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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 467501 matches for " Scott A. Mackler "
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Sour Ageusia in Two Individuals Implicates Ion Channels of the ASIC and PKD Families in Human Sour Taste Perception at the Anterior Tongue
Taufiqul Huque, Beverly J. Cowart, Luba Dankulich-Nagrudny, Edmund A. Pribitkin, Douglas L. Bayley, Andrew I. Spielman, Roy S. Feldman, Scott A. Mackler, Joseph G. Brand
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007347
Abstract: Background The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Methods and Findings Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1β, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-β2, the δ-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as β-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1β, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-β2, and δ-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. Conclusions These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals (“natural knockouts”) suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities.
Clinical predictors of elective total joint replacement in persons with end-stage knee osteoarthritis
Joseph A Zeni, Michael J Axe, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-86
Abstract: Functional data from one hundred twenty persons with end-stage knee OA were obtained through a database. All of the individuals complained of knee pain during daily activities and had radiographic evidence of OA. Functional and clinical tests, collectively referred to as the Delaware Osteoarthritis Profile, were completed by a physical therapist. This profile consisted of measuring height, weight, quadriceps strength and active knee range of motion, while functional mobility was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and the Stair Climbing Task (SCT). Self-perceived functional ability was measured using the activities of daily living subscale of the Knee Outcome Survey (KOS-ADLS). A logistic regression model was used to identify variables predictive of TKA use.Forty subjects (33%) underwent TKA within two years of evaluation. These subjects were significantly older and had significantly slower TUG and SCT times (p < 0.05). Persons that underwent TKA were also significantly weaker, had lower self-reported function and had less knee extension than persons who did not undergo TKA. No differences between groups were seen for BMI, gender, knee flexion ROM and unilateral versus bilateral joint disease. Using backward regression, age, knee extension ROM and KOS-ADLS together significantly predicted whether or not a person would undergo TKA (p ≤ 0.001, R2 = 0.403).Younger patients with full knee ROM who have a higher self-perception of function are less likely to undergo TKA. Physicians and clinicians should be aware that potentially modifiable factors, such as knee ROM can be addressed to potentially postpone the need for TKA.Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition that affects millions of persons in the United States. The knee is the most commonly affected joint and knee OA is a leading cause of disability and functional limitations in adults [1,2]. The most common surgical intervention for end-stage knee OA is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Although more t
Quantitative Convergence for Cerebral Processing of Information within the Geomagnetic Environment  [PDF]
Mandy A. Scott, Michael A. Persinger
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.43036

Human cerebral systems are immersed in the earth’s magnetic field. To be consistent with the results of several correlational studies, we found that the most accurate detection of information at 50 m occurred when the geomagnetic activity was ~5 nT. The corresponding magnetic energy within the cerebral volume is equivalent to approximately 3 million bits of Landauer Limit quantum which is equivalent to low resolution photographs. Non-linear analyses indicated that the induced electric fields from the typical time variation of geomagnetic intensity converged with the Adey voltages for the threshold for background entropy. The relevance of signal/noise ratios and the recent evidence indicate that imagery and cognition may actually reflect fields of biophotons within a fixed volume, which indicates that a natural processing system may be occurring under very specific conditions that involves detection of recondite information at a distance.

Quasi-Hyperbolic Discounting and the Existence of Time-Inconsistent Retirement  [PDF]
T. Scott Findley, James A. Feigenbaum
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.32019

The decision about how much to save for retirement is likely to be dependent on when an individual plans to be retired, and vice versa. Yet, the established literature on hyperbolic discounting and life-cycle saving behavior has for the most part abstracted from choice over retirement. Two notable exceptions are Diamond and Koszegi [1] and an important follow-up study by Holmes [2], which demonstrates that time-inconsistent retirement timing is impossible when saving behavior is explicitly modeled in a stylized three-period setting. In this paper, we build upon the framework of Diamond and Koszegi [1] and Holmes [2] by generalizing the assumptions about initial income and assets. We show analytically and via simple numerical examples that time-inconsistent retirement can exist in a three-period life-cycle model of consumption and saving.

Epidural Hematoma after the Use of Subcutaneous Unfractionated Heparin and History of Epidural Tumor  [PDF]
Basem A. Abdelfattah, Troy Buck, Scott Byram
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2014.47023

The patient was a 66-year-old male with a history of renal cell carcinoma with metastasis to the L2, L3, and L4 vertebral bodies scheduled for a radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy. Prior to surgery the patient had undergone 10 radiation treatments for the vertebral metastasis. Patient medications included colace, prednisone, ibuprofen (taken 4 days prior to procedure), sunitinib, hydrocodone, benazepril, nexium, rosuvastatin, allopurinol, and azor. Physical exam prior to surgery was normal with no focal findings. Laboratory values were within normal limits with a platelet count of 286. General anesthesia was planned with a pre-operative thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia. The epidural was placed at the T9-T10 level without complication. Adequate pain control was present post operatively and the epidural was discontinued on post-operative day 3. At that time the patient was noted to have numbness over the bilateral lower extremities and decreased strength. Heparin 5000 units subcutaneous had been given 12 hours prior to discontinuation of the epidural. The patient was afebrile, hemoglobin was 7, white blood cell count was 9.7, and platelets were 166 at time of epidural removal. Subcutaneous heparin was restarted 6 hours after catheter removal. The anesthesia acute pain service was contacted by the primary service 25 hours after discontinuation of the epidural catheter regarding complaints of persistentbilateral lower extremity weakness and sensory loss. An magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealeda focus posterior to the spinal cord at the T10/T11 interspace likely representing a hematoma. A high intensity T2 signal within the central spinal cord at T10/T11 was also observed; likely a vascular infarct. The patient was immediately scheduled for a T9-T10 laminectomy and evacuation of the epidural hematoma. No significant abnormalities were noted in coagulation studies prior to surgery. The patient was discharged on post-operative day 20 with no neurologic deficits.An epidural hematoma is rare with an estimated occurrence of <1 in 150,000[1]. Issues related to anticoagulation therapy are involved in 25% - 30% of cases. The utilization of three times daily dosed (TID) heparin could have played a role in the development of this complication in the present case. Other contributing factors may have been chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These treatments are quite damaging to bone marrow and may cause severe marrow suppression thereby suppressing the function and number of

Quasi-Hyperbolic Discounting and Delayed Retirement  [PDF]
James A. Feigenbaum, T. Scott Findley
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.52038
Abstract: We study the active retirement choice in a simple three-period life-cycle setting and demonstrate that time-inconsistent delayed retirement becomes a theoretical possibility. This helps to align theory with the intuition that delaying the date of retirement can be a reasonable response to spending too much and saving too little for retirement.
Filtered Leapfrog Time Integration with Enhanced Stability Properties  [PDF]
Ari Aluthge, Scott A. Sarra, Roger Estep
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.47145
Abstract: The Leapfrog method for the solution of Ordinary Differential Equation initial value problems has been historically popular for several reasons. The method has second order accuracy, requires only one function evaluation per time step, and is non-dissipative. Despite the mentioned attractive properties, the method has some unfavorable stability properties. The absolute stability region of the method is only an interval located on the imaginary axis, rather than a region in the complex plane. The method is only weakly stable and thus exhibits computational instability in long time integrations over intervals of finite length. In this work, the use of filters is examined for the purposes of both controlling the weak instability and also enlarging the size of the absolute stability region of the method.
Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz microresonator optical frequency comb
Scott B. Papp,Scott A. Diddams
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.053833
Abstract: We report on the fabrication of high-Q, fused-quartz microresonators and the parametric generation of a frequency comb with 36 GHz line spacing using them. We have characterized the intrinsic stability of the comb in both the time and frequency domains to assess its suitability for future precision metrology applications. Intensity autocorrelation measurements and line-by-line comb control reveal near-transform-limited picosecond pulse trains that are associated with good relative phase and amplitude stability of the comb lines. The comb's 36 GHz line spacing can be readily photodetected, which enables measurements of its intrinsic and absolute phase fluctuations.
Structures of Reverse Transcriptase Pre- and Post-Excision Complexes Shed New Light on HIV-1 AZT Resistance
Walter A. Scott
Viruses , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/v3010020
Abstract: HIV-1 resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) results from mutations in reverse transcriptase that increase the ability of the enzyme to excise AZT-monophosphate after it has been incorporated. Crystal structures of complexes of wild type and mutant reverse transcriptase with double-stranded DNA with or without the excision product, AZT adenosine dinucleoside tetraphosphate (AZTppppA), have recently been reported [1]. The excision-enhancing mutations dramatically change the way the enzyme interacts with the excision product.
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology: Excellence, accessibility, expansion, and evolution
Scott A Rivkees
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1687-9856-2011-1
Abstract: The BMC open access journal group includes more than 100 journals, a number of which are the leading and official journals in their field. BMC journals are highly selective with numerous journals achieving lofty impact factors. BMC features contemporary electronic platforms with electronic links with other related journals, endocrine-related publications, and endocrine society home pages. This electronic system facilitates information sharing for our field at an unmatched level.Excellence, accessibility, expansion, and evolution will be the tenets which will guide IJPE in our new partnership. To achieve excellence, we will continue to be highly selective in the reports we accept. Our goal is the dissemination of novel discoveries, be they in basic science, translational, or clinical investigation. To achieve excellence in publication standards, we will relay on our outstanding Editorial board of leading experts, who will apply high standards in report acceptance.Accessibility will be achieved through a wonderful electronic platform that will make IJPE reports available in full to all with the click of the computer key at no cost. At a time when other pediatric endocrine journals charge nearly a thousand dollars or more for personal subscriptions, IJPE is free and will always remain free for all. Our electronic platform also ensures the near immediate dissemination of IJPE reports accepted for publication, allowing us to avoid lengthy publication delays associated with print in journals.Expansion of IJPE will continue as we link with other pediatric endocrine societies around the globe. IJPE is currently affiliated with Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES), The Asia Pacific Paediatric Endocrine Society (APPES), Sociedad Chilena de Endocrinology y Diabetes (SOCHED), Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology (ISPAE), Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology (KSPE), and the Endocrinology Chapter of the Indonesian Pediatric Society. IJPE thus is a platform
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