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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 216733 matches for " Scott L.;Townsend Peterson "
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Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP
Haverkost, Terry R.;Gardner, Scott L.;Townsend Peterson, A.;
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2010,
Abstract: the ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. however, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infections has been difficult. however, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of the localities of other parasites with common history. here, we find that the ecological niche of a tapeworm parasite of voles, paranoplocephala macrocephala (cestoda: anoplocephalidae), allows prediction of the presence (in ecological and geographic space) of 19 related parasite species from 3 genera in 23 different hosts throughout the nearctic. these results give credence to the idea that this group shares similar life cycle requirements despite phylogenetic distance. this work further validates ecological niche modeling as a means by which to predict occurrence of parasites when not all facets of the life cycle are confirmed. such inductive methods create the opportunity for deducing potential reservoir or intermediate hosts, and complementing studies of parasite biodiversity and community ecology.
Predicting the distribution of a parasite using the ecological niche model, GARP Predicción de la distribución de un parásito usando el modelo de nicho ecológico, GARP
Terry R. Haverkost,Scott L. Gardner,A. Townsend Peterson
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2010,
Abstract: The ecological niche of a parasite exists only at the nexus of certain abiotic and biotic conditions suitable for both the definitive and intermediate hosts. However, the life cycles of most parasites are not known, or are poorly known, and using known ranges of hosts to find endemic parasitic infections has been difficult. However, with ecological niche modeling, we can create potential range maps using known localities of infection. Testing the validity of such maps requires knowledge of the localities of other parasites with common history. Here, we find that the ecological niche of a tapeworm parasite of voles, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae), allows prediction of the presence (in ecological and geographic space) of 19 related parasite species from 3 genera in 23 different hosts throughout the Nearctic. These results give credence to the idea that this group shares similar life cycle requirements despite phylogenetic distance. This work further validates ecological niche modeling as a means by which to predict occurrence of parasites when not all facets of the life cycle are confirmed. Such inductive methods create the opportunity for deducing potential reservoir or intermediate hosts, and complementing studies of parasite biodiversity and community ecology. El nicho ecológico de un parásito existe sólo cuando coinciden condiciones abióticas y bióticas necesarias para los hospederos definitivos e intermediarios. No obstante, los ciclos de vida de la mayoría de los parásitos son poco conocidos; el usar áreas de distribución de hospederos para encontrar áreas endémicas de parasitismo ha resultado difícil. Con el modelado de nicho, se pueden producir mapas del área de distribución potencial con base en sitios conocidos de presencia. Para probar la validez de estos mapas, se requiere el conocimiento de sitios de presencia de otros parásitos relacionados. En este estudio, encontramos que el nicho ecológico de un gusano parásito de ratones, Paranoplocephala macrocephala (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) permite predecir la presencia de 19 especies relacionadas de parásitos de 3 géneros en 23 diferentes hospederos a través del Neártico. Estos resultados apoyan la idea de que este grupo comparte una historia filogenética común que se refleja en nichos compartidos y que el modelado de nichos ofrece una manera de predecir la presencia de parásitos aunque no se conozcan todos los detalles de su ciclo de vida. Estos métodos permiten deducir reservorios u hospederos para estos parásitos.
Open Access and the Author-Pays Problem: Assuring Access for Readers and Authors in a Global Community of Scholars
A. Townsend Peterson,Ada Emmett,Marc L. Greenberg
Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication , 2013,
Abstract:
Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates
A Townsend Peterson
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-59
Abstract: I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions.For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3–30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa.Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.Malaria is a vector-borne anthroponosis, transmitted in large part by Anopheles mosquitoes, that endangers more than 2.5 × 109 humans annually [1]. Its transmission cycle has been modeled in great detail [2,3], but application of such process-based models has generally been limited to local and regional scales [4,5], given challenges in spatially explicit parameter estimation. An alternative approach that offers broadest applicability is that of focusing on vector species' geographic distributions via ecological niche modeling techniques now well tested [6-8] within frameworks for reconstructing the geographic dimensions of disease transmission [9].Implications of climate change for malaria transmission across Africa have been the subject of numerous commentaries [10-12] and a few
Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE) and studies of Mexican biogeography
Townsend Peterson, A.;
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2008,
Abstract: parsimony analysis of endemism (pae) has become a popular analytical approach in efforts to map the biogeography of mexican biotas. although attractive, the technique has serious drawbacks that make correct inferences of biogeographic history unlikely, which has been noted amply in the broader literature.
Uses and Requirements of Ecological Niche Models and Related Distributional Models
A. Townsend Peterson
Biodiversity Informatics , 2006,
Abstract: .—Modeling approaches that relate known occurrences of species to landscape features to discover ecological properties and predict geographic occurrences have seen extensive recent application in ecology, systematics, and conservation. A key component in this process is estimation or characterization of species’ distributions in ecological space, which can then be useful in understanding their potential distributions in geographic space. Hence, this process is often termed ecological niche modeling or (less boldly) species distribution modeling. Applications of this approach vary widely in their aims, products, and requirements; this variety is reviewed herein, examples are provided, and differences in data needs and possible interpretations are discussed.
Phylogeography is not enough: The need for multiple lines of evidence
A. Townsend Peterson
Frontiers of Biogeography , 2009,
Abstract:
Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE) and studies of Mexican biogeography PAE y el estudio de la biogeografía de México
A. Townsend Peterson
Revista mexicana de biodiversidad , 2008,
Abstract: Parsimony analysis of endemism (PAE) has become a popular analytical approach in efforts to map the biogeography of Mexican biotas. Although attractive, the technique has serious drawbacks that make correct inferences of biogeographic history unlikely, which has been noted amply in the broader literature. El PAE se ha convertido en un método popular en los esfuerzos por resumir, en forma de mapas, la biogeografía de la biota de México. A pesar de su atractivo, la técnica tiene problemas serios que impiden que las conclusiones resultantes sean las correctas. Estos problemas se han hecho ampliamente evidentes en la literatura sobre este campo.
Ecological Niche and Geographic Distribution of Human Monkeypox in Africa
Rebecca S. Levine, A.Townsend Peterson, Krista L. Yorita, Darin Carroll, Inger K. Damon, Mary G. Reynolds
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000176
Abstract: Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data from Africa for 1970–2003 in an ecological niche modeling framework to construct predictive models of the ecological requirements and geographic distribution of monkeypox virus across West and Central Africa. Tests of internal predictive ability using different subsets of input data show the model to be highly robust and suggest that the distinct phylogenetic lineages of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa occupy similar ecological niches. High mean annual precipitation and low elevations were shown to be highly correlated with human monkeypox disease occurrence. The synthetic picture of the potential geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa resulting from this study should support ongoing epidemiologic and ecological studies, as well as help to guide public health intervention strategies to areas at highest risk for human monkeypox.
Locating Pleistocene Refugia: Comparing Phylogeographic and Ecological Niche Model Predictions
Eric Waltari, Robert J. Hijmans, A. Townsend Peterson, árpád S. Nyári, Susan L. Perkins, Robert P. Guralnick
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000563
Abstract: Ecological niche models (ENMs) provide a means of characterizing the spatial distribution of suitable conditions for species, and have recently been applied to the challenge of locating potential distributional areas at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) when unfavorable climate conditions led to range contractions and fragmentation. Here, we compare and contrast ENM-based reconstructions of LGM refugial locations with those resulting from the more traditional molecular genetic and phylogeographic predictions. We examined 20 North American terrestrial vertebrate species from different regions and with different range sizes for which refugia have been identified based on phylogeographic analyses, using ENM tools to make parallel predictions. We then assessed the correspondence between the two approaches based on spatial overlap and areal extent of the predicted refugia. In 14 of the 20 species, the predictions from ENM and predictions based on phylogeographic studies were significantly spatially correlated, suggesting that the two approaches to development of refugial maps are converging on a similar result. Our results confirm that ENM scenario exploration can provide a useful complement to molecular studies, offering a less subjective, spatially explicit hypothesis of past geographic patterns of distribution.
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