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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 467467 matches for " Scott A McEwen "
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I just did it for the kids: mothering in the context of living with an increased risk of ovarian cancer
McEwen A
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1897-4287-10-s2-a4
A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004
Michele T Guerin, Wayne Martin, Jarle Reiersen, Olaf Berke, Scott A McEwen, John-Robert Bisaillon, Ruff Lowman
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-49-18
Abstract: Between May 2001 and September 2004, pooled caecal samples were obtained from 1,425 flocks at slaughter and cultured for Campylobacter. Due to the strong seasonal variation in flock prevalence, analyses were restricted to a subset of 792 flocks raised during the four summer seasons. Flock results were collapsed to the farm level, such that the number of positive flocks and the total number of flocks raised were summed for each farm. Logistic regression models were fitted to the data using automated and manual selection methods. Variables of interest included manure management, water source and treatment, other poultry/livestock on farm, and farm size and management.The 792 flocks raised during the summer seasons originated from 83 houses on 33 farms, and of these, 217 (27.4%) tested positive. The median number of flocks per farm was 14, and the median number of positive flocks per farm was three. Three farms did not have any positive flocks. In general, factors associated with an increased risk of Campylobacter were increasing median flock size on the farm (p ≤ 0.001), spreading manure on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.035), and increasing the number of broiler houses on the farm (p = 0.008 to 0.038). Protective factors included the use of official (municipal) (p = 0.004 to 0.051) or official treated (p = 0.006 to 0.032) water compared to the use of non-official untreated water, storing manure on the farm (p = 0.025 to 0.029), and the presence of other domestic livestock on the farm (p = 0.004 to 0.028).Limiting the average flock size, and limiting the number of houses built on new farms, are interventions that require investigation. Water may play a role in the transmission of Campylobacter, therefore the use of official water, and potentially, treating non-official water may reduce the risk of colonization. Manure management practices deserve further attention.Campylobacter spp. remain one of the most frequent bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis around the wor
Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008
Aliya Pardhan-Ali, Jeff Wilson, Victoria L Edge, Chris Furgal, Richard Reid-Smith, Maria Santos, Scott A McEwen
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-63
Abstract: The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group) were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors.Significant (p≤0.05) associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of ‘households in core need’ (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing) up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased ‘internal mobility’ (population moving between communities), and also where the community’s primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities, services and professionals). In the campylobacteriosis model, a negative association was found between food prices in communities and risk of infection. There was also a significant interaction between trapping and consumption of traditional foods in communities. Higher rates of community participation in both activities appeared to have a protective effect against campylobacteriosis.These results raise very interesting questions about the role that traditional activities might play in infectious enteric disease incidence in the NWT, but should be interpreted with caution, recognizing database limitations in collection of case data and ris
House-level risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001 – 2004
Michele T Guerin, Wayne Martin, Jarle Reiersen, Olaf Berke, Scott A McEwen, Jean-Robert Bisaillon, Ruff Lowman
BMC Veterinary Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-3-30
Abstract: 217 out of 792 flocks (27.4%) tested positive. Four significant risk factors were identified. Campylobacter colonization was predicted to increase when the flock was raised in a house with vertical (OR = 2.7), or vertical and horizontal (OR = 3.2) ventilation shafts, when the producer's boots were cleaned and disinfected prior to entering the broiler house (OR = 2.2), and when the house was cleaned with geothermal water (OR = 3.3).The increased risk associated with vertical ventilation shafts might be related to the height of the vents and the potential for vectors such as flies to gain access to the house, or, increased difficulty in accessing the vents for proper cleaning and disinfection. For newly constructed houses, horizontal ventilation systems could be considered. Boot dipping procedures should be examined on farms experiencing a high prevalence of Campylobacter. Although it remains unclear how geothermal water increases risk, further research is warranted to determine if it is a surrogate for environmental pressures or the microclimate of the farm and surrounding region.Campylobacter spp. remain one of the most frequent bacterial causes of foodborne gastroenteritis world-wide [1]. Poultry, and specifically consumption of undercooked poultry and mishandling raw poultry, is an important source of Campylobacter to humans [2-7]. The prevalence of broiler flocks colonized with Campylobacter spp. varies, ranging from 5% of flocks to more than 90% [8]. Once a flock is exposed, the bacteria spread rapidly throughout the flock, and most of the birds become colonized and remain so until slaughter [9-14]. Due to the difficulties in eliminating contamination of carcasses in slaughter plants, the control of Campylobacter in broiler flocks and production of birds free from colonization at slaughter, is essential for preventing human cases [5,14-17].Many researchers [11,12,14,15,18-28] have contested that the most likely source of Campylobacter to broiler flocks is the en
Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, Waltner-Toews David, Mathews Eric, Deborah J Carr, Spencer J Henson
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-94
Abstract: A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information.Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two media reported most likely to be used.Although respondents rated their water quality highly, the majority had concerns regarding the water from their private supply, and the use of bottled water and water treatment devices was extensive. The results of this study suggest important lines of inquiry and provide support and input for public education programs, particularly those related to private water testing, in this population.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, such as private wells and cisterns, lies with their owners [2]. There are reports, however, that Canadians with private water supplies test their water intermittently, if at all [1,3], and that water treatment within their
Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses
Andria Q Jones, Catherine E Dewey, Kathryn Doré, Shannon E Majowicz, Scott A McEwen, David Waltner-Toews, Spencer J Henson, Eric Mathews
BMC Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-5-129
Abstract: In September 2003, three focus group discussions were conducted; two with men and women aged 36–65 years, and one with men and women 20–35 years of age.Overall, participants had positive perceptions of their private water supplies, particularly in the older age group. Concerns included bacterial and chemical contamination from agricultural sources. Testing of water from private supplies was minimal and was done less frequently than recommended by the provincial government. Barriers to water testing included the inconvenience of the testing process, acceptable test results in the past, resident complacency and lack of knowledge. The younger participants greatly emphasized their need for more information on private water supplies. Participants from all groups wanted more information on water testing, and various media for information dissemination were discussed.While most participants were confident in the safety of their private water supply, the factual basis for these opinions is uncertain. Improved dissemination of information pertaining to private water supplies in this population is needed. Observed differences in the concerns expressed by users of different water systems and age groups may suggest the need for targeted public education strategies. These focus groups provided significant insight into the public perception of private water supplies and the need for public health outreach activities; however, to obtain a more representative understanding of the perceptions in this population, it is important that a larger scale investigation be performed.Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, predominantly from groundwater wells [1]. Numerous studies report that Canadian private water supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for microbial and chemical contamination [1-5], and it is estimated that 45 percent of all waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems, largely in rural or
A spatial and temporal analysis of notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008
Aliya Pardhan-Ali, Olaf Berke, Jeff Wilson, Victoria L Edge, Chris Furgal, Richard Reid-Smith, Maria Santos, Scott A McEwen
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-11-17
Abstract: There was geographic variability in the rates of NGI with higher notifications in the south compared to the north. Incidence of NGI exhibited seasonality with peaks in the fall months for most years. Two possible outbreaks were detected in the fall of 1995 and 2001, of which one coincided with a previously recognized outbreak. Overall, incidence of NGI fluctuated from 1991 to 2001 followed by a tendency for rates to decrease from 2002 to 2008.The distribution of NGI notifications varied widely according to geographic region, season and year. While the analyses highlighted a possible bias in the surveillance data, this information is beneficial for generating hypotheses about risk factors for infection.
Phase Diagram And Adsorption-Desorption Kinetics Of CO On Ru(0001): Present Limitations Of A First Principles Approach
J. -S. McEwen,A. Eichler
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: A lattice gas model is used to study the equilibrium properties and desorption kinetics of CO on Ru(0001). With interactions obtained from density functional theory (DFT) the phase diagram and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra are calculated up to a coverage of 1/3 ML using top sites only. For coverages beyond 1/3 ML hollow sites are included. Good agreement is obtained between experiment and theory for coverages below 1/3 ML using top sites only. When including hollow sites, DFT calculations fail in predicting the correct binding energy differences between top and hollow sites giving disagreement with TPD, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and heat of adsorption experiments.
RNAi technology targeting PbGP43 and PbP27 in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  [PDF]
Isaura Torres Gómez, Orville Hernandez Ruiz, Jose F. Mu?oz, Ana María Garcia, Angela Restrepo, Juan G. McEwen
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2013.32A2001

Efficient technologies for gene silencing would be important to carry out functional analysis with P. brasiliensis genes, as well as for a better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of this pathogenic fungus. Due to the fact that homologous recombination is unusual in P. brasiliensis, the development of knockout isolates is currently non-feasible. The goal of this work was to assess RNA interference (RNAi) technology as an alternative tool for gene silencing previously employed successfully in H. capsulatum. For this purpose, we built different inverted repeat transgenic hairpin constructs to down-regulate the PbGP43 and PbP27 genes known to codify for two fungal immunogenic proteins that elicit a strong immune response during experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. Using the RNAi strategy, a reduction in the mRNA levels of the PbGP43 and PbP27 genes was observed during the first 20 days after selection; however, in the transformed yeast cells, the gene silencing status proved non-stable through the assay. We demonstrated that electrotransformation was suitable to transform P. brasiliensis yeast cells and integrate the hairpin constructions; nonetheless, gene silencing was not stable along the experimental time. A detailed analysis of the underlying molecular RNAi machinery may provide further insights into the intracellular mechanism that governs this reverse genetic tool.

Desarrollo capitalista y economía campesina en el Perú
Paul Mosley,Víctor Bulmer Thomas,David G. Becker,Alison McEwen Scott
Revista Economía , 1985,
Abstract: El artículo no presenta resumen
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