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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 465035 matches for " Sergey A. Sosunov "
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Nelfinavir Inhibits Intra-Mitochondrial Calcium Influx and Protects Brain against Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice
Irina V. Utkina-Sosunova, Zoya V. Niatsetskaya, Sergey A. Sosunov, Veniamin I. Ratner, Dzmitry Matsiukevich, Vadim S. Ten
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062448
Abstract: Nelfinavir (NLF), an antiretroviral agent, preserves mitochondrial membranes integrity and protects mature brain against ischemic injury in rodents. Our study demonstrates that in neonatal mice NLF significantly limits mitochondrial calcium influx, the event associated with protection of the brain against hypoxic-ischemic insult (HI). Compared to the vehicle-treated mice, cerebral mitochondria from NLF-treated mice exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to the Ca2+-induced membrane permeabilization, greater ADP-phosphorylating activity and reduced cytochrome C release during reperfusion. Pre-treatment with NLF or Ruthenium red (RuR) significantly improved viability of murine hippocampal HT-22 cells, reduced Ca2+ content and preserved membrane potential (Ψm) in mitochondria following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Following histamine-stimulated Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum, in contrast to the vehicle-treated cells, the cells treated with NLF or RuR also demonstrated reduced Ca2+ content in their mitochondria, the event associated with preserved Ψm. Because RuR inhibits mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, we tested whether the NLF acts via the mechanism similar to the RuR. However, in contrast to the RuR, in the experiment with direct interaction of these agents with mitochondria isolated from na?ve mice, the NLF did not alter mitochondrial Ca2+ influx, and did not prevent Ca2+ induced collapse of the Ψm. These data strongly argues against interaction of NLF and mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. Although the exact mechanism remains unclear, our study is the first to show that NLF inhibits intramitochondrial Ca2+ flux and protects developing brain against HI-reperfusion injury. This novel action of NLF has important clinical implication, because it targets a fundamental mechanism of post-ischemic cell death: intramitochondrial Ca2+ overload → mitochondrial membrane permeabilization → secondary energy failure.
Complement Inhibition Promotes Endogenous Neurogenesis and Sustained Anti-Inflammatory Neuroprotection following Reperfused Stroke
Andrew F. Ducruet, Brad E. Zacharia, Sergey A. Sosunov, Paul R. Gigante, Mason L. Yeh, Justin W. Gorski, Marc L. Otten, Richard Y. Hwang, Peter A. DeRosa, Zachary L. Hickman, Paulina Sergot, E. Sander Connolly
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038664
Abstract: Background and Purpose The restoration of blood-flow following cerebral ischemia incites a series of deleterious cascades that exacerbate neuronal injury. Pharmacologic inhibition of the C3a-receptor ameliorates cerebral injury by attenuating post-ischemic inflammation. Recent reports also implicate C3a in the modulation of tissue repair, suggesting that complement may influence both injury and recovery at later post-ischemic time-points. Methods To evaluate the effect of C3a-receptor antagonism on post-ischemic neurogenesis and neurological outcome in the subacute period of stroke, transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult male C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple regimens of a C3a receptor antagonist (C3aRA). Results Low-dose C3aRA administration during the acute phase of stroke promotes neuroblast proliferation in the subventricular zone at 7 days. Additionally, the C3a receptor is expressed on T-lymphocytes within the ischemic territory at 7 days, and this cellular infiltrate is abrogated by C3aRA administration. Finally, C3aRA treatment confers robust histologic and functional neuroprotection at this delayed time-point. Conclusions Targeted complement inhibition through low-dose antagonism of the C3a receptor promotes post-ischemic neuroblast proliferation in the SVZ. Furthermore, C3aRA administration suppresses T-lymphocyte infiltration and improves delayed functional and histologic outcome following reperfused stroke. Post-ischemic complement activation may be pharmacologically manipulated to yield an effective therapy for stroke.
Digitonin and sodium dodecylsulfate-solubilized frog rho-dopsin: Behavior under native and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis  [PDF]
Sergey A. Shukolyukov
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.22011
Abstract: Rhodopsin oligomerization and dissociation in vivo and under experimental conditions is an important topic both for a basic understanding of photoreceptor structure-function but also as a potential eye disease mechanism. In this study, to estimate a state rhodopsin after solubilization with mild and harsh detergents, we applied the native (blue native-PAGE, BN- PAGE) and denaturing electrophoresis (blue-urea- PAGE, BU-PAGE; blue-SDS-PAGE, BSDS-PAGE and SDS- PAGE). After blue BN-PAGE and BSDS- PAGE, rhodopsin and opsin, respectively, were presented in gels a major band of dimer with slight contents of higher oligomers without any traces of monomer, thus testifying in favor dimer-heteromeric state of frog rhodopsin in the photoreceptor membrane. Despite all oligomer bands gave positive staining with the rhodopsin-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), subsequent SDS-PAGE in combination with electroelution in denaturing conditions showed that stained bands are not homogenous and besides of opsin oli-gomers contain a small admixture of proteins with unknown function. Unfolding of opsin oligomers by solubilization in SDS, as compared with folded opsin in digitonin, induces their transition to a more compact conformation. It was manifested in a more rapid migration of opsin oligomers toward to anode. Cooling of digitonin/SDS mixed extracts at 4?C for 24 hours led to a partial reverse transition of unfolded opsin dimer to initial folded conformation, thus de- monstrating the entropic nature of this transition. Opsin monomer can be observed in the gels only after harsh dissociation of oligomers under BU-PAGE or SDS-PAGE. The electro elution of the individual opsin oligomers with denaturing buffer followed by SDS-PAGE resulted in dissociation of dimer to monomers. However, unexpectedly, the trimer was dissociated to a prevailing dimer and a small portion of monomer. The products dissociation of both opsin tetramer and pentamer are difficult to determine precisely, but they are neither monomer nor dimer. Dissociation data show that the degree of opsin oli- gomerization by unknown reasons affects the pattern of dissociation of its aggregates. Obtained in this paper data indicate a need for further detailed study the obscure mechanisms of aggregation-dissociation of rhodopsin.
Measuring the Level of Economic Non-Freedom and Its Impact on the Economy of Russia  [PDF]
Sergey A. Surkov
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.49062
Abstract:

Work is devoted to studying of economy development regularities which are executed in Russia. A method for determining the level of economic non-freedom consists in obtaining the values of the relative profit when zero the number of employees the enterprise. 32 countries of the world have used published statistic data, for Russia, the specified methods have been added to two more. One is based on information from managers and business owners, and second on poll direct participants of economic processes. Averaging of these sizes allowed to define the level of economic non-freedom in Russia as 48.9%.

Effects of Calcium on the GABAA-Coupled CI-/HCO3- -ATPase from Plasma Membrane of Rat Brain  [PDF]
Sergey A. Menzikov, Marina V. Kalinina
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2014.22009
Abstract: The work is a study of the influence of Ca2+ (0.01 - 1 mM) on neuronal CI-, HCO3-, -ATPase complex: an enzyme that is a CI--pump which is functionally and structurally coupled to GABAA-receptors. It is found that influence of Ca2+ on the multifunctional complex starts at concentration of 50·M and at concentration of 0.1 mM, it reduces the “basal” one and increases the CI-, HCO3-, -stimulated Mg2+-ATPase activities. GABA (0.1 - 100μM) activates the “basal” Mg2+-ATPase activity in the ab-sence of calcium. The effect of GABA on the enzyme in the presence of 0.01 ·M Ca2+ does not change. At the same time, 1 mM Ca2+eliminates the GABA effect on the “basal” Mg2+-ATPase activity. Competitive blocker of GABAA-receptors bicuculline (5 - 20 μM) in the absence of Ca2+ ions elimi-nates the stimulation of the “basal” Mg2+-ATPase by anions. When 0.25 mM Ca2+ is added to the in-cubation medium the inhibitory bicuculline effect on the enzyme does not appear. We found that 0.1 mM o-vanadate (protein tyrosine phosphatase blocker) reduces the GABA-activated ATPase activity. At the same time, 0.1 mM genistein (a protein tyrosine kinase blocker) has no effect on enzyme activity. In the presence of Ca2+ (0.25 mM), the effect of o-vanadate on the “basal” and CI-, HCO3-, -ATPase activities does not appear. It is shown for the first time that high concentrations of Ca2+prevent the action of GABAA-ergic ligands on the study ATPase. It is assumed that there is the involvement of protein kinases and protein phosphatases in the modulation of the enzyme activity by calcium. The observed effect of calcium on the ATPase may play an important role in the study of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and seizure activity.
Electrospark Coatings Based on WC-Co Alloys with Aluminium Oxide and Carbon Additives  [PDF]
Sergey A. Pyachin, Sergey V. Nikolenko, Alexander A. Burkov, Nikolay A. Suy
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.43022
Abstract:

The structure and properties of coatings based on WC-Co alloys containing additives of 1% - 5% aluminium oxide and 2.5% - 4.5% carbon were investigated. The coatings had a nanocrystalline structure. Depending on the duration and frequency of the discharge pulses, the ratio between WC and W2C in the coatings was different. The additives in the hard alloy allowed us increase the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings by a factor of 2 - 3 in comparison to coatings created using a conventional WC-10%Co alloy.

Klein Topological Field Theories from Group Representations
Sergey A. Loktev,Sergey M. Natanzon
Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry : Methods and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: We show that any complex (respectively real) representation of finite group naturally generates a open-closed (respectively Klein) topological field theory over complex numbers. We relate the 1-point correlator for the projective plane in this theory with the Frobenius-Schur indicator on the representation. We relate any complex simple Klein TFT to a real division ring.
Fast and robust two- and three-qubit swapping gates on multi-atomic ensembles in quantum electrodynamic cavity
Sergey N. Andrianov,Sergey A. Moiseev
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.52.2
Abstract: Creation of quantum computer is outstanding fundamental and practical problem. The quantum computer could be used for execution of very complicated tasks which are not solvable with the classical computers. The first prototype of solid state quantum computer was created in 2009 with superconducting qubits. However, it suffers from the decoherent processes and it is desirable to find more practical encoding of qubits with long-lived coherence. It could be single impurity or vacancy centers in solids, but their interaction with electromagnetic radiation is rather weak. So, here, ensembles of atoms were proposed for the qubit encoding by using the dipole blockade mechanism in order to turn multilevel systems in two level ones. But dipole-dipole based blockade introduces an additional decoherence that limits its practical significance. Recently, the collective blockade mechanism has been proposed for the system of three-level atoms by using the different frequency shifts for the Raman transitions between the collective atomic states characterized by a different number of the excited atoms. Here, we propose two qubit gate by using another collective blockade mechanism in the system of two level atoms based on exchange interaction via the virtual photons between the multi-atomic ensembles in the resonator. Also we demonstrate the possibility of three qubit gate (Controlled SWAP gate) using a suppression of the swap-process between two multi-atomic ensembles due to dynamical shift of the atomic levels controlled by the states of photon encoded qubit.
Multi-Scale Perturbation Analysis in Hydrodynamics of the Superfluid Turbulence. Derivation of the Dresner Equation
Sergey K. Nemirovskii,Sergey A. Ponomarenko
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: The Hydrodynamics of Superfluid Turbulence (HST) describes the flows (or counterflows) of HeII in the presence of a chaotic set of vortex filaments, so called superfluid turbulence. The HST equations govern both a slow variation of the hydrodynamic variables due to dissipation related to the vortex tangle and fast processes of the first and second sound propagation. This circumstance prevents an effective numerical simulations of the problems of unsteady heat transfer in HeII. By virtue of a pertinent multi-scale perturbation analysis we show how one can eliminate the fast processes to derive the evolution equation for the slow processes only. We then demonstrate that the long-term evolution of a transient heat load of moderate intensity obeys the nonlinear heat conductivity equation, often referred to as the Dresner equation. We also compare our approach against the Dresner phenomenological derivation and establish a range of validity of the latter.
Klein Topological Field Theories from Group Representations
Sergey A. Loktev,Sergey M. Natanzon
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.3842/SIGMA.2011.070
Abstract: We show that any complex (respectively real) representation of finite group naturally generates a open-closed (respectively Klein) topological field theory over complex numbers. We relate the 1-point correlator for the projective plane in this theory with the Frobenius-Schur indicator on the representation. We relate any complex simple Klein TFT to a real division ring.
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