, has provided a good model system for understanding the properties of Bi-based pyrochlores. In this contribution, the electronic structure of cubic Bi$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ is visualized and compared with the electronic structure of the Aurivillius phase ferroelectric SrBi$_2$Ta$_2$O$_9$ (SBT), which displays a ferroelectric distortion below 608 K associated with the tendency of lone pair active Bi$^{3+}$ to move off-center. Such coherent off-centering distortions are frustrated on the pyrochlore lattice, and this prevents a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition in Bi$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$. Instead, Bi$^{3+}$ ions in Bi$_2$Ti$_2$O$_7$ are obliged to off-center in an \textit{incoherent} manner, that is compatible with the cubic structure being retained. Frustrated lone pair behavior in the defect pyrochlore Pb$_2$Sn$_2$O$_6$ is also described. Parallels between the well-studied frustration of certain types of \textit{magnetism} in pyrochlore compounds (spin-ice) and the striking paucity of ferroelectric pyrochlores, arising from the corner-connected tetrahedral topology of the pyrochlore lattice are pointed out.
Seeing patterns in noise: Gigaparsec-scale `structures' that do not violate homogeneity
Seshadri Nadathur
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1028
Abstract: Clowes et al. (2013) have recently reported the discovery of a Large Quasar Group (LQG), dubbed the Huge-LQG, at redshift z~1.3 in the DR7 quasar catalogue of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. On the basis of its characteristic size ~500 Mpc and longest dimension >1 Gpc, it is claimed that this structure is incompatible with large-scale homogeneity and the cosmological principle. If true, this would represent a serious challenge to the standard cosmological model. However, the homogeneity scale is an average property which is not necessarily affected by the discovery of a single large structure. I clarify this point and provide the first fractal dimension analysis of the DR7 quasar catalogue to demonstrate that it is in fact homogeneous above scales of at most 130 Mpc/h, which is much less than the upper limit for \Lambda CDM. In addition, I show that the algorithm used to identify the Huge-LQG regularly finds even larger clusters of points, extending over Gpc scales, in explicitly homogeneous simulations of a Poisson point process with the same density as the quasar catalogue. This provides a simple null test to be applied to any cluster thus found in a real catalogue, and suggests that the interpretation of LQGs as `structures' is misleading.
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