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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 407418 matches for " Scott M. Lippman "
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MicroRNA Profiling of Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Association of miR-17-92 Upregulation with Poor Outcome
Yoshitsugu Mitani, Dianna B. Roberts, Hanadi Fatani, Randal S. Weber, Merrill S. Kies, Scott M. Lippman, Adel K. El-Naggar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066778
Abstract: Background Salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare relentlessly progressive malignant tumor. The molecular events associated with ACC tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Variable microRNAs (miRNA) have been correlated with tumorigenesis of several solid tumors but not in ACC. To investigate the association of miRNAs with the development and/or progression of ACC, we performed a comparative analysis of primary ACC specimens and matched normal samples and a pooled salivary gland standard and correlated the results with clinicopathologic factors and validated selected miRNAs in a separate set of 30 tumors. Methods MiRNA array platform was used for the identification of target miRNAs and the data was subjected to informatics and statistical interrelations. The results were also collected with the MYB-NFIB fusion status and the clinicopathologic features. Results Differentially dysregulated miRNAs in ACC were characterized in comparison to normal expression. No significant differences in miRNA expression were found between the MYB-NFIB fusion positive and -negative ACCs. Of the highly dysregulated miRNA in ACC, overexpression of the miR-17 and miR-20a were significantly associated with poor outcome in the screening and validation sets. Conclusion Our study indicates that the upregulation of miR-17-92 may play a role in the biology of ACC and could be potentially targeted in future therapeutic studies.
Informing Comprehensive HIV Prevention: A Situational Analysis of the HIV Prevention and Care Context, North West Province South Africa
Sheri A. Lippman, Sarah Treves-Kagan, Jennifer M. Gilvydis, Evasen Naidoo, Gertrude Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Lynae Darbes, Elsie Raphela, Lebogang Ntswane, Scott Barnhart
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102904
Abstract: Objective Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community’s local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. Method The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO’s Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. Results We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Conclusions Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four ‘themes’ identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills. The situational analysis process successfully shaped key programmatic decisions and cultivated a deeper collaboration with local stakeholders to support program implementation.
Genetic Variants in Inflammation-Related Genes Are Associated with Radiation-Induced Toxicity Following Treatment for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Michelle A. T. Hildebrandt,Ritsuko Komaki,Zhongxing Liao,Jian Gu,Joe Y. Chang,Yuanqing Ye,Charles Lu,David J. Stewart,John D. Minna,Jack A. Roth,Scott M. Lippman,James D. Cox,Waun Ki Hong,Margaret R. Spitz,Xifeng Wu
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012402
Abstract: Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is often accompanied by the development of esophagitis and pneumonitis. Identifying patients who might be at increased risk for normal tissue toxicity would help in determination of the optimal radiation dose to avoid these events. We profiled 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 37 inflammation-related genes in 173 NSCLC patients with stage IIIA/IIIB (dry) disease who were treated with definitive radiation or chemoradiation. For esophagitis risk, nine SNPs were associated with a 1.5- to 4-fold increase in risk, including three PTGS2 (COX2) variants: rs20417 (HR:1.93, 95% CI:1.10–3.39), rs5275 (HR:1.58, 95% CI:1.09–2.27), and rs689470 (HR:3.38, 95% CI:1.09–10.49). Significantly increased risk of pneumonitis was observed for patients with genetic variation in the proinflammatory genes IL1A, IL8, TNF, TNFRSF1B, and MIF. In contrast, NOS3:rs1799983 displayed a protective effect with a 45% reduction in pneumonitis risk (HR:0.55, 95% CI:0.31–0.96). Pneumonitis risk was also modulated by polymorphisms in anti-inflammatory genes, including genetic variation in IL13. rs20541 and rs180925 each resulted in increased risk (HR:2.95, 95% CI:1.14–7.63 and HR:3.23, 95% CI:1.03–10.18, respectively). The cumulative effect of these SNPs on risk was dose-dependent, as evidenced by a significantly increased risk of either toxicity with an increasing number of risk genotypes (P<0.001). These results suggest that genetic variations among inflammation pathway genes may modulate the development of radiation-induced toxicity and, ultimately, help in identifying patients who are at an increased likelihood for such events.
Unmet need and psychological distress predict emergency department visits in community-dwelling elderly women: a prospective cohort study
Jacqueline M Quail, Christina Wolfson, Abby Lippman
BMC Geriatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-11-86
Abstract: We conducted a prospective study of randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 75. We report here the results for women only (n = 530). In-person interviews collected data on self-reported unmet need and the 14-item l'Indice de détresse psychologique de Santé Québec psychological distress scale. ED visits were identified from an administrative database. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of any ED visit in the 6 months following the baseline interview.In multivariable analysis, unmet need in instrumental ADL was associated with subsequent ED visits (odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-2.41), as was psychological distress (odds rate = 1.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.67). The magnitude of the association between unmet need and ED visits was overestimated in statistical models that did not adjust for psychological distress.Both unmet need and psychological distress were independent predictors of ED visits. Future investigations of unmet need and health services utilization should include psychological distress to control for confounding and improve the internal validity of statistical models.In Canada, people age 65 and older comprise 13% of the population and it is estimated that this will rise to over 23% by the year 2031 [1]. As individuals age, they may experience worsening health and difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) or personal activities of daily living (PADL). IADL are necessary to maintain a household and function in the community; PADL are essential for self-care in everyday life [2]. Increasing age may lead to disability and the need for assistance to complete ADL, however, this need may not be met.Allen and Mor (1997) described unmet need as the "perceived [inadequacy] of help received with activities the individual has difficulty performing or is unable to perform alone." The prevalence of unmet need varies according to the definition used, the population studied
Calculation of the effect of random superfluid density on the temperature dependence of the penetration depth
Thomas M. Lippman,Kathryn A. Moler
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.104529
Abstract: Microscopic variations in composition or structure can lead to nanoscale inhomogeneity in superconducting properties such as the magnetic penetration depth, but measurements of these properties are usually made on longer length scales. We solve a generalized London equation with a non-uniform penetration depth, lambda(r), obtaining an approximate solution for the disorder-averaged Meissner effect. We find that the effective penetration depth is different from the average penetration depth and is sensitive to the details of the disorder. These results indicate the need for caution when interpreting measurements of the penetration depth and its temperature dependence in systems which may be inhomogeneous.
Knowledge mapping as a technique to support knowledge translation
Ebener,S; Khan,A; Shademani,R; Compernolle,L; Beltran,M; Lansang,MA; Lippman,M;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006000800015
Abstract: this paper explores the possibility of integrating knowledge mapping into a conceptual framework that could serve as a tool for understanding the many complex processes, resources and people involved in a health system, and for identifying potential gaps within knowledge translation processes in order to address them. after defining knowledge mapping, this paper presents various examples of the application of this process in health, before looking at the steps that need to be taken to identify potential gaps, to determine to what extent these gaps affect the knowledge translation process and to establish their cause. this is followed by proposals for interventions aimed at strengthening the overall process. finally, potential limitations on the application of this framework at the country level are addressed.
Magnetoresistance of UPt3
T. M. Lippman,J. P. Davis,H. Choi,J. Pollanen,W. P. Halperin
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s10909-007-9469-8
Abstract: We have performed measurements of the temperature dependence of the magnetoresistance up to 9 T in bulk single crystals of UPt3 with the magnetic field along the b axis, the easy magnetization axis. We have confirmed previous results for transverse magnetoresistance with the current along the c axis, and report measurements of the longitudinal magnetoresistance with the current along the b axis. The presence of a linear term in both cases indicates broken orientational symmetry associated with magnetic order. With the current along the c axis the linear term appears near 5 K, increasing rapidly with decreasing temperature. For current along the b axis the linear contribution is negative.
Anticipated Inversion and Visibility Conditions over Glacier Bay with a Changing Climate  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.65048
Abstract: A RCP4.5 simulation from the Community Earth System Model was downscaled by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model, inline coupled with chemistry, to examine how climate change may affect inversions and visibility in Glacier Bay in the presence of cruise-ship visitations. Mean downscaled climate conditions for the tourist seasons for 2006-2012 were compared with downscaled conditions for 2026-2032 with identical cruise-ship entries and operating conditions thereby isolating pollutant retention and visibility differences caused by atmospheric climate change. Notable changes in future temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind-speed occurred for large areas of Southeast Alaska and the Gulf of Alaska, although the anticipated differences were less pronounced in Glacier Bay due to the presence of the large glaciers and ice fields. While increased sensible heat and water vapor in the atmospheric boundary layer contributed to on average 4.5 h reduced inversion duration in Glacier Bay, the on average 0.23 m·s-1 reduced wind speeds increased inversion frequency by 4% on average. The future on average wetter conditions and altered precipitation patterns in Glacier Bay affected the removal of gases and particulate matter emitted by cruise ships locally or advected from areas outside the park. Season-spatial averaged visibility in Glacier Bay remained the same. However, visibility was degraded in the future scenario later in the season and slightly improved during spring. The warmer conditions contributed to decreased visibility indirectly by tieing up less NO2 in PAN and increasing biogenic NOx emissions. The wetter conditions contributed to reduced visibility in the last third of the tourist season.
Impacts of Cruise-Ship Entry Quotas on Visibility and Air Quality in Glacier Bay  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.611109
Abstract: Managers at Glacier Bay National Park must annually determine the allowable number of cruise-ship entries into the park. This decision considers how differences in visitor volume may affect park resources. This study quantified the impacts to air quality and visibility under different ship quotas using simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model inline coupled with chemistry. Results of the simulation assuming two entries per day for May 15 to September 15, 2008 (QTA; 248 ship entries representing a 35% increase) were compared to those of the 2008 cruise-ship activity (REF; 184) during that timeframe. A simulation without anthropogenic emissions (CLN) served to assess the overall impacts of cruise-ship emissions on visibility and air quality in Glacier Bay. Compared to REF, the increased entry quotas shifted chemical regimes and aerosol composition, depending upon thermodynamical conditions, and ambient concentrations. On days with notable regime shifts, sulfur-dioxide concentrations deceased while ammonium-sulfate aerosol concentrations increased. The increased quotas also altered the fine-to-coarse aerosol ratios in both directions despite constant ratio of fine-to-coarse aerosol emissions. In Glacier Bay, the days with worst visibility coincided with high relative humidity, although this relationship varied by scenario. On the 20% worst days, mean visibility was slightly better in CLN (mean haze index over Glacier Bay waters = 2.9 dv) than in REF ( = 3.1 dv). While increased emissions in QTA reduced mean visibility by 0.1 dv, the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile of haze indices remained identical to those in REF. Best (worst) visibility occurred on the same days in REF and QTA due to emission impacts, but on different days than in CLN because relative humidity solely governed visibility in CLN. While calm wind played no role for visibility in CLN, wind speed gained similar importance for visibility as relative humidity in REF and QTA. Overall, increasing ship quotas would only marginally affect air quality and visibility as compared to REF, although even small changes in these parameters need careful consideration in the context of conserving the values of Glacier Bay.
On the Limits to Manage Air-Quality in Glacier Bay  [PDF]
Nicole M?lders, Scott Gende
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.712151
Abstract: In Glacier Bay National Park, about 95% of the visitors come on board of cruise ships. The National Park Service has the mandate to manage park resources like air quality and visibility, while ensuring visitation. To understand the impact of cruise-ship emissions on the overall concentrations in Glacier Bay, emission-source contribution ratios (ESCR) and the interaction of pollutant from local and/or distant sources were determined using results from four WRF/Chem simulations of the 2008 tourist season (May 15 to September 15). These simulations only differed by the emissions considered: Biogenic emissions only (CLN), biogenic plus activity-based cruise-ship emissions (REF), biogenic plus all anthropogenic emissions except cruise-ship emissions (RETRO), and all aforementioned emissions (ALL). In general, ESCRs differed among pollutants. Interaction between pollutants from cruise-ship emissions and species from other sources including those advected into the bay decreased towards the top of the atmospheric boundary layer. Pollutants from different sources interacted strongest (lowest) in the west arm of the fjord where ships berthed for glacier viewing (in areas of the bay without cruise-ship travel). Pollutant interaction both enhanced/reduced NO2 concentrations by 10% (4 - 8 ppt absolute). Except for ozone, cruise-ship emissions on average governed air quality in the bay. On days with cruise-ship visits, they contributed between 60% and 80% of the bay-wide daily mean SO2 and NO2 concentrations below 1 km height. On days without visits, cruise-ship contributions still reached 40% due to previous visits. Highest cruise-ship ESCRs occurred during stagnant weather conditions. Despite the fact that all coarse particulate matter was due to anthropogenic sources, worst visibility conditions were due to meteorology. The results suggest limits as well as windows for managing air quality and visibility in Glacier Bay.
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