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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12884 matches for " Secondary Flow "
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Secondary Current and Classification of River Channels  [PDF]
Kaguchwa John Njenga, Kwanza Jackson Kioko, Gathia Patricia Wanjiru
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.41013

In this research, the secondary current theory is used in investigating the role of phase shift angle between the secondary current and the channel axis displacement in stability analysis of a river channel. To achieve this, a small-perturbation stability analysis is developed for investigation of the role of the secondary current accompanying channel curvature in the initiation and early development of meanders in open channels. The secondary currents are generating in planes perpendicular to the primary direction of motion. The secondary currents form a helical motion in which the water in the upper part of the river is driven outward, whereas the water near the bottom is driven inward in a bend. Force-momentum equations for longitudinal and transverse direction in open channel bends were utilized. Assuming that the transverse force contributed by the bed is negligible, the pressure force associated with the transverse surface inclination is balanced by the centripetal force. Existing equations of the transverse velocity profile were analyzed. Since the magnitude of the vertical velocity is negligible compared to the transverse velocity in secondary currents, this study concentrates on the transverse velocity which is the radial component of the secondary current. This formulation leads to a linear differential equation which is solved for its orthogonal components which give the rates of meander growth and downstream migration. It is shown that instability increases with decrease in phase shift angle. Transition from straight to meandering and then from meandering to braiding occurs when phase shift angle is reduced.

A Micromixer Using the Chaos of Secondary Flow: Rotation Effect of Channel on the Chaos of Secondary Flow  [PDF]
Yasutaka Hayamizu, Shinichiro Yanase, Shinichi Morita, Shigeru Ohtsuka, Takeshi Gonda, Kazunori Nishida, Kyoji Yamamoto
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.24A021
Abstract: The micromixer, which has a rotor with a curved channel, is studied experimentally. The secondary flow in a curved channel of rectangular cross-section is investigated using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) methods. Two walls of the channel (the inner and top walls) rotate around the center of curvature and a pressure gradient is imposed in the direction of the exit of the channel. The non-dimensional channel curvature δ=a/R is taken to be about 0.1, where 2a is the width of the channel, R the curvature radius of the channel. Other non-dimensional parameters concerned are the Dean number De=Reδ1/2, the Reynolds number Re=qdh/v, where q is the mean flow velocity in the channel axis direction, ν the kinematic viscosity, dh the hydraulic diameter of the channel, and the Taylor number Tr=2(2δ)1/2Ωa2/(δv), where Ω is the angular velocity of the rotor. Photographs of the flow in a cross-section at 180° downstream from the curved channel entrance are taken by changing the flux (De) at a constant rotational speed (Tr) of the channel walls. It is found that good mixing performance is obtained in the case of De≤0.1|Tr| and for that case secondary flows show chaotic behaviors. And then we have confirmed the occurrence of reversal of the mean axial flow.
Study of Secondary Flow Modifications at Impeller Exit of a Centrifugal Compressor  [PDF]
Surendran Anish, Nekkanti Sitaram, Heuy Dong Kim
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.24A029
Abstract: A computational study has been conducted to analyze the performance of a centrifugal compressor under various levels of impeller-diffuser interactions. The study has been conducted using a low solidity vaned diffuser (LSVD), a conventional vaned diffuser (VD) and a vaneless diffuser (VLD). The study is carried out using Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes simulations. A commercial software ANSYS CFX is used for this purpose. The extent of diffuser influence on impeller flow is studied by keeping the diffuser vane leading edge at three different radial locations. Detailed flow analysis inside the impeller passage shows that the strength and location of the wake region at the exit of impeller blade is heavily depended upon the tip leakage flow and the pressure equalization flow. Above design flow rate, the diffuser vane affects only the last twenty percent of the impeller flow. However, below design flow rate, keeping vane closer to the impeller can cause an early stall within the impeller. Small negative incidence angle at the diffuser vane is helpful in order to reduce the losses at the impeller exit.
A Micromixer Using the Taylor-Dean Flow: Effect of Inflow Conditions on the Mixing  [PDF]
Toshihiko Kawabe, Yasutaka Hayamizu, Shinichiro Yanase, Takeshi Gonda, Shinichi Morita, Shigeru Ohtsuka, Kyoji Yamamoto
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2014.45037
Abstract: Chaotic mixing in a curved-square channel flow is studied experimentally and numerically. Two walls of the channel (inner and top walls) rotate around the center of curvature and a pressure gradient is imposed in the direction toward the exit of the channel. This flow is a kind of Taylor-Dean flows. There are two parameters dominating the flow, the Dean number De (∝ the pressure gradient or the Reynolds number) and the Taylor number Tr (∝ the angular velocity of the wall rotation). In the present paper, we analyze the physical mechanism of chaotic mixing in the Taylor-Dean flow by comparing experimental and numerical results. We produced a micromixer model of the curved channel several centimeters long with square cross section of a few millimeters side. The secondary flow was measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method to examine secondary flow characteristics. We also performed three-dimensional numerical simulations for the exactly same configuration as the experimental system to study the mechanism of chaotic mixing. It is found that good mixing performance is achieved for the case of De ≤ 0.1Tr, and that mixing efficiency changes according to the difference in inflow conditions. The flow is studied both experimentally and numerically, and both results agree with each other very well.
Turbulence Modelling of a Single-Phase Flow Cyclone Gasifier  [PDF]
Pantea Hadi Jafari, J. Gunnar I. Hellstr?m, B. Rikard Gebart
Engineering (ENG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2017.99047
Abstract: The current work aims to make a foundation for an engineering design of a cyclone gasifier to be able not only to predict its flow field with a suitable accuracy but also to investigate a large number of design alternatives with limited computer resources. A good single-phase flow model that can form the basis in an Euler-Lagrange model for multi-phase flow is also necessaryfor modelling the reacting flow inside a cyclone gasifier. The present paper provides an objective comparison between several popular turbulence modelling options including standard k-ε and SST with curvature corrections, SSG-RSM and LES Smagorinsky models, for the single-phase flow inside cyclone separators/gasifiers that can serve as a guide for further work on the reacting multi-phase flow inside cyclone gasifiers and similar devices. A detailed comparison between the models and experimental data for the mean velocity and fluctuating parts of the velocity profiles are presented. Furthermore, the capabilities of the turbulence models to capture the physical phenomena present in a cyclone gasifier thataffects the design process are investigated.
Production and Evaluation of Educational Material Using Augmented Reality for Teaching the Module of “Representation of the Information on Computers” in Junior High School  [PDF]
Stefanos Giasiranis, Loizos Sofos
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.79134
Abstract: The purpose of this study was the investigation of the added value of technology of Augmented Reality in education and, particularly, whether this contributes to both student performance improvement, as well as the appearance of the psychological condition of Flow, which, according to research, has had a positive effect on their performance when experienced during learning process. The research involved a total of 42 students in their second year of junior high school who were taught the module “representation of the information on computers” using two different technologies, those of Augmented Reality and the Web. Research data showed that both technologies contributed to student performance improvement and to the appearance of Flow to pupils, with apparently better results with the student group who utilized the technology of Augmented Reality, though.
Effect of Hole Size on Flow Structure and Mixing Characteristic in a Multi-Hole Baffled Micro Combustor  [PDF]
Won Hyun Kim, Young Su Park, Seon Myeong Park, Tae Seon Park
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.51002
Flow structure and mixing properties by the baffle shape are numerically studied for a baffled micro combustor. The baffle shape is changed by various fuel and hole sizes. The numerical simulations based on different geometric conditions are performed by using the Reynolds Stress Model. The fuel-air mixing is greatly affected by flow recirculations. The centrally located flow recirculation has an important role for the entire mixing performance. The results show that this feature depends on the baffle configurations, and the baffle with small air holes represents efficient characters.
Behavior of a Jet Issuing Diagonally Upward into Two-Layer Density-Stratified Fluid in a Cylindrical Tank  [PDF]
Tomohiro Degawa, Shota Fukue, Tomomi Uchiyama, Akira Ishikawa, Koji Motoyama
Journal of Flow Control, Measurement & Visualization (JFCMV) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jfcmv.2017.53004
Abstract: This study is concerned with the experimental investigation of a jet issuing diagonally upward into a two-layer density-stratified fluid in a cylindrical tank and the resulting mixing phenomena. The upper and lower fluids are water and an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), respectively, and the lower fluid issues from a nozzle on the bottom of the tank. The angle between the centerline of the jet and the bottom of the tank is 60o, and the mass concentration of the NaCl solution is 0.02. The investigation reveals that secondary flow is caused by the jet in the horizontal cross-sections of the tank and that it is composed of a pair of vortices. It confirms that the secondary flow at the density interface corresponds to an internal density current. The investigation also clarifies the effect of the Reynolds number of the jet on mixing between the lower and upper fluids.
Numerical Simulation of Jet Issuing Diagonally Upward into Density-Stratified Fluid in Cylindrical Tank  [PDF]
Tomohiro Degawa, Tomomi Uchiyama, Isao Aozasa, Akira Ishikawa, Koji Motoyama
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.63004
Abstract: This study simulates the behavior of a jet issuing into a two-layer density-stratified fluid in a cylindrical tank and the resulting mixing phenomena. The upper and lower fluids are water and an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl), respectively, with the lower fluid issuing diagonally upward from a nozzle on the bottom of the tank. The angle between the centerline of the jet and the tank bottom is 60°. The phenomena when the Reynolds number Re of the jet is 475, 1426, and 2614 are simulated. The mass concentration of the aqueous solution of NaCl is 0.02. The simulation successfully grasps the jet behavior and the resulting mixing, which agree with the authors’ experimental results at the corresponding Re value. The secondary flows that appear in the horizontal cross-sections consist of a pair of vortices and flows along the tank wall. The secondary flow at the density interface represents the intrusion of an internal density current, which gives rise to mixing along the interface.
Numerical Study of Flow and Thermal Field on a Parallel Flow Vortex Tube  [PDF]
Dedy Zulhidayat Noor, Heru Mirmanto, Joko Sarsetiyanto, Denny M. E. Soedjono, Sri Bangun Setyawati
Engineering (ENG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2012.411099
Abstract: Flow and thermal field of a parallel flow vortex tube has been simulated and analyzed numerically. A secondary zone model is found at the core region near the inlet to the middle of the vortex tube. Blockage effect due to a narrow area of the hot exit has deflected air flow towards the cold exit, caused expansion and compression at the cold and hot outlet, respectively. The cooling and heating effect due to energy separation is contributed by expansion and compression of air near the outlet. Coeficient of performance (COP) for a refrigerator is higher as cold mass fraction increases due to a higher temperature difference and cold mass flow rate.
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