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Landslide Susceptibility Assessment in Planned Areas Using Geographical Information Systems and AHP Method: The Case of Artvin
Halil Ak?nc?, Ay?e Yavuz ?zalp, Sebahat Temu?in Kl??er
Dogal Afetler ve Cevre Dergisi , 2015, DOI: 10.21324/dacd.20952
Abstract: Artvin is one of the leading provinces in Turkey where landslides occur most frequently. There have been many landslides characterized as natural disaster recorded across the province. The areas susceptible to landslides in Artvin should be identified in order to ensure people's safety, to take the necessary measures for reducing any devastating effects of landslides and to make proper decisions for land use. In this study, using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, the landslide susceptibility map was produced for the area where the zoning plan of Artvin’s central municipality is based on. Parameters including lithology, altitude, slope, aspect, and proximity to the stream were used in landslide susceptibility analysis. In the evaluations, it was determined that 15% of the study area had a very high, 25.52% high, 28.95% moderate, 18.77% low, and 11.76% very low degrees in respect to landslide susceptibility. In addition, the administrative boundaries of the settlement units within the research area along with the building blocks in the current zoning plan were superimposed with the produced susceptibility map in order to determine the landslide susceptibility of both the building blocks and the settlement units. Accordingly, it was established that ?aml?k and Balc?o?lu neighborhoods along with over 50% of the lands in Seyitler Village and approximately 68% of the building blocks were susceptible to landslides at very high and high degrees.
Modelling the Kinetics of Jatropha Oil Transesterification  [PDF]
Aldo A. Okullo, Abraham K. Temu
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2015.74013
Abstract: Kinetics of a chemical reaction provides an important means of determining the extent of the reaction and in reactor designs. Transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol and sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was conducted in a well mixed reactor at different agitation speeds between 600 and 800 rpm and temperature range between 35°C and 65°C. The effect of variation of temperature and mixing intensity on rate constants were studied. The initial mass transfer controlled stage was considered negligible using the above impeller speeds and second order mechanism was considered for the chemically controlled kinetic stage. Samples were collected from the reaction mixture at specified time intervals and quenched in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and sulphuric acid. The mixture was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 15 minutes and the methyl ester was separated from the glycerol. The ester was washed with warm water (50°C), dried and analysed using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) to determine free and total glycerine and methyl ester. A mathematical model was fitted using second order rate law. High temperature and high mixing intensity increased reaction rates. The model fitted well with a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.999.
Low Temperature Glycerolysis as a High FFA Pre-Treatment Method for Biodiesel Production  [PDF]
Godlisten G. Kombe, Abraham K. Temu, Hassan M. Rajabu, Godwill D. Mrema, Keat Teong Lee
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.34032
Abstract: A novel low temperature glycerolysis process for lowering free fatty acid (FFA) in crude jatropha oil for alkali catalyzed transesterification has been developed. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design was used to model and optimize the glycerolysis efficiency under three reaction variables namely; reaction time, temperature and glycerol to oil mass ratio. The optimum conditions for highest glycerolysis efficiency of 98.67% were found to be temperature of 65℃, reaction time of 73 minutes and 2.24 g/g glycerol to oil mass ratio. These conditions lower the high free fatty acid of crude jatropha oil from 4.54% to 0.0654% which is below 3% recommended for alkali catalyzed transesterification. The pre-treated crude jatropha oil was then transesterified by using homogeneous base transesterification resulting to a conversion of 97.87%. The fuel properties of jatropha biodiesel obtained were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The process can also utilize the crude glycerol from the transesterification reaction, hence lowering the cost of biodiesel. The glycerolysis is easier implemented than acid esterification thereby avoiding the need for neutralization and alcohol removal step.
Determination of Fetal State from Cardiotocogram Using LS-SVM with Particle Swarm Optimization and Binary Decision Tree
Ersen Y?lmaz,?a?lar Klk??er
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/487179
Abstract: We use least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) utilizing a binary decision tree for classification of cardiotocogram to determine the fetal state. The parameters of LS-SVM are optimized by particle swarm optimization. The robustness of the method is examined by running 10-fold cross-validation. The performance of the method is evaluated in terms of overall classification accuracy. Additionally, receiver operation characteristic analysis and cobweb representation are presented in order to analyze and visualize the performance of the method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves a remarkable classification accuracy rate of 91.62%. 1. Introduction There is a growing tendency to use clinical decision support systems in medical diagnosis. These systems help to optimize medical decisions, improve medical treatments, and reduce financial costs [1, 2]. A large number of the medical diagnosis procedures can be converted into intelligent data classification tasks. These classification tasks can be categorized as two-class task and multiclass task. The first type separates the data between only two classes while the second type involves the classification of the data with more than two classes [3]. Cardiotocography was introduced into obstetrics practice in the early 1970s, and since then it has been used as a worldwide method for antepartum (before delivery) and intrapartum (during delivery) fetal monitoring. Cardiotocogram (CTG) is a recording of two distinct signals, fetal heart rate (FHR), and uterine activity (UA) [4]. It is used for determining the fetal state during both pregnancy and delivery. The aim of the CTG monitoring is to determine babies who may be short of oxygen (hypoxic); thus further assessments of fetal condition may be performed or the baby might be delivered by caesarean section or natural birth [5]. The visual evaluation of the CTG not only requires time but also depends on the knowledge and clinical experience of obstetricians. A clinical decision support system eliminates the inconsistency of visual evaluation. There have been proposed several classification tools for developing such system [4, 6–10]. One of these tools is support vector machine (SVM) and it is used in [4, 8, 10]. In [4, 8], SVM is used for FHR signal classification with two classes, normal or at risk. The risk of metabolic acidosis for newborn based on FHR signal is predicted in [4] while the classification of antepartum FHR signal is made in [8]. In [10], a medical decision support system based on SVM and genetic algorithm (GA) is
The development scale of learning strategies used in piano lesson
?zlem Kl?n?er,Mehtap Ayd?ner Uygun
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool to designate the learning strategies exploited during the piano lesson by the answers of the students studying at the departments of music education. The sampling group is composed of 372 students of 5 music education departments around Turkey at second, third and fourth grades between 2010 and 2011. The scale which is developed for the study is based on the classification of the learning strategies by Weinstein and Meyer (1986). The phrases in the scale are determined via the essays of the students and screening of the literature. The hypothesis that each item is evaluating the related psychological formation is tested by confirmative factor analysis. The scale is made up of 5 sub-dimensions and 66 items. The factorial weights of items in the scale takes place between 0.452 and 0.802. The reliability coefficient for the scale (Cronbach alpha) as a whole was 0.955. The confidence coefficients for sub-scales were determined as 0.940, 0.888, 0.858, 0.884 and 0.867. The results of the study suggests that this scale may help determining and assess the aplication levels of learning strategies exploited during the piano lesson and organizing the teaching and learning environment this direction.
An analysis of using levels of learning strategies according to some variables in learning piano repertoire: Example of Fine Arts and Sports Schools
Mehtap Ayd?ner Uygun,?zlem Kl?n?er
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the learning strategies, which fine arts and sports schools music department (G.S.S.L.) students’ use, in terms of some variables while learning piano repertoire. These variables are the opinions related with sex, the fine arts and sports school in which the training is done, the class, the weekly time period allocated for the study of piano course, type of planning the working time, the place where the piano studies are done, the situation of getting assistance to piano course from outside the school and presence of a family member who is interested in music, and piano courses. The sample group of the study is the 644 students who are studying in the music department of fine arts and sports high schools in Turkey in the first semester of 2011 - 2012 school year. In this study, the data, related with the level of the sample group of students to use learning strategies, has been collected through the " Scale of the Situations of Using Learning Strategies in Teaching Piano Repertoire" developed by K l n er and Ayd ner Uygun (2011). As the data shows compliance with the normal distribution, One-Way Analysis of Variance (One-Way ANOVA) was used in the comparisons between the using levels of learning strategies and variables specified in the study. The findings from the analysis have been interpreted by taking 0.01 and 0.05 meaningfulness level into consideration. According to the results of the study; at the highest level ( = 3.89) replication strategies, at the lowest level ( = 2.82) attention strategies was determined using in learning of piano repertoire. In addition, the differences in the result of the comparisons between the using levels of learning strategies and each variable specified in the study have been found meaningful (p <0.01, p <0.05).
Pre-Treatment of High Free Fatty Acids Oils by Chemical Re-Esterification for Biodiesel Production—A Review  [PDF]
Godlisten G. Kombe, Abraham K. Temu, Hassan M. Rajabu, Godwill D. Mrema, Jibrail Kansedo, Keat Teong Lee
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.34031
Abstract: Non edible oil sources have the potential to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, they usually contain significant high amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) that make them inadequate for direct base catalyzed transesterification reaction (where the FFA content should be lower than 3%). The present work reviews chemical re-esterification as a possible method for the pre-treatment of high FFA feedstock for biodiesel production. The effects of temperature, amount of glycerol, type and amount of catalyst have been discussed. Chemical re-esterification lowers FFA to acceptable levels for transesterification at the same time utilizing the glycerol by product from the same process. Further researches have been proposed as a way forward to improve the process kinetics and optimization so as to make it more economical.
Nitrogen Fertilizer and Panicle Removal in Sweet Sorghum Production: Effect on Biomass, Juice Yield and Soluble Sugar Content  [PDF]
Maru K. Kering, Vitalis W. Temu, Laban K. Rutto
Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems (JSBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2017.71002
Abstract: Alternative and renewable bio-based energy sources are gaining prominence worldwide. Sweet sorghum is currently being evaluated throughout the world because its stem juices are rich in sugars that can be directly fermented to ethanol. In this two-year study, sweet sorghum varieties; Dale, Theis, Topper 76-6, and M81E (Obtained from Mississippi State University Experiment Station, MS) and CHR-SW8 (Obtained from Chromatin Inc., IL) were used. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates of 0, 40, 80 or 120 kg·N·ha-1 were applied to experimental units. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with treatments in a split-split plot arrangement with three replications. Nitrogen rate was the main plot, cultivar as sub-plot, and panicle removal as sub-plot. Results showed that N application increased fresh stem yield, juice volume, but had minimal effect on juice soluble sugar concentration. Compared to controls, application of ≥40 kg·N·ha-1 increased fresh yield and juice by >60% and 10%, respectively. There were also variety differences in harvested fresh biomass, juice volume and oBrix, and soluble sugar content. Dale and Theis consistently showed lower sucrose compared to other varieties over the two years. Panicle removal during early reproductive phase increased oBrix, sucrose and total sugar content in all varieties. Across the two years of study, panicle removal increased oBrix by more than 10%, sucrose and total sugar increased by more than 20%. Selection of varieties that produce high juice volume with high sugar content and strategies to inhibit seed formation may result in improved juice quality.
Microbiological Assessment of Commercially Available Quinine Syrup and Water for Injections in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
K D Mwambete, M J Temu, F S Fazleabbas
Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose: To conduct microbiological assessment of commercially available quinine syrups and water for injection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Dar es Salaam Region. Samples of quinine syrups (QNSs) and water for injection (WFI) of different batches were randomly purchased. Each QNS was inspected for label disclosure, and physicochemical properties were examined by the use of sense of organs and pH meter. Isolation and quantification of microbial contaminants from each sample was preceded by 24 - 48 h incubation at 37 oC, and the microbial contaminants were expressed as colony forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml). Microbiological identification of contaminants was performed by examination of colony morphologies and growth characteristics. Gram staining technique, as well as biochemical and serological tests were also conducted for further identification. Albino rabbits were used for the pyrogen test to determine the presence of microbial contamination in WFI. Results: Twenty-four samples of QNS underwent label disclosure, physical-chemical and microbiological assessments. All QNS samples complied with the guidelines and microbial limits as per United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). All batches of WFI were found to be microbiologically contaminated, revealing average microbial counts of 87, 94 and 100 cfu/ml, and this was buttressed by pyrogen test, with the animals showing temperature rise of 1.0, 2.2 and 2.4 oC, respectively. Conclusion: The QNS products available in the Dar es Salaam market were of good microbial quality. However, WFI products were microbiologically contaminated. We recommend that regulatory authorities in Tanzania should diligently enforce regulatory control of the products to assure consumer safety.
Infected giant left atrial myxoma: an unusual phenomenon
Aytül Belgi Y?ld?r?m,Arzu Er,Murathan Kü?ük,Gülay ?zbilim
Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi , 2011,
Abstract:
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