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Experiments on stratification discussed here have revealed
the mechanical nature of lamination as well as the role of turbulent
current as agent of stratification. They challenge Steno’s principle that
superposed strata are successive sedimentary layers. They show that relative
chronology should not be referred to as “stages” but as “sequences” of series.
The rock formation studied by Lalomov shows that the duration
of sedimentation could be considerably shorter than indicated by the Geological
Time Scale. The latter scale corresponds to large marine transgressions and
regressions that can result from the shift of polar axis following such major
orogeneses as the Caledonian, Hercynian and Alpine.
The study on the criteria used to distinguish
floc sedimentation and gel-like network sedimentation of cohesive fine-grained sediment
in a turbulent flow has rarely been carried out. In this preliminary study, we derive
three criteria to distinguish these two different sedimentation phases by considering
the comparison of the time that a characteristic floc takes to settle through mean
distance between characteristic flocs and the time that it takes to move through
the same distance under the influence of a turbulent flow. These criteria incorporate
physical and chemical factors that have been verified to have some influences on
the sediment flocculation in some published literatures, and a simple analysis result
is found to be consistent with our qualitative understandings of flocculation phenomenon
of cohesive fine-grained sediment.