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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 66 matches for " ScD "
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Rational Use of Drugs: Pharmaceutical Aspects of the Drug Selection
Natalya B. Rostova, PhD, ScD,Tatiana F. Odegova, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: In this article, the problems encountered in the rational use of drugs are discussed, one of the areas of optimization of drug supply being the rational choice of drugs, particularly, a regulatory activity regarding the approach to the selection of standardized drug lists (drug formulary) for public drug supply, according to government guarantees and programs. The clinical aspects of the drug selection are expounded in detail. The characteristics of the drugs (original or generic drug (generics), the origin of drugs and the breadth of therapeutic index), have been taken into account. Certain stages have been analyzed, particularly drug use in individual diseases, drug selection, expert drug evaluation, and expert recommendations to include specific drugs in the drug list. Organizational steps have been proposed to implement the rational choice of drugs to be included in the drug formulary.
Cholecystectomy for Large Hartmann’s Pouch Spliced with Biliary Pathways
Alexei L. Charyshkin, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, the proposed cholecystectomy method for very large Hartmann’s pouch spliced with biliary pathways is described in detail. The results of the cholecystectomy procedure for very large Hartmann’s pouch spliced with biliary pathways during the period 2001-2012 are presented. The proposed method contributes to a reduction in complications such as bleeding and bile leakage, and eliminates damage to the common bile duct.
Constitution of the Lymphatic System
Valeriy M. Petrenko, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: The lymphatic system consists of two types segments – general (systemic or periarterial) and special (own, intervalvular). The segments organize all the system’s reactions in response to its environmental influences. This paper presents the results of the research the common structure of all the sections of the lymphatic bed.
Mechanism of Cell Cycle Asynchrony within the Animal Organism
Michael T. Lucenko, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2013,
Abstract: Every organism is composed of multi-cellular systems. Each of these cells, from the time of birth until death, often plays a polyfunctional role. Obviously, this cycle must include periods of intense work and leisure. In other words, the organ cell masses are able to perform the asynchronous mechanism of cell cycle. The implementation of such a mechanism is regulated by the cell’s gene apparatus which receives the signal from the cytosol of the functioning cell; it also performs the reverse inclusion of the cells doing the work after the rest interval. The aim of this study was to show the presence of a daily regulation of the cell apparatus of any organ, using the liver as an example. This phenomenon is the obligatory mechanism developed over the course of a long evolution and explains the lifetime of the multicellular organ system.
Endothelium: A Long Road from Mystery to Discovery
Marietta R. Eliseyeva, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2013,
Abstract: The article discusses the main issues of the endothelial function and dysfunction.
The Effect of Human Herpes Virus Infections on the Stages of Gestation
Michael T. Lucenko, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: Human herpes virus (HHV) infections are dangerous during the early stages of pregnancy. Circulatory disorders of theendometrium from the uterine arteries pose a threat to the implantation of the embryo and the formation of the structure of chorionic villi. Oxygenation of the placental blood gets disrupted.
Impact of Intra-Extracranial Hemodynamics on Cerebral Ischemia by Arterial Hypertension (Part 1)
Alexander G. Kruglov, PhD, ScD,Georgiy Y. Gebel, PhD, ScD,Alexander Y. Vasilyev, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to examine the interaction of biochemical parameters within the blood flow, their effect on the cerebral blood flow, as well as the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia by stable arterial hypertension. The hemodynamics and biochemical indicators of cerebral blood flow without the additives of the extracranial blood were obtained by the catheterization method via a probe wedged at the level of the bulb of the superior jugular vein. Sampling of the arterial blood was done in the thoracic aorta. Correlation and factor analysis of the relationship of the biochemical substances within the blood flow, and of the hemodynamic indicators of the cerebral inflow and outflow of blood were conducted by stable arterial hypertension compared with similar data of the control group. The differences thus identified led to the conclusion that by stable arterial hypertension, there is a loss of the homeostatic control of the factors determining the rheological and thrombogenic properties of the blood involved in the formation of cerebral ischemic events.
Identification of Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk
Igor V. Sergienko, PhD, ScD,Saule J. Urazalina, PhD,Valery V. Kukharchuk, PhD, ScD,Yuri A. Karpov, PhD, ScD
International Journal of BioMedicine , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: To identify individuals at high cardiovascular risk (CVR) to check for an additional estimate of CVR with the use of the ESH/ESC Guidelines (2003, 2007) in patients earlier classified as being at low and moderate risk on SCORE . Material and methods: The study included 600 people (155 men and 445 women) with low and moderate cardiovascular risk on the SCORE scale. All patients were examined with duplex scanning of the carotid arteries (DSCA) to the determined of the thickness of the intima – media (IMT), the presence of atherosclerotic plaques (ASP); it has also been performed sphygmographic computer (SC) with automatic estimation of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), biochemical analysis of blood lipid spectrum. Results: The frequency of ASP was 59.5% (357 out of 600), and a thickening of thecomplex "intima-media" (IMT)> 0.9 mm was detected in only 5% of the cases (28 persons out of 600), that indicated a slight contribution to the magnitude of the risk of such parameters as the IMT. The total number of patients with signs of preclinicallesions of the arterial wall (the presence of ASP and/or increased baPWV) was 337 (56% of 600). Our results showed that the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is in itself a risk factor. Conclusion: The usage of instrumental methods of research (DSCA, SC) allowed to detect 32% of individuals with high CVR from 600 previously classified as low and moderate risk on SCORE scale. In our opinion, the proposed algorithm is convenient and easy to use for transfer of the patients into high-risk group.
Adaptation of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Litera cy in Medicine Revised (REALM -R) to the South African context: Part 1
S Wasserman, SCD Wright, TM Maja
Health SA Gesondheid , 2010,
Abstract: Literacy levels are increasingly important in health care because professional nurses and other health care professionals often use written health education materials as a major component in patient education. In South Africa, no current instrument is available to assess the literacy levels of patients in the primary health care setting, though several instruments have been developed and validated internationally. The purpose of this paper was to adapt and validate the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine Revised (REALM-R) to the South African context. The REALM-R is a short instrument that is designed to rapidly screen clients in the primary health care setting for low health literacy. A modified Delphi-technique was used to measure the judgement of a group of experts for the purpose of making a decision. Eight experts in the field of Nursing Science were selected purposively to obtain the most reliable consensus. Data was collected by means of a selfreport whereby participants responded to a series of questions posed by the researcher. Descriptive statistics was used for analysing data. The REALM-R was adapted to the South African context to ensure that the literacy level of South African clients is measured with an appropriate instrument.
Health Improvements Have Been More Rapid and Widespread in China than in India: A Comparative Analysis of Health and Socioeconomic Trends from 1960 to 2011
Gopal K. Singh, PhD,Jihong Liu, ScD
International Journal of MCH and AIDS , 2012,
Abstract: ObjectivesWe examined differences between China and India in key health and socioeconomic indicators, including life expectancy, infant and child mortality, non-communicable disease mortality from cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and diabetes, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, material living conditions, and health expenditure.MethodsData on health and social indicators came from various World Health Organization and United Nations databases on global health and development statistics, including the GLOBOCAN cancer database. Mortality trends were modeled by log-linear regression, and differences in rates and relative risks were tested for statistical significance.ResultsAlthough both countries have made marked improvements, India lags behind China on several key health indicators. Differential rates of mortality decline during 1960-2009 have led to a widening health gap between China and India. In 2009 the infant mortality rate in India was 50 deaths per 1,000 live births, 3 times greater than the rate for China. Sixty-six out of 1,000 Indian children died before reaching their 5th birthday, compared with 19 children in China. China’s life expectancy is 9 years longer than India’s. Life expectancy at birth in India increased from 42 years in 1960 to 65 years in 2009, while life expectancy in China increased from 47 years in 1960 to 74 years in 2009. Major health concerns for China include high rates of stomach, liver, and lung cancer, CVD, and smoking prevalence. Globally, India ranked 90th and China 102nd in life satisfaction.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:India’s less favorable health profile compared to China is largely attributable to its higher rates of mortality from communicable diseases and maternal and perinatal conditions. Further health gains can be achieved by reducing social inequality, greater investments in human development and health services, and by prevention and control of chronic-disease risks such as hypertension, smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity.
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