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Non-Newtonian Power-Law Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer over a Non-Linearly Stretching Surface  [PDF]
Kerehalli Vinayaka Prasad, Seetharaman Rajeswari Santhi, Pampanna Somanna Datti
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.35065
Abstract: The problem of magneto-hydrodynamic flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting non-Newtonian power-law fluid past a non-linearly stretching surface in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is considered. The stretching velocity, the temperature and the transverse magnetic field are assumed to vary in a power-law with the distance from the origin. The flow is induced due to an infinite elastic sheet which is stretched in its own plane. The governing equations are reduced to non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformations. These equations are then solved numerically by an implicit finite-difference scheme known as Keller-Box method. The numerical solution is found to be dependent on several governing parameters, including the magnetic field parameter, power-law index, velocity exponent parameter, temperature exponent parameter, Modified Prandtl number and heat source/sink parameter. A systematic study is carried out to illustrate the effects of these parameters on the fluid velocity and the temperature distribution in the boundary layer. The results for the local skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are tabulated and discussed. The results obtained reveal many interesting behaviors that warrant further study on the equations related to non-Newtonian fluid phenomena.
Near-Lossless Compression Based on a Full Range Gaussian Markov Random Field Model for 2D Monochrome Images  [PDF]
K. Seetharaman, V. Rekha
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.41002
Abstract:

This paper proposes a Full Range Gaussian Markov Random Field (FRGMRF) model for monochrome image compression, where images are assumed to be Gaussian Markov Random Field. The parameters of the model are estimated based on Bayesian approach. The advantage of the proposed model is that it adapts itself according to the nature of the data (image) because it has infinite structure with a finite number of parameters, and so completely avoids the problem of order determination. The proposed model is fitted to reconstruct the image with the use of estimated parameters and seed values. The residual image is computed from the original and the reconstructed images. The proposed FRGMRF model is redefined as an error model to compress the residual image to obtain better quality of the reconstructed image. The parameters of the error model are estimated by employing the Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) algorithm. Then, the error model is fitted to reconstruct the compressed residual image. The Arithmetic coding is employed on seed values, average of the residuals and the model coefficients of both the input and residual images to achieve higher compression ratio. Different types of textured and structured images are considered for experiment to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed model. The results obtained by the FRGMRF model are compared to the JPEG2000. The proposed approach yields higher compression ratio than the JPEG whereas it produces Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) with little higher than the JPEG, which is negligible.

Regression Testing in Developer Environment for Absence of Code Coverage  [PDF]
M. Thillaikarasi, K. Seetharaman
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2014.78057
Abstract:

The techniques of test case prioritization schedule the execution order of test cases to attain respective target, such as enhanced level of forecasting the fault. The requirement of the prioritization can be viewed as the en-route for deriving an order of relation on a given set of test cases which results from regression testing. Alteration of programs between the versions can cause more test cases which may respond differently to following versions of software. In this, a fixed approach to prioritizing test cases avoids the preceding drawbacks. The JUnit test case prioritization techniques operating in the absence of coverage information, differs from existing dynamic coverage-based test case prioritization techniques. Further, the prioritization test cases relying on coverage information were projected from fixed structures relatively other than gathered instrumentation and execution.

Removal of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solutions onto Microwave Assisted Zinc Chloride Chemical Activated Epicarp of Ricinus communis  [PDF]
M. Makeswari, T. Santhi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.52023
Abstract:

Competitive adsorption of malachite green (MG) in single and binary system on microwave activated epicarp of Ricinus communis (MRC) and microwave assisted zinc chloride activated epicarp of Ricinus communis (ZRC) were analyzed. The preparation of ZRC from Ricinus communis was investigated in this paper. Orthogonal array experimental design method was used to optimize the preparation of ZRC. Optimized parameters were radiation power of 100 W, radiation time of 4 min, concentration of zinc chloride of 30% by volume and impregnation time of 16 h, respectively. The MRC and ZRC were characterized by pHzpc, SEM-EDAX and FTIR analysis. The effect of the presence of one dye solution on the adsorption of the other dye solution was investigated in terms of equilibrium isotherm and adsorption yield. Experimental results indicated that the uptake capacities of one dye were reduced by the presence of the other dye. The adsorption equilibrium data fits the Langmuir model well and follows pseudo second-order kinetics for the bio-sorption process. Among MRC and ZRC, ZRC shows most adsorption ability than MRC in single and binary system.

An Inventory Model for Items with Two Parameter Weibull Distribution Deterioration and Backlogging  [PDF]
Nandagopal Rajeswari, Thirumalaisamy Vanjikkodi
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2012.22029
Abstract: In this paper an inventory model is developed with time dependent power pattern demand and shortages due to deterioration and demand. The deterioration is assumed to follow a two parameter Weibull distribution. Three different cases with complete, partial, no backlogging are considered. The optimal analytical solution of the model is derived. Suitable numerical example has been discussed to understand the problem. Further sensitivity analysis of the decision variables has been done to examine the effect of changes in the values of the parameters on the optimal inventory policy.
A Cluster Based QoS-Aware Service Discovery Architecture Using Swarm Intelligence  [PDF]
E. Christopher Siddarth, K. Seetharaman
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.52018
Abstract:

The existing mobile service discovery approaches do not completely address the issues of service selection and the robustness faced to mobility. The infrastructure of mobile service must be QoS-aware plus context-aware (i.e.) aware of the user’s required-QoS and the QoS offered by the other networks in user’s context. In this paper, we propose a cluster based QoS-aware service discovery architecture using swarm intelligence. Initially, in this architecture, the client sends a service request together with its required QoS parameters like power, distance, CPU speed etc. to its source cluster head. Swarm intelligence is used to establish the intra and inter cluster shortest path routing. Each cluster head searches the QoS aware server with matching QoS constraints by means of a service table and a server table. The QoS aware server is selected to process the service request and to send the reply back to the client. By simulation results, we show that the proposed architecture can attain a good success rate with reduced delay and energy consumption, since it satisfies the QoS constraints.

Demineralised Lignite Fly Ash for the Removal of Zn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
Thaligai Subramanian Malarvizhi, Thirumalaisamy Santhi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.51009
Abstract:

Among the various possibilities of limiting the disposal of fly ashes (lignite), their reutilization as adsorbent materials is worthy of consideration. To this end, proper ashes beneficiation techniques can be put into practice. The adsorption of toxic compounds from industrial wastewater is an effective method for both treating these effluents and recycling lignite fly ash. The aim of this paper is to give a contribution for understanding the relationships among beneficiation treatments, adsorbent properties and adsorption mechanism and efficiency. In this context, the lignite fly ash was demineralised using concentrated HCl and HF (FA-DEM) and was used as adsorbent for Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were carried out under various adsorbent dosages, pH, contact time and different metal ion concentrations. For FA-DEM, the 57.7% removal of Zn(II) ion was achieved under the optimum conditions of adsorbent dosages of 4 g/L, pH at 6, temperature at 303 K and the contact time of 1.15 h. The adsorption of Zn(II) ions onto FA-DEM followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm model best represented the equilibrium data.

An Active Rule Approach for Network Intrusion Detection with Enhanced C4.5 Algorithm  [PDF]
L Prema RAJESWARI, Kannan ARPUTHARAJ
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.14039
Abstract: Intrusion detection systems provide additional defense capacity to a networked information system in addition to the security measures provided by the firewalls. This paper proposes an active rule based enhancement to the C4.5 algorithm for network intrusion detection in order to detect misuse behaviors of internal attackers through effective classification and decision making in computer networks. This enhanced C4.5 algorithm derives a set of classification rules from network audit data and then the generated rules are used to detect network intrusions in a real-time environment. Unlike most existing decision tree based approaches, the spawned rules generated and fired in this work are more effective because the information-theoretic approach minimizes the expected number of tests needed to classify an object and guarantees that a simple (but not necessarily the simplest) tree is found. The main advantage of this proposed algorithm is that the generalization ability of enhanced C4.5 decision trees is better than that of C4.5 decision trees. We have employed data from the third international knowledge discovery and data mining tools competition (KDDcup’99) to train and test the feasibility of this proposed model. By applying the enhanced C4.5 algorithm an average detection rate of 93.28 percent and a false positive rate of 0.7 percent have respectively been obtained in this work.
Approximate analytical solution of non-linear reaction diffusion equation in fluidized bed biofilm reactor  [PDF]
Seetharaman Usha, Shanmugarajan Anitha, Lakshmanan Rajendran
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.412127
Abstract: A mathematical model for the fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR) is discussed. An approximate analytical solution of concentration of phenol is obtained using modified Adomian decomposition method (MADM). The main objective is to propose an analytical method of solution, which do not require small parameters and avoid linearization and physically unrealistic assumptions. Theoretical results obtained can be used to predict the biofilm density of a single bioparticle. Satisfactory agreement is obtained in the comparison of approximate analytical solution and numerical simulation.
USING HASH BASED APRIORI ALGORITHM TO REDUCE THE CANDIDATE 2- ITEMSETS FOR MINING ASSOCIATION RULE
R. Santhi
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper we describe an implementation of Hash based Apriori. We analyze, theoretically and experimentally, the principal data structure of our solution. This data structure is the main factor in the efficiency of our implementation. We propose an effective hash-based algorithm for the candidate set generation. Explicitly, the number of candidate 2-itemsets generated by the proposed algorithm is, in orders of magnitude, smaller than that by previous methods, thus resolving the performance bottleneck. Our approach scans the database once utilizing an enhanced version of priori algorithm.Note that the generation of smaller candidate sets enables us to effectively trim the transaction database size at a much earlier stage of the iterations, thereby reducing the computational cost for later iterations significantly Keywords: Hash based Apriori, Data structure, Candidate 2-itemsets
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