Tectonic
uplift producing recent mountain systems has spanned in the Alpine-Himalayan
Belt the time interval from Oligocene to Recent (the last 30 - 35 Ma), being
divided into two stages. During the first stage, local uplands, usually not
higher than middle-elevated mountains, rose and their total area increased.
During the second stage (the last 5 - 2 Ma) this process was accompanied by a
total uplift of the greater part of the belt. As a result, the rate of vertical
movements increased, the recent mountain systems were formed, and the coarse
molasses accumulated in the adjacent basins. Uplift of the land surface
resulting in formation of mountain topography is an isostatic reaction to
decompaction of the upper spheres of the Solid Earth. Three factors of the
decompaction are discussed in the paper. These are: I, collisional compression,
resulting in deformational thickening of the Earth’s crust (folding, thrusting,
etc.); II, partial replacing of the lithosphere mantle by the lower-dense
asthenosphere material and, as a result, decompaction of the uppermost mantle;
and III, retrograde metamorphism of high-metamorphosed rocks within the lower
crust and near the crust-mantle boundary and, as a result, decompaction of
these rocks. Theseprocesseswereinitiatedorfacilitatedbythelateralasthenosphereflows. According to the seismic
tomography data, the flows spread from the stationary developed zone of the
rise of deep mantle material that is expressed in the recent

Abstract:
A new methodology of
comparing digital raster maps was proposed which allows not only detecting
changes in the maps, but also obtaining quantitative measures of the importance
of selected differences. Procedure of object interpretation of satellite images
and forming of OMT (Object Map of Territory) is described. A list of allowable differences
between two OMTs is defined. Two steps technique of quantitative measuring is
proposed. At the first stage functions are constructed for calculating local
measures of differences in the amount, areas and locations of objects on the
map, as well as relations between the objects. In the second stage local
measures are used to calculate the integral measure in order to get generalized
assessment of difference between maps. The methods for constructing functions
which calculate local and integral measures of differences are described.
Examples of comparing and measuring the differences between OMTs are provided.
Obtained results by utilizing this technique can be used to analyze trends,
forecast of development and might be helpful for choosing most efficient
scenarios for sustainable spatial planning and land management.

Abstract:
Energy production due to the Casimir effect is considered for the case of a superdense state of matter, which can appear in such cosmological objects as white dwarfs, neutron stars, quasars and so on. The energy output produced by the Casimir effect during the creation of a neutron star turns out to be sufficient to explain nova and supernova explosions. It is shown that the Casimir effect might be a possible source of the huge energy output of quasars.

Abstract:
As discovered by Philip Anderson in 1958, strong disorder can block propagation of waves and lead to the localization of wave-like excitations in space. Anderson localization of light is particularly exciting in view of its possible applications for random lasing or quantum information processing. We show that, surprisingly, Anderson localization of light cannot be achieved in a random three-dimensional ensemble of point scattering centers that is the simplest and widespread model to study the multiple scattering of waves. Localization is recovered if the vector character of light is neglected. This shows that, at least for point scatterers, the polarization of light plays an important role in the Anderson localization problem.

Abstract:
The traditional description of atomic-scale friction, as investigated in Friction force microscopy, in terms of mechanical stick-slip instabilities appears so successful that it obscures the actual mechanisms of frictional energy dissipation. More sophisticated theoretical approach, which takes into account damping explicitly, reveals the existence of some hidden, unexplained problems, like the universal nearly-critical damping and unexpectedly high value of the dissipation rate. In this paper, we combine analysis in the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics with simple atomistic modeling to show that the hidden problems of atomic scale friction find their origin in the nontrivial character of energy dissipation that is non-local and dominated by memory effects, which have not been addressed before in the context of dry, atomic-scale friction.

Abstract:
The interference of hydrogen atom 2P(1/2) state in a field of a few small overlapping perturbations is considered in view of further applications to experimental data interpretation. On a basis of this model two new experiments are proposed which can clarify some features of Sokolov effect.

Abstract:
For the recent years there was an increasing interest in different methods of motion analysis based on visual data acquisition. Vision systems, intended to obtain quantitative data regarding motion in real time are especially in demand. This paper talks about the vision systems that allow the receipt of information on relative object motion in real time. It is shown, that the algorithms solving a wide range of practical problems by definition of relative movement can be generated on the basis of the known algorithms of an optical flow calculation. One of the system's goals is the creation of economically efficient intellectual sensor prototype in order to estimate relative objects motion based on optic flow. The results of the experiments with a prototype system model are shown.

Abstract:
In the weak field approximation, the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) has, in addition to the Newtonian gravitational potential, a Yukawa-like potential produced by the exchange of a spin $1^+$ boson between fermions. If the range $r_0=\mu^{-1}$ is $25$ kpc, then this additional potential due to the interaction with matter in the halos of galaxies can explain the flat rotation curves of galaxies and the Tully-Fisher law ($L\sim v^4$) without the dark matter hypothesis. Possible fits to clusters of galaxies and gravitational lensing observations are discussed. The results are based on a linear approximation to a new perturbatively consistent version of the NGT field equations, which does not violate the weak equivalence principle.

Abstract:
We consider continuous time random walks (CTRW) and discuss situations pertinent to aging. These correspond to the case when the initial state of the system is known not at preparation (at $t=0$) but at the later instant of time $t_1>0$ (intermediate-time initial condition). We derive the generalized aging diffusion equation for this case and express it through a single memory kernel. The results obtained are applied to the practically relevant case of the equilibrated random walks. We moreover discuss some subtleties in the setup of the aging subdiffusion problem and show that the behavior of the system depends on what was taken as the intermediate-time initial condition: whether it was coordinate of one particle given by measurement or the whole probability distribution. The two setups lead to different predictions for the evolution of a system. This fact stresses the necessity of a precise definition of aging statistical ensembles.

Abstract:
The analytical structure of the difference between the static vacuum solution in the nonsymmetric gravitational theory (NGT) and the Schwarzschild solution of Einstein's gravitational theory (EGT) is studied. It is proved that a smooth matching of the solutions does not exist in the range $0 < r \leq 2M$, for any non-zero values of the parameters $M$ and $s$ of the NGT solution. This means that one cannot consider the difference between the two solutions using perturbation theory in this range of $r$. Assuming that the exterior solution in gravitational collapse is a small, time dependent perturbation of the static solution for a non-zero, generic NGT source ($s\not=0$) and mass density, it is shown that the matching of the interior and exterior solutions will not lead to black hole event horizons.