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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 474 matches for " Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli "
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Semi-allogeneic vaccine for T-cell lymphoma
Jin Yu, Mark S Kindy, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-5-39
Abstract: Semi-allogeneic somatic cell hybrids were generated by the fusion of EL-4 T lymphoma cells (H-2b) and BALB/c-derived renal adenocarcinoma RAG cells (H-2d). Cell hybrids were injected intra-peritoneally (i.p.) in C57BL/6 mice (H-2b) before challenging the mice with a tumorigenic dose of EL-4 cells.Semi-allogeneic tumor cell hybrids could not form a tumor in the animal host because they expressed allogeneic determinants (H-2d) and were rejected as a transplant. However, they conferred protection against a tumorigenic challenge of EL-4 cells compared to control mice that were mock-vaccinated with i.p.-injected phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and in which EL-4 lymphomas grew rapidly to a large size in the peritoneal cavity. Screening of spleen-derived RNA by means of focused microarray technology revealed up-regulation of genes involved in the Th-1-type immune response and in the activation of dendritic antigen-presenting cells (APC).The results of our studies are entirely consistent with the concept that CD80- and CD86-expressing APC play a central role in mediating the immune protection induced by semi-allogeneic vaccines by activating a Th-1 response and instructing T cells responsible for killing autologous tumor cells.The capacity of T cells to recognize allogeneic MHC molecules as intact structures on the surface of foreign cells is called direct T-cell allorecognition and is responsible for the powerful immune reactions associated with transplant rejection, a phenomenon called "alloagression". To a large extent this is due to the ability of allogeneic stimulation to mobilize up to 10% of all T lymphocytes, compared with a precursor T-cell frequency of between 10-4 and 10-5 for most common antigens. At the same time, each of the lymphocytes activated through direct allorecognition will also recognize a specific antigenic peptide presented in the context of a self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule (MHC restriction). Cross-reactivity between alloantige
Semi-allogeneic vaccines and tumor-induced immune tolerance
Jin Yu, Mark S Kindy, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-7-3
Abstract: Almost a century has passed since Paul Erlich first proposed that the immune system has the potential to eradicate cancer even though tumor cells arise from normal cells. Fifty years later the immune surveillance theory put forth that lymphocytes have the capacity to survey and destroy newly arising tumor cells that continuously appear in the body [1]. The conviction that the immune system can be mobilized as well as manipulated to eradicate tumor cells has invigorated the field of tumor immunology, one of the most active fields in immunology. The parallel discoveries of histocompatibility antigens in humans and mice are a good example of how studies in animal models and humans may go hand in hand [2]. In fact, animal studies continue as a basis for important advances because they have allowed the evaluation of multiple parameters in tumor immunology that are not possible in clinical studies [3].Despite a reasonable understanding of anti-tumor effector mechanisms, clinical studies investigating spontaneous anti-tumor immune responses have yet to lead to reproducible or consistent tumor regression. Thus, the question of why tumors continue to grow and metastasize in immunological competent cancer patients remains unanswered. Several observations have demonstrated that tumors evade and actively suppress the immune system. Tumor evasion of the immune system, termed immune escape, may occur through several mechanisms, including (i) tolerance or anergy induction; (ii) the genetic instability of tumors; (iii) modulation of tumor antigens; and (iv) decreased major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression [4]. In addition to evasion of the immune system, tumors actively suppress the immune system directly through production of immune suppressive cytokines and indirectly through the induction of immune inhibitory cells [5]. This secretion of soluble factors is thought to contribute to the Th2-skewed immune responses observed in cancer patients and to induce the
Cross-reactivity between HLA-A2-restricted FLU-M1:58–66 and HIV p17 GAG:77–85 epitopes in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals
Paula M Acierno, Danforth A Newton, Edwin A Brown, Lou Maes, John E Baatz, Sebastiano Gattoni-Celli
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-1-3
Abstract: The hypothesis that these two epitopes are cross-reactive was tested by determining the presence and extent of FLU/GAG immune cross-reactivity in lymphocytes from HIV-seropositive and seronegative HLA-A2+ donors by cytotoxicity assays and tetramer analyses. Moreover, the molecular basis for FLU/GAG cross-reactivity in HIV-seropositive and seronegative donors was studied by comparing lymphocyte-derived cDNA sequences corresponding to the TCR-β variable regions, in order to determine whether stimulation of lymphocytes with either peptide results in the expansion of identical T-cell clonotypes.Here, we report evidence of cross-reactivity between FLU-M1:58–66 and HIV-1 p17 GAG:77–85 epitopes following in vitro stimulation of PBMC derived from either HIV-seropositive or seronegative HLA-A2+ donors as determined by cytotoxicity assays, tetramer analyses, and molecular clonotyping.These results suggest that immunity to the matrix protein of the influenza virus may drive a specific immune response to an HLA-A2-restricted HIV gag epitope in HIV-infected and uninfected donors vaccinated against influenza.The matrix protein of the influenza A virus and the matrix and capsid proteins of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) share striking structural similarities [1]. When the influenza and HIV matrix proteins were compared by aligning selected stretches of their amino acid chains (from areas that produced similar three-dimensional protein structure, rather than shared amino acid sequence homology), the HLA-A2-restricted FLU-M1:58–66 peptide (GILGFVFTL) [2] was almost perfectly aligned with the sequence SLYNTIAVL at the level of the Helix 4 domain. This sequence is a variant of the HIV-1 clade B p17 GAG:77–85 epitope consensus sequence (SLYNTVATL) [3], widely utilized as an HLA-A2-restricted HIV matrix epitope. This coincidence led us to investigate possible cross-reactivity between FLU-M1:58–66 and GAG:77–85 epitopes in cytotoxicity experiments following in vitro stimulation o
Determinants of Economies of Scale in Large Businesses—A Survey on UE Listed Firms  [PDF]
Massimiliano Celli
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.33031
Abstract:

This article aims at giving a contribution to the issue of the determinants of economies of scale in large businesses. After the economies of scale definition, the study identifies and analyzes the economies of cost that, according to most of the well-established literature, contribute jointly to originate the phenomenon at stake. Then, the study analyzes the information collected through specially created questionnaires from a sample of businesses listed on regulated European markets. The aim of the questionnaires is to verify if such companies obtain economies of scale in their productive processes and, if so, to identify which of the cost economies previously analyzed are actually achieved. Finally, the article analyzes data and information obtained through the questionnaires and draws some conclusions. Specifically, the study tries to overcome a one-way and sole interpretation of the economies of scale phenomenon in favour of distinction in economies of scale of II level (“in the strict sense”) and economies of scale of I level (“generic”).

Black Body Quantum Fluctuations and Relativity  [PDF]
Sebastiano Tosto
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.713152
Abstract: The paper introduces a simple theoretical model aimed to provide a possible derivation of the quantum fluctuations of the black body radiation. The model offers the chance of inferring and linking contextually quantum and relativistic results.
Reappraising 1907 Einstein’s Model of Specific Heat  [PDF]
Sebastiano Tosto
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2016.64011
Abstract: This article emphasizes that the Einstein and Debye models of specific heats of solids are correlated more tightly than currently acknowledged. This correlation is evidenced without need of additional hypotheses on the early Einstein model. The results are also extensible to the case of a system of fermions; as an example, the specific heat of the electron sea in metals is inferred in the frame of the proposed approach only.
Many Electron Atoms: Ionization Energies of Transition Elements  [PDF]
Sebastiano Tosto
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2017.73007
Abstract: The paper introduces a theoretical model aimed to calculate the ionization energies of many electron atoms and their ions. The validity of the model, which implements the statistical formulation of the quantum uncertainty to infer a simple formula of ionization energy, has been already proven in a previous paper comparing systematically experimental and calculated values for elements with atomic numbers 2Z≤29, whose electron configurations include all ions with numbers ne of electrons 2neZ. The present paper enhances and extends the results previously obtained; the approach is now generalized to include even the transition elements and in particular the lanthanides and actinides. The validity of the proposed model is proven examining all experimental data of ionization energies of these elements and their ions available in literature.
Evolution, Quantization, Relativity: An “Ab Initio” Model  [PDF]
Sebastiano Tosto
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.914161
Abstract: “\"\"= everything flows”, Eraclitus, (Ephesus, 535-475 B.C.). If really in Nature everything changes and progresses, then at least two questions arise: 1) how can be these changes entropic but nonetheless somehow predictable without risk of oxymoronic behavior; 2) how can Science conform itself to follow this requirement of the Nature. To attempt an answer to these questions, the present paper introduces an ab initio theoretical model aimed to show that physical information is actually nothing else but straightforward quantum and relativistic implication of the concept of evolution.
Dispositivos participativos en el municipio bonaerense de Morón: reflexiones en torno al Estado local, la ciudadanía y la legitimidad democrática
María Soledad Gattoni
Revista Opera , 2010,
Abstract:
Delirium in Patients with Substance Abuse: A Case-Series  [PDF]
Carla Gramaglia, Sabrina Gili, Alessandro Feggi, Eleonora Gattoni, Patrizia Zeppegno
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.43021
Abstract:

Severe agitation in patients with delirium may be difficult for clinicians’ management because of problems of differential diagnosis and treatment. Regrettably, theory and guidelines concerning this issue may fail to cover the incredible complexity of clinical practice. Our aim is to describe three cases of delirium from our real-life clinical experience, with a specific focus on their complexity as far as differential diagnosis and psychopharmacological treatment are concerned. In clinical practice, as shown by the three cases we describe, the etiology of delirium is various and mixed, lab analysis are not specific and it is not possible to exactly assess which kind of substances were used by patients. New drugs and smart drugs are not yet detectable by our urine analysis, and their effects, interaction with prescription drugs and pharmacokinetics are not well known. With the aim to obtain a successful sedation and to calm the patient, in our cases, we needed to use a pharmacological combined approach (benzodiazepines, first and second generation antipsychotics) with different routes of administration and, when inevitable, physical restraint.

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