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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 256 matches for " Senay Simsek "
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What Are the Characteristics of Arabinoxylan Gels?  [PDF]
Cassie Anderson, Senay Simsek
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.97061
Abstract: Arabinoxylan gels are commonly characterized to determine the feasibility of utilizing them in numerous applications such as drug delivery systems. The general characteristics of numerous types of arabinoxylan gels as well as their susceptibility to degradation are discussed in this manuscript. There are two main types of arabinoxylan: water-extractable and alkali-extractable. The physicochemical characteristics of the arabinoxylan determine its extractability and gelling characteristics. Gels can be created from numerous types of arabinoxylan including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). These gels can also be developed with the addition of protein and/or β-glucan, which results in modified mechanical properties of the gels. To create a sound gel, arabinoxylan must be cross-linked, which is often done through ferulic acid. When this takes place, the gel developed is thermo-irreversible, unsusceptible to pH and electrolyte interactions, and does not undergo syneresis during storage. Despite these strengths, arabinoxylan gels can be broken down by the enzymes produced by Bifidobacterium, which is present in the human large intestine. After further development and research on these gels, they could be utilized for many purposes.
Analysis of the Fatty Acids and Phenolic Compounds in a Cereal-Based Fermented Food (Tarhana)  [PDF]
Maribel Ovando-Martinez, Orhan Daglioglu, Umit Gecgel, Senay Simsek
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513128
Abstract: Tarhana is a Turkish home-made fermented food product. The mixture of wheat flour, yoghurt, yeast, cooked vegetables, salt, and spices is fermented for 1 - 7 days. Tarhana is sun dried and ground for preparation of instant Tarhana powder. Color, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition were determined for home-made Tarhana, collected from 4 cities in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Color and phenolic content were significantly different (P < 0.05). These differences were due to the variation of ingredients used at different locations. The major unsaturated fatty acids were oleic (C18:1, 16.41% - 57.69%), and linoleic acids (C18:2, 9.74% - 56.31%). Palmitic (C16:0, 16.90% - 37.66%) and stearic acids (C18:0, 0.65% - 11.34%) were the main saturated fatty acids. This study suggested that Tarhana soup is a good source of unsaturated fatty acids. Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds and their effect on peroxidation of lipids in Tarhana should be tested in future studies.
Chemical Properties of Pectin from Industry Hot and Cold Break Tomato Products  [PDF]
Hui H. Chong, Senay Simsek, Bradley L. Reuhs
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513126
Abstract: Tomato processing includes a break step, which involves rapid heating of freshly chopped tomatoes to >90°C for hot break, or 60°C to 77°C for cold break. Pectolytic enzyme deactivation is believed to be the key element in the hot break step; therefore, pectin content of different products should be qualitatively distinct. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of hot break versus cold break on the cell-wall pectin of tomato. Cell-wall pectin from hot and cold break tomato products was isolated and analyzed for carbohydrate composition, degree of polymerization, and degree of esterification. The results showed no observable differences in the cell-wall pectin isolated from the two products, indicating that there was no significant pectolytic breakdown of the tomato in the cold break product, and the pectin might not, by itself, contribute to the differences in the final product viscosity resulting from the two processing techniques.
Effect of a Post-Anthesis Foliar Application of Nitrogen on Grain Protein and Milling and Baking Quality of Spring Wheat  [PDF]
Joel Ransom, Senay Simsek, Blaine Schatz, Eric Eriksmoen, Grant Mehring, Itai Mutukwa
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.717218
Abstract: Hard red spring wheat in North America must be high in protein in order to avoid costly discounts when marketed. Many newer cultivars have higher yield potential but produce relatively lower grain protein levels. A post-anthesis foliar application of urea-ammonium nitrate mixed with equal part water at 33 kg·ha-1 nitrogen (N) can increase grain protein levels by up to one percent. This increase can be profitable when market premiums/discounts for protein are moderate to high. Nitrogen applied post-anthesis consistently increased grain protein content more than the application of the same rate of N to the soil prior to planting. Milling and baking analysis reveals augmenting the protein in this way does not diminish its functionality.
Mohamed Mergoum,Vibin E. Harilal,Senay Simsek,Mohammed S. Alamri
Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics , 2013,
Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour represents one of the primary sources of calories and proteins for the human diet. The increase in the wheat yield without losing its baking and milling quality is an important breeding objective. The use of QTL analysis is an expedient methodology to help breeders to face this multifaceted challenge. Here, a population of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between ‘Steele-ND’ cultivar and ‘ND 735’ advanced line was used to evaluate several yield and quality traits and map the genomic regions controlling these traits. The phenotypic data were collected from field experiments conducted at four North Dakota (ND), USA environments. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits, with RILs outperforming the most adapted parent and commercial cultivars. Using a linkage map of 392 markers, composite interval mapping identified a total of 13 environment-specific QTLs, all explaining large phenotypic variations (R2=16-44%). The genotypic values of these “reserve” alleles were directly used as criteria of selection in breeding programs.
Effect of Water Regimes on Dietary Fiber, Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Black and Pinto Beans  [PDF]
Maribel Ovando-Martínez, Salvador Horacio Guzmán-Maldonado, Senay Simsek, Luis Arturo Bello-Pérez, Perla Osorio-Díaz
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.54036

Beans are rich in dietary fiber and polyphenols; however, growing conditions may affect the occurrence of these components. The effect of irrigation and rain fed conditions on dietary fiber, indigestible fraction, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Black 8025 and Pinto Durango bean cultivars grown in Mexico have been determined. Total dietary fiber decreased in beans grown under rain fed conditions compared to those grown under irrigation. The water regimes had an effect on the total indigestible fraction for Black 8025 bean. The extractable polyphenols were affected by the water regimes, while the antioxidant capacity of extractable and non-extractable polyphenols was dependent on the bean variety. Cooking the beans altered the extractable and non-extractable polyphenols and the antioxidant capacity. Also, the antioxidant properties and some extend, the digestibility of non-digestible carbohydrates of beans were affected by water regimes. This information could be taken into account for dry bean breeding programs to improve the nutritional quality of beans.

Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Grown in the USA
Senay Simsek,Maribel Ovando-Martínez,Bahri Ozsisli,Kristin Whitney,Jae-Bom Ohm
Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/toxins5122656
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in wheat that is infected with Fusarium fungus. DON may also be converted to a type of “masked mycotoxin”, named deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G), as a result of detoxification of the plant. In this study, DON and D3G were measured using gas chromatographic (GC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in wheat samples collected during 2011 and 2012 in the USA. Results indicate that the growing region had a significant effect on the DON and D3G ( p < 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between both methods (GC and LC-MS) used for determination of DON content. DON showed a significant and positive correlation with D3G during 2011. Overall, DON production had an effect on D3G content and kernel damage, and was dependent on environmental conditions during Fusarium infection.
Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum
Maribel Ovando-Martínez,Bahri Ozsisli,James Anderson,Kristin Whitney,Jae-Bom Ohm,Senay Simsek
Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/toxins5122522
Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was to analyze DON and D3G content in inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines grown at two locations in Minnesota, USA during three different years. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between DON content measured with LC and GC among wheat lines, locality and year. The relationship between DON and D3G showed a linear increase until a certain point, after which the DON content and the D3G increased. Wheat lines having higher susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. ANOVA demonstrated that the line and location have a greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than do their interaction among years. The most important factor affecting DON and D3G was the growing location. In conclusion, the year, environmental conditions and location have an effect on the D3G/DON ratio in response to Fusarium infection.
Special Numbers on Analytic Functions  [PDF]
Yilmaz Simsek
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.57102

The aim of this paper is to give some analytic functions which are related to the generating functions for the central factorial numbers. By using these functions and p-adic Volkenborn integral, we derive many new identities associated with the Bernoulli and Euler numbers, the central factorial numbers and the Stirling numbers. We also give some remarks and comments on these analytic functions, which are related to the generating functions for the special numbers.

A Premature Baby’s Nursing Care Plan  [PDF]
Senay Cetinkaya, Sibelt Kusdemir
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.85050
Abstract: Introduction: Baby T, is in the 46th day of his life has a 26-year-old mother who has suffered from about hypotyroid and preeclampsia during her pregnancy was born as a preterm baby when he was in 27 weeks’ gestation age by CS. Purpose: This article aimed to introduce the Nursing care plan. Materials and Methods: Place of work: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit/Balcali Research and Education Hospital in Adana, Turkey. Nursing Care Plan for the clinical period from 23.02.2015 till 11.03.2015. Informed consent was obtained from the baby’s family. Results: In addition to this, parents have blood incompatibility, therefore, such combinations of diseases impacted baby in the uterus and delivery happened earlier than expected date. His birth weight was 820 gr (0% - 5% percentile), height 34 cm (10% - 25% percentile), head-circumference 24 cm (10% percentile). The following healthcare needs were identified upon assessment; intubation, oxygene and stimulant support, monitorization, taking blood samples. Apical pulse is rapid and irregular within normal range 148 bpm, weight is 1605 gr, body is long, thin, limp with a slight potbelly. Initially suck/swallow reflex was absent/uncoordinated that’s why he was taking expressed breastmilk throughout orogastric catheter, it has started also oral giving for the couple of days with the development of sucking and swallowing. Reflexes depend on gestational age; rooting well established by 32 weeks’ gestation; coordinated reflexes for sucking, swallowing, and breathing usually established by 32 weeks; first component of Moro’s reflex (lateral extension of upper extremities with opening of hands) appears at 28 weeks; second two components (anterior flexion and audiblecry) appear at 32 weeks. Dubowitz examination indicates gestational age between 24 and 37 weeks. Consequently, this infant shows, palmar grasp, plantar grasp, moro reflex; the only response is the opening of the hand due to 27 gestational age. Apgar score was 4 - 7 (average, need oxygene and stimulant). Respiration was shallow, maintain neutral thermal environment, prevent or reduce risk of potential irregular, diaphragmatic with intermittent breathing 58/min. Conclusion: Nursing priorities should be promote optimal respiratory functioning, complications, maintain homeostasis, foster development of healthy family unit.
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