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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2593 matches for " Satoshi Osawa "
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Internal frontier: The pathophysiology of the small intestine
Haruhiko Sugimura,Satoshi Osawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i2.161
Abstract: Even though the small intestine occupies a major portion of the abdominal space and is essential for life, in most pathology textbooks any chapter on small intestinal diseases, especially in human beings, is typically shorter than those for other gastrointestinal organs. Clinical and experimental investigations of the small intestine in various clinical situations, such as nutrition management, obesity interventions, and emergency care, have elucidated several important biological problems associated with the small intestine, the last frontier of gastroenterology. In this issue, a review by Professor Basson and his team at Michigan State University sheds light on the changes in the human small intestine under various conditions based on their clinical and surgical experience. With the advent of recent innovations in enteroscopy, a form of endoscopy used to examine deep within the small intestine, the issue that they highlighted, i.e., mucosal adaptation and atrophy of the human small intestine, has emerged as a major and manageable challenge for gastroenterologists in general, including the readers of the World Journal of Gastroenterology.
Cecal vanishing tumor associated with cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent elderly adult
Shinsuke Kawasaki,Satoshi Osawa,Ken Sugimoto,Takahiro Uotani
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology , 2010,
Abstract: Gastrointestinal involvement in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is well documented among immunocompromised patients and is also observed in immunocompetent individuals. The presentation of this infection can sometimes mimic those of other diseases, thus making accurate diagnosis difficult. We herein report a rare case of an immunocompetent elderly adult with gastrointestinal CMV infection that presented as a vanishing tumor at the cecum. A 76-year old man initially presented with lower abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed a tumorous lesion with irregular ulceration observed at the ileocecal valve. Histological findings of a biopsy specimen revealed intranuclear inclusions which were positive for CMV on immunohistochemical staining. However, this tumorous lesion disappeared within 7 wk from the initial hospital visit without any further treatment. Inflammatory pseudotumors associated with CMV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis of tumorous lesions in the colon, even in immunocompetent adults.
Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy before and after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Review
Mitsushige Sugimoto,Jin Seok Jang,Yashiro Yoshizawa,Satoshi Osawa,Ken Sugimoto,Yoshihiko Sato,Takahisa Furuta
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/791873
Abstract: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a novel endoscopic procedure first developed in the 1990s which enables en bloc resection of gastric neoplastic lesions that are difficult to resect via conventional endoscopic mucosal resection. However, given that ESD increases the risk of intra- and post-ESD delayed bleeding and that platelet aggregation and coagulation in artificial ulcers after ESD strongly depend on intragastric pH, faster and stronger acid inhibition via proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) as well as endoscopic hemostasis by thermocoagulation during ESD have been used to prevent ESD-related bleeding. Because PPIs more potently inhibit acid secretion than H2RAs, they are often the first-line drugs employed in ESD treatment. However, acid inhibition after the initial infusion of a PPI is weaker in the early phase than that achievable with H2RAs; further, PPI effectiveness can vary depending on genetic differences in CYP2C19. Therefore, optimal acid inhibition may require tailored treatment based on CYP2C19 genotype when ESD is performed, with a concomitant infusion of PPI and H2RA possibly most effective for patients with the rapid metabolizer CYP2C19 genotype, while PPI alone may be sufficient for those with the intermediate or poor metabolizer genotypes. 1. Introduction Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), an endoscopic procedure that originated from Japan and Korea in the late 1990s and has since spread rapidly to other nations, is now commonly used to treat gastric cancer and adenoma [1]. ESD is performed using electrosurgical knives to make gastrointestinal mucosal incisions and submucosal dissections [2, 3]. Although the procedure requires a high level of endoscopic competence, ESD resection can be performed en bloc, controlling the resected size and shape of tumors and gastric cancer lesions, which are notoriously difficult to resect via conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Therefore, ESD allows complete pathological assessment, proving this technique superior to biopsy or EMR for diagnosing gastrointestinal tumors [4]. Further, in most cases, ESD’s en bloc approach can be useful in avoiding piecemeal resection, which often leads to a high risk of local recurrence of gastric cancer [5, 6]. Unfortunately, the treatment of relatively large lesions and lesions related to ulcers, ulcer scars, or fibrosis increases the ESD operation time, which subsequently also increases the risk of adverse events such as bleeding and gastrointestinal perforation [7–10]. In fact, the incidence of
An Operation in the Park Bench Position Complicated by Massive Tongue Swelling
Hiroyuki Koizumi,Satoshi Utsuki,Madoka Inukai,Hidehiro Oka,Shigeyuki Osawa,Kiyotaka Fujii
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/165860
Abstract: This paper presents a case of massive tongue swelling as a complication after an operation in the park bench position. A 43-year-old male who had undergone a resection of a mass in the petrous bone of the clivus showed massive tongue swelling after the surgery in the left park bench position. A direct compression of the bite block caused the swelling of tongue. Tongue swelling may become fatal if it progresses to an airway obstruction; therefore the intraoperative and postoperative management is important.
An Operation in the Park Bench Position Complicated by Massive Tongue Swelling
Hiroyuki Koizumi,Satoshi Utsuki,Madoka Inukai,Hidehiro Oka,Shigeyuki Osawa,Kiyotaka Fujii
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/165860
Abstract: This paper presents a case of massive tongue swelling as a complication after an operation in the park bench position. A 43-year-old male who had undergone a resection of a mass in the petrous bone of the clivus showed massive tongue swelling after the surgery in the left park bench position. A direct compression of the bite block caused the swelling of tongue. Tongue swelling may become fatal if it progresses to an airway obstruction; therefore the intraoperative and postoperative management is important. 1. Introduction Intraoperative or postoperative complications of surgeries performed in the park bench position, such as bedsores, paralysis of the brachial plexus, and cervical cord injury, have been previously reported. This paper presents a case of massive tongue swelling which was a rare postoperative complication after the extirpation of a mass lesion in the petrous bone of the clivus which was performed in the park bench position. 2. Case Report A 43-year-old male experienced a dull pain at the right back of his head. The headache thereafter evolved into right orbital pain. The patient subsequently developed gradually progressive diplopia. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass lesion in the right clivus that was suspected to be a meningioma. The patient was admitted for surgery. A neurological examination showed no abnormalities other than right abducent nerve paralysis. Cerebral computed tomography (CT) revealed a tumor with homogenous enhancement which came in contact with the petrous bone from the right clivus. However, no osseous proliferative change was observed. Cerebral MRI revealed a mass appearing as homogeneously hypointense on T1, and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted MRI with gadolinium showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass in the petrous bone from the right clivus (Figure 1). Figure 1: (a) Cerebral T1-weighted MRI shows a homogeneous, low-signal mass in the petrous bone from the right clivus. (b) Cerebral T2-weighted MRI reveals a homogeneous, high-signal mass in the petrous bone from the right clivus. (c) Cerebral T1-weighted MRI with gadolinium shows a heterogeneously enhanced mass in the petrous bone from the right clivus. The patient underwent a resection of the mass via a left suboccipital craniotomy. Oral intubation was done with I.D 7.5 spiral tube using the Macintosh laryngoscope blade. Intubation was easy. The endotracheal tube was secured at a depth of 23?cm with a bite block and adhesive tape. The patient was then placed in the left park bench position, and the head was fixed with neck
Decline of VOC Concentrations with the Aging of Houses in Japan  [PDF]
Motoya Hayashi, Haruki Osawa
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A1004
Abstract:

The purpose of this investigation is to know the long-term characteristics of VOC concentrations in houses built before the building code in 2003 and to clarify the countermeasures against indoor air pollution in the houses already built. For example, the improvements of living habits, ventilation and the remove of building materials. The concentrations of VOCs were measured in these houses in summer and winter from 2000 to 2005. The results showed that the concentration of formaldehyde decreased in the first year. After that the decline of the concentration was not seen and the concentration changed only with the temperature. The characteristics of decline were thought to be caused by two sorts of emission. One is an emission of concealed formaldehyde in the process of material production and the other is an emission with the generation of formaldehyde from adhesives of urea resin and moisture. The concentration of toluene decreased rapidly in the first year. The concentrations of xylene, ethyl-benzene and styrene showed a similar change. But the concentrations of acetaldehyde which were measured from the summer of 2002 did not decrease and its concentration in some houses was higher than the guideline even in the winter of 2005.

Finite rank intermediate Hankel operators and the big Hankel operator
Tomoko Osawa
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/51705
Abstract: Let La2 be a Bergman space. We are interested in an intermediate Hankel operator HφM from La2 to a closed subspace M of L2 which is invariant under the multiplication by the coordinate function z. It is well known that there do not exist any nonzero finite rank big Hankel operators, but we are studying same types in case HφM is close to big Hankel operator. As a result, we give a necessary and sufficient condition about M that there does not exist a finite rank HφM except HφM=0.
Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection
Hiroyuki Osawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primarily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in H pylori infected subjects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in association with atrophic gastritis induced by H pylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentration. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may result from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations before and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels.
Gene Polymorphisms and Chemotherapy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Kayo OSAWA
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2009,
Abstract: The phamacogenetics is being used to predict whether the selected chemotherapy will be really effective and tolerable to the patient. Irinotecan, oxidized by CYP3A4 to produce inactive compounds, is used for treatment of various cancers including advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. CYP3A4*16B polymorphism was associated with decreased metabolism of irrinotecan. Irinotecan is also metabolized by carboxylesterase to its principal active metabolite, SN-38, which is subsequently glucuronidated by UGT1As to form the inactive compound SN-38G. UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms were useful for predicting severe toxicity with NSCLC patients treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Platinum-based compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) are being used in combination with new cytotoxic drugs such as gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinorelbine in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Cisplatin activity is mediated through the formation of cisplatin-DNA adducts. Gene polymorphisms of DNA repair factors are therefore obvious candidates for determinants of repair capacity and chemotherapy efficacy. ERCC1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms were a useful marker for predicting better survival in advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. XPA and XPD polymorphisms significantly increased response to platinum-based chemotherapy. These DNA repair gene polymorphisms were useful as a predictor of clinical outcome to the platinum-based chemotherapy. EGFR kinase inhibitors induce dramatic clinical responses in NSCLC patients with advanced disease. EGFR gene polymorphism in intron 1 contains a polymorphic single sequence dinucleotide repeat (CA-SSR) showed a statistically significant correlation with the gefitinib response and was appeared to be a useful predictive marker of the development of clinical outcome containing skin rashes with gefitinib treatment. The other polymorphisms of EGFR were also associated with increased EGFR promoter activity. EGFR gene mutations and polymorphisms were also associated with EGFR kinase inhibitors response and toxicity.
Bmi1 Confers Resistance to Oxidative Stress on Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Shunsuke Nakamura, Motohiko Oshima, Jin Yuan, Atsunori Saraya, Satoru Miyagi, Takaaki Konuma, Satoshi Yamazaki, Mitsujiro Osawa, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Haruhiko Koseki, Atsushi Iwama
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036209
Abstract: Background The polycomb-group (PcG) proteins function as general regulators of stem cells. We previously reported that retrovirus-mediated overexpression of Bmi1, a gene encoding a core component of polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1, maintained self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during long-term culture. However, the effects of overexpression of Bmi1 on HSCs in vivo remained to be precisely addressed. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, we generated a mouse line where Bmi1 can be conditionally overexpressed under the control of the endogenous Rosa26 promoter in a hematopoietic cell-specific fashion (Tie2-Cre;R26StopFLBmi1). Although overexpression of Bmi1 did not significantly affect steady state hematopoiesis, it promoted expansion of functional HSCs during ex vivo culture and efficiently protected HSCs against loss of self-renewal capacity during serial transplantation. Overexpression of Bmi1 had no effect on DNA damage response triggered by ionizing radiation. In contrast, Tie2-Cre;R26StopFLBmi1 HSCs under oxidative stress maintained a multipotent state and generally tolerated oxidative stress better than the control. Unexpectedly, overexpression of Bmi1 had no impact on the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that overexpression of Bmi1 confers resistance to stresses, particularly oxidative stress, onto HSCs. This thereby enhances their regenerative capacity and suggests that Bmi1 is located downstream of ROS signaling and negatively regulated by it.
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