We describe the design, modeling and production of a 3D printed manifold for attaching multiple respiration masks to a single ventilator machine. During a disaster surge this would allow up to four masks to be connected to a single ventilator source. In a disaster which involves high numbers of patients with lung damage, simultaneous respirator support may be required; however, the number of patients may quickly outnumber the available respirator machines. We explore the use of a rapid and low cost 3D printing method referred to as Fused Filament Deposition (FFD) for creation of a four-port ventilator manifold. This 3D printing method deposits layers of melted ABS plastic filament in a fine “stream” onto successive layers in order to form a three dimensional object. The standard file format for this object (manifold attachment) can be made globally available through the internet. It can be “printed” anywhere and anytime it is needed as a three dimensional object at extremely low cost (under two dollars per unit) and since the digital file that represents the object is modifiable, “derivative” versions can be redesigned to suit a broad range of potential applications, especially in areas with limited healthcare resources.

Abstract:
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity and learning are strongly regulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and particularly by mGluR5. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying mGluR5-modulation of these phenomena. Prolonged pharmacological blockade of mGluR5 with MPEP produced a profound impairment of spatial memory. Effects were associated with 1) a reduction of mGluR1a-expression in the dentate gyrus; 2) impaired dentate gyrus LTP; 3) enhanced CA1-LTP and 4) suppressed theta (5–10 Hz) and gamma (30–100 Hz) oscillations in the dentate gyrus. Allosteric potentiation of mGluR1 after mGluR5 blockade significantly ameliorated dentate gyrus LTP, as well as suppression of gamma oscillatory activity. CA3-lesioning prevented MPEP effects on CA1-LTP, suggesting that plasticity levels in CA1 are driven by mGluR5-dependent synaptic and network activity in the dentate gyrus. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged mGluR5-inactivation causes altered hippocampal LTP levels and network activity, which is mediated in part by impaired mGluR1-expression in the dentate gyrus. The consequence is impairment of long-term learning.

Abstract:
The variation of a martingale $p_0^k=p_0,...,p_k$ of probabilities on a finite (or countable) set $X$ is denoted $V(p_0^k)$ and defined by $V(p_0^k)=E(\sum_{t=1}^k|p_t-p_{t-1}|_1)$. It is shown that $V(p_0^k)\leq \sqrt{2kH(p_0)}$, where $H(p)$ is the entropy function $H(p)=-\sum_xp(x)\log p(x)$ and $\log$ stands for the natural logarithm. Therefore, if $d$ is the number of elements of $X$, then $V(p_0^k)\leq \sqrt{2k\log d}$. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the bound $\sqrt{2k\log d}$ is tight for $d\leq 2^k$: there is $C>0$ such that for every $k$ and $d\leq 2^k$ there is a martingale $p_0^k=p_0,...,p_k$ of probabilities on a set $X$ with $d$ elements, and with variation $V(p_0^k)\geq C\sqrt{2k\log d}$. An application of the first result to game theory is that the difference between $v_k$ and $\lim_kv_k$, where $v_k$ is the value of the $k$-stage repeated game with incomplete information on one side with $d$ states, is bounded by $|G|\sqrt{2k^{-1}\log d}$ (where $|G|$ is the maximal absolute value of a stage payoff). Furthermore, it is shown that the order of magnitude of this game theory bound is tight.

Abstract:
Cylindric Young tableaux are combinatorial objects that first appeared in the 1990s. A natural extension of the classical notion of a Young tableau, they have since been used several times, most notably by Gessel and Krattenthaler and by Alexander Postnikov. Despite this, relatively little is known about cylindric Young tableaux. This paper is an investigation of the properties of this object. In this paper, we extend the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth Correspondence, a well-known and very useful bijection concerning regular Young tableaux, to be a correspondence between pairs of cylindric tableaux. We use this correspondence to reach further results about cylindric tableaux. We then establish an interpretation of cylindric tableaux in terms of a game involving marble-passing. Next, we demonstrate a generic method to use results concerning cylindric tableaux in order to prove results about skew Young tableaux. We finish with a note on Knuth equivalence and its analog for cylindric tableaux.

Abstract:
The purpose of the present study was to extend the use of DI flashcards with a math racetrack employing atypical student enrolled in general education. A second purpose was to replicate and extend the previous research in math with flashcards. The participant was a third-grade male attending a parochial school. His performance in long division was below grade level. When flashcards and the math racetrack were implemented, his performance increased. The participant reached mastery for two of his three sets of division facts by the end of data collection. The efficacy of employing flashcards with a math racetrack was discussed.

Abstract:
The work is devoted to calculation of static elastic and thermo-elastic fields in a homogeneous medium with a finite number of isolated heterogeneous inclusions. Firstly, the problem is reduced to the solution of inte-gral equations for strain and stress fields in the medium with inclusions. Then, Gaussian approximating func-tions are used for discretization of these equations. For such functions, the elements of the matrix of the dis-cretized problem are calculated in explicit analytical forms. The method is mesh free, and only the coordi-nates of the approximating nodes are the geometrical information required in the method. If such nodes compose a regular grid, the matrix of the discretized problem obtains the Toeplitz properties. By the calcula-tion of matrix-vector products with such matrices, the Fast Fourier Transform technique may be used. The latter accelerates essentially the process of the iterative solution of the disretized problem. The results of calculations of elastic fields in 3D-medium with an isolated spherical heterogeneous inclusion are compared with exact solutions. Examples of the calculation of elastic and thermo-elastic fields in the medium with several inclusions are presented.

Abstract:
A pilot study has been made of the simultaneous DC potential and total slow electrical activity changes during modeling various metabolic and functional states of the human brain. The multi-electrode DCEEG recordings have been performed during the hyperventilation (frequent deep one-minute long breathing motions) and the hypoventilation (voluntary breath holding). It has been shown that the ischemic state occurring in hyperventilation is accompanied by the negative shift of DC potential and increase in the EEG rhythms amplitude. A distention of brain vessels during hypoventilation (voluntary breath-hold) and an improvement of blood supply and thus improvement of vital and functional state of neurons gave rise to an increase in the EEG rhythm amplitude too, though against a background of a positive DC-potential shift. Obtained results are considered with context the generation of the qualitatively different functional states of brain cells during hyper- and hypoventilation which is reflected in their resting potential and activity. The conducted study show the prospects for DCEEG and the method we used for DCEEG data processing to understand the character of functional and metabolic changes in the nervous tissue.

40 years ago the outcome of computer
programs was in the form of long listings covered by numbers; even the format
of those numbers was determined by developers. Throughout the latest 30 years program
views and results are shown in a wide variety of shapes and variants, but all
these possibilities are predefined and fixed in code by developers; nothing
outside of their approved solutions is allowed. My vision from now on into the
future: developers are responsible only for correct work of a program
(calculations, link with the database, etc.) and suggest a good default
interface but not determine all possible scenarios; only users decide WHAT,
WHEN, and HOW to show. This will be a revolution in our interaction with
computers, but there are obvious questions. How this step can be made? Do all
users need such change? Is it going to be a burden for users or a welcome
revolution?

This article described the opening of a new law in fundamental
physics, namely the law of the formation of an endless series of suspension
(cable-stayed) networks coatings. Opening relates to the mechanics, section of
statics.

It was proposed to use the sum of
production functions of different lifestyles, to describe the changes in the
Russian economy. Values of indicators of a power function of Cobb-Douglas were
received from approximate formulas on the basis of data from various sources. A
good concordance with change process of Russia’s GDP, what permit to predict
its behavior in the future, was received.