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Maternal and Perinatal Complications of Severe Preeclampsia in Three Referral Hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon  [PDF]
Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Marie Kasia, Jean Alima, Joel Fokom Domgue, Anny Ngassam, Jean Baptiste Bogne, Sebastien Mba
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.512101
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to determine maternal and perinatal complications of pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia in three tertiary care centers in Cameroon. Methods: We carried out a descriptive cross sectional study from the 1st of June 2012 to the 31th of June 2014, among pregnant women with severe preeclampsia followed up in three tertiary level hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon: the Yaoundé General Hospital, the Yaoundé Central Hospital, and the Yaoundé University Hospital. Statistical analysis was performed using EPI 3.5.5. Data were described as means ± standard deviation, percentages and numbers. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used where appropriate. Results: Of the 2500 deliveries registered during the study period, 111 cases (8.49%) were managed as severe preeclampsia. Four patients refused to participate and were excluded from the study. Most of these patients were non workers (58.0%), pauciparous (61.7%) and young (median age of 27.47 years ± 6.46). Eclampsia (12.14%), abruptio placentae (11.21%) and hypertensive retinopathy (7.47%) were the most frequent maternal complications. Two cases (1.86%) of maternal deaths occurred in patients who had eclampsia. Prematurity (48.6%), intra uterine fetal death (13.1%) and oligoamnios (11.2%) were the most frequent fetal complications. All four neonatal deaths occurred in women in whom the diagnosis of severe preeclampsia was done between 28 and 33 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: Pregnancies complicated by severe preeclampsia had significantly high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Cameroon. The complications of severe preeclampsia can be prevented by more widespread use of antenatal care, education of primary medical care personnel, prompt diagnosis of high-risk patients and timely referral to tertiary medical centers.
Economic Governance in Gabon: Assessment of the Plan Stratégique Gabon Emergent on the Business Environment  [PDF]
Herbert Mba Aki
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2019.91002
Abstract: The present study aims to identify the existing reforms introduced by the re-cent economic diversification policy of the government of Gabon called Plan Stratégique Gabon Emergent. It assesses the current stage of reforms aiming to enable the business environment. Empirical part of our research was car-ried out with evidence relating to the impact of regulatory reform on the business environment in Gabon. We used the World Bank Doing Business and Ibrahim Index of African Governance databases to provide indicators of the quality of regulatory governance from 2009 to 2018. Our key findings showed that the investment climate is still below the expectations. The cur-rent macroeconomic situation of the country due to the barrel price has lim-ited the capacity of the government to finance its major reforms. Further-more, the small size of the market weakens the potentiality of the country to attract foreign direct investments in non-extractive sectors. In brief, Gabon’s diversification model shows some weaknesses due to non-existent coherent industrial policy empowering small medium-size enterprises through an ef-fective financial framework favorable for entrepreneurship.
Impact of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy and implications for the elderly population
CJ Mba
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The study seeks to raise awareness and expand knowledge about the deleterious effect of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy, a country with a relatively high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (19. percent). Using the multiple and associated single decrement life table techniques, the study estimates the total number of South Africans who would die from HIV/AIDS by the time they reach age 75 from a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 live births, assuming that the mortality conditions of 1996 for South Africa prevailed. The findings indicate that 5.7 percent of babies will eventually die of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, 7.7 percent and 11.5 percent of those aged 60 years, and 75 years and above respectively will die of HIV/AIDS. Overwhelming majority of deaths will come from persons within the reproductive and productive age groups. A tremendous gain in life expectancy to the tune of about 26 years would result in the absence of HIV/AIDS. The elderly persons, who are the grandmothers and grandfathers, are likely to manage family affairs following the death of their adult children. This condition is likely to impoverish the elderly population. Everything should be done to reduce HIV/AIDS mortality in order to increase life expectancy in the country. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 201-211
Induced Mutations Unleash the Potentials of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Chikelu Mba
Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy3010200
Abstract: The options for increasing food production by at least 70% over the next four decades so as to keep pace with a rapidly increasing human population are bedeviled by erratic climatic conditions, depleted arable lands, dwindling water resources and by the significant environmental and health costs for increasing the use of agrochemicals. Enhanced productivities through “smart” crop varieties that yield more with fewer inputs is a viable option. However, the genetic similarities amongst crop varieties—which render entire cropping systems vulnerable to the same stresses—coupled with unvarying parental materials limit the possibilities for uncovering novel alleles of genes and, hence, assembling new gene combinations to break yield plateaux and enhance resilience. Induced mutation unmasks novel alleles that are harnessed to breed superior crop varieties. The historical antecedents, theoretical and practical considerations, and the successes of induced mutations in crop improvement are reviewed along with how induced mutagenesis underpins plant functional genomics. The roles of cell and molecular biology techniques in enhancing the efficiencies for the induction, detection and deployment of mutation events are also reviewed. Also, the integration of phenomics into induced mutagenesis and the use of pre-breeding for facilitating the incorporation of mutants into crop improvement are advocated.
Evaluation of Sources and Options for Possible Clean up of Anthropogenic Mercury Contamination in the Ankobra River Basin in South Western Ghana  [PDF]
Thomas Mba Akabzaa, Sandow Mark Yidana
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.210149
Abstract: The study assesses the spatial distribution and sources of mercury contamination in the Ankobra River Basin in southwestern Ghana and discusses possible remediation options and challenges. Eighty-two (82) samples of water and streambed sediments from areas of active and historic artisanal mining and historic mine spoil from large-scale mining were analysed for their total mercury content using cold vapour Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (CV-AAS). The highest Hg concentrations were recorded from historic mine tailings, legacy of large scale mines in the area, which averaged 795 ppb but ranged from 80 ppb to 2500 ppb. Concentrations in streambed sediments averaged 139 ppb, but ranged from 63 ppb to 270 ppb. Water, expectedly, gave the lowest Hg concentrations with a mean value of 1.5 ppb, but ranged from below detection to 8 ppb. Areas worked by artisanal miners and historic tailings dumps at Bondaye and Prestea recorded the highest mercury values. These high mercury concentration sites constitute potential sources of major mercury pollution in the area and therefore require major and urgent clean up to mitigate any major health risks. However, any remediation strategy would require further and detailed study of the contaminated sites and an evaluation of known remediation techniques to achieve maximum results.
Population Ageing in Ghana: Research Gaps and the Way Forward
Chuks J. Mba
Journal of Aging Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/672157
Abstract: This paper attempts to highlight research gaps and what should be done concerning population ageing in the Ghanaian context. The proportion of the elderly increased from 4.9 percent in 1960 to 7.2 percent in 2000, while the number rose from 0.3 million to 1.4 million over the same period (an increase of 367 percent). Projection results indicate that by 2050, the aged population will account for 14.1 percent of the total population. Very little is known about the living arrangements and health profile of Ghana's older population. With increasing urbanization and modernization, it is important to know something about intergenerational transfers from adult children to their elderly parents, and characterize the elderly persons' food security strategies. Training of researchers will be important in terms of strengthening Ghana's capacity to monitor trends, as well as to conduct research and explore new directions in population ageing research. 1. Introduction The population aged 60 years or over tripled from its number in 1950 to 600 million in 2000, and by 2006, the number of older persons had surpassed 700 million, while current projections suggest that by 2050, 2 billion older persons will be alive, implying that their number will once again triple over a span of 50 years [1]. The numerical growth of elderly persons (population aged 60+ years) around the world is an eloquent testimony not only of reductions in fertility but also of reductions in infant and maternal mortality, improved nutrition, reduction in infectious and parasitic diseases, as well as improvement in health care, education, and income. Global total fertility rate has declined from 5.0 live births per woman in 1950–1955 to 2.7 live births per woman in 2000–2005, and is expected to further reduce to replacement level, that is 2.2 live births per woman by 2045–2050 period [1–3]. Also life expectancy has increased from 46.5 years in 1950–1955 to 66.0 years in 2000–2005, and is expected to rise to 76 years by the 2045–2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, the corresponding fertility values are 6.7 live births per woman in the early 1950s to 5.5 live births per woman by early 2000s and 2.4 live births per woman by 2045–2050 period. Similarly, expectation of life at birth rose from 36.7 years in the 1950s to 48.4 years by 2000–2005, and is projected to peak at 68.4 years during the 2045–2050 period. Lesotho’s fertility and mortality profile is similar to that of sub-Saharan Africa. This is because fertility fell from 5.8 to 4.5 live births per woman in one half century, and is expected to fall to
Acoustic Emission of a Single Bubble Activities
Shuib Husin,D. Mba
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2010,
Income Disparities in Latin America
Erik Von Badden (MBA)
School of Doctoral Studies Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Inequality among human beings has been an issue of concern from the ancient times. It has been considered ethically undesirable and many great thinkers in human history have sought to narrow the gap between the haves and the have-nots through their philosophy, teachings and efforts. Yet disparities amongst different groups of people have continued to exist in almost every country and society of the world. The last few centuries, especially since the dawn of the industrial revolution, have seen unprecedented growth in the creation of wealth. Unfortunately, this wealth has been divided most unequally, both within and across countries and regions with the result that vast sections of the world population have been deprived of the benefits of the creation of wealth and development. (UN Human Development Report, 2002. pp. 2-4) Latin America is one region where inequality is particularly pronounced in almost all respects-in terms of income, access to education, health services, water, electricity, political influence (voice), assets and opportunities. This paper focuses on the income disparities in Latin America1 and includes a discussion of the background and history of inequality in the region, its main causes, a review of the data about inequality in different Latin American countries and the trends, the consequences of high-income disparities, and the possible solutions for reducing the persistent inequality. Disparities in incomes on the basis of ethnicity and gender are also discussed.
La brecha digital en la República Dominicana: diagnóstico general, evaluación e impacto
MBA. Hiddekel Morrison
Ciencia y Sociedad , 2006,
Hydrodynamic Modelling, Thermodynamic and Textural Variations during Common Beans Soaking  [PDF]
E. M. Kwofie, O. I. Mba, M. Ngadi
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2019.91003
Abstract: Hydrodynamic characteristics and its associated thermodynamic and textural variation of three common Malawian beans varieties (Boma, Sugar and Mandondo) during soaking were evaluated at four temperature regimes (25°C, 35°C, 45°C and 55°C). The equilibrium water uptake of 127% ± 5% was reached in 10, 6, and 4 hours respectively, for 25°C, 35°C and 45°C. Not much variation was observed between 45°C and 55°C except for sugar beans where equilibrium water uptake was reached within two hours of soaking at 55°C. Three models namely Peleg, two-parameter Mitscherlich model and viscoelastic model were used to evaluate the comparative predicting capabilities of the bean hydrodynamic characteristics. All models predicted the water absorption accurately (R2 > 0.903, RMSE < 4.95). In addition, the viscoelastic model gave a good prediction for the two water absorption phases. The impact of temperature and time on moisture transfer rate and bean hardness showed the activation kinetic parameters to be between 25 - 65 kJ/mol. Sugar beans were found to be the least hard. At room temperature, its hardness reduced by 58% within 2 hours of soaking. At higher temperature (55°C) hardness values were reduced to
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