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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 10744 matches for " Sarah Wagner "
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HIV Clients as Agents for Prevention: A Social Network Solution
Sarah Ssali,Glenn Wagner,Christopher Tumwine,Annette Nannungi,Harold Green
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/815823
Abstract: HIV prevention efforts to date have not explored the potential for persons living with HIV to act as change agents for prevention behaviour in their social networks. Using egocentric social network analysis, this study examined the prevalence and social network correlates of prevention advocacy behaviours (discussing HIV in general; encouraging abstinence or condom use, HIV testing, and seeking HIV care) enacted by 39 HIV clients in Uganda. Participants engaged in each prevention advocacy behaviour with roughly 50–70% of the members in their network. The strongest determinant of engaging in prevention advocacy with more of one’s network members was having a greater proportion of network members who knew one’s HIV seropositive status, as this was associated with three of the four advocacy behaviours. These findings highlight the potential for PLHA to be key change agents for HIV prevention within their networks and the importance of HIV disclosure in facilitating prevention advocacy. 1. Introduction In our work with persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Uganda, we have observed that the combination of restored health and the sense of community among one’s HIV-infected peers often translate into HIV clients being instilled with self-confidence and motivation to engage in HIV protective behaviours and to encourage others to do so as well. Clients talk about and demonstrate their desire to share their experiences and to advocate for HIV testing, seeking HIV medical care, and engagement in behaviours to prevent HIV transmission. Some feel so impassioned and motivated to reach out to others that they are emboldened to be public advocates for HIV prevention and for seeking HIV care, and to do so without prompting or compensation. However, data are scarce from empirical investigations of this phenomenon. While HIV prevention interventions increasingly target the risk behaviour of HIV-infected individuals [1–3], few have tried to take advantage of the potential of PLHA to be key facilitators of secondary prevention. Peer outreach strategies for HIV prevention have been used among at-risk populations including drug users [4–6] and sex workers [7]. A process described as “intravention,” by which members of a community engage in and advocate for behavioural change with other community members, has been successfully promoted in communities and networks of drug users [6]. However, we are not aware of any programs that focus specifically on activating PLHA to be advocates for prevention. PLHA may be the most effective messengers of prevention, as they are more likely
A Multiwell Disc Appliance Used to Deliver Quantifiable Accelerations and Shear Stresses at Sonic Frequencies
Sarah A. Klemuk,Sarah Vigmostad,Kalyan Endapally,Andrew P. Wagner,Ingo R. Titze
Processes , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/pr2010071
Abstract: To mimic in vivo vibration of vocal fold cells, we studied the controllability and range of frequency, acceleration, duration, and shear stress in a new bioreactor attachment. The custom multiwell disc appliance fits into a commercially built rheometer, together termed a torsional rheometer bioreactor (TRB). Previous attachments to the TRB were capable of 50–100 Hz vibrations at relatively high strains but were limited to single-sample experiments. The TRB-multiwell disc system accommodates 20 samples in partially fluid-filled wells in an aseptic environment delivering three different acceleration conditions to different samples simultaneously. Frequency and amplitude used to calculate acceleration along with duration and shear stress were controllable and quantifiable using a combination of built-in rheometer sensors, manufacturer software, and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. Computed shear stresses at the well bottom using SPH in two and three dimensions were verified with analytical approximations. Results demonstrate capabilities of the TRB-multiwell disc system that, when combined with computational modeling, provide quantifiable vibration parameters covering frequencies 0.01–250 Hz, accelerations of 0.02–300 m/s 2, and shear stresses of 0.01–1.4 Pa. It is well-suited for studying cell function underlying vocal fold lamina propria homeostasis, inflammation, and wound healing under differential vibration conditions.
Maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation: Is latitude important?  [PDF]
Carol L. Wagner, Cynthia R. Howard, Thomas C. Hulsey, Ruth A. Lawrence, Myla Ebeling, Judy Shary, Pamela G. Smith, Kristen Morella, Sarah N. Taylor, Bruce W. Hollis
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512271
Abstract:

Background: The effect of latitude on maternal and infant vitamin D status during lactation is presumed to be strongly associated with higher rates of deficiency in those living at higher latitudes, yet with lifestyle changes, this conclusion may no longer be correct. Objective: To ascertain if higher latitude adversely affects the vitamin D status of lactating women and their fully breastfeeding infants. Study Design/Methods: Fully breastfeeding women and their infants were eligible for participation in this study as part of a larger prospective vitamin D supplementation trial. Women were recruited from two sites of differing latitude: Charleston, SC at 32°N and Rochester, NY at latitude 43°N. Maternal and infant baseline vitamin D status, intact parathyroid hormone (IPTH), serum calcium and phosphorus as a function of site/latitude were measured. The primary outcome was maternal and infant total circulating 25(OH)D at baseline by center/latitude, and the secondary outcome was the percent of women and infants who had achieved a baseline concentration of at least 20 ng/mL, meeting the Institute of Medicine’s definition of sufficiency at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.3. Results: Higher latitude adversely affected vitamin D status only in lactating Caucasian women. African American and Hispanic women and infants living in Rochester compared to Charleston had improved vitamin D status, an effect that was no longer significant when controlling for socioeconomic factors and season. Overall, there was a significant vitamin D deficiency at baseline in lactating mothers, and a far greater deficiency in their infants. Maternal baseline 25(OH)D concentration remained positively associated with being Caucasian, BMI and summer months. Breastfeeding infant vitamin D status mirrored maternal status and remained positively associated with being Caucasian and summer months. Those infants who had been on a vitamin D supplement at the time of enrollment in the study had markedly

Shared Visual Attention and Memory Systems in the Drosophila Brain
Bruno van Swinderen, Amber McCartney, Sarah Kauffman, Kris Flores, Kunal Agrawal, Jenée Wagner, Angelique Paulk
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005989
Abstract: Background Selective attention and memory seem to be related in human experience. This appears to be the case as well in simple model organisms such as the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutations affecting olfactory and visual memory formation in Drosophila, such as in dunce and rutabaga, also affect short-term visual processes relevant to selective attention. In particular, increased optomotor responsiveness appears to be predictive of visual attention defects in these mutants. Methodology/Principal Findings To further explore the possible overlap between memory and visual attention systems in the fly brain, we screened a panel of 36 olfactory long term memory (LTM) mutants for visual attention-like defects using an optomotor maze paradigm. Three of these mutants yielded high dunce-like optomotor responsiveness. We characterized these three strains by examining their visual distraction in the maze, their visual learning capabilities, and their brain activity responses to visual novelty. We found that one of these mutants, D0067, was almost completely identical to dunce1 for all measures, while another, D0264, was more like wild type. Exploiting the fact that the LTM mutants are also Gal4 enhancer traps, we explored the sufficiency for the cells subserved by these elements to rescue dunce attention defects and found overlap at the level of the mushroom bodies. Finally, we demonstrate that control of synaptic function in these Gal4 expressing cells specifically modulates a 20–30 Hz local field potential associated with attention-like effects in the fly brain. Conclusions/Significance Our study uncovers genetic and neuroanatomical systems in the fly brain affecting both visual attention and odor memory phenotypes. A common component to these systems appears to be the mushroom bodies, brain structures which have been traditionally associated with odor learning but which we propose might be also involved in generating oscillatory brain activity required for attention-like processes in the fly brain.
Vitamin D and Its Role During Pregnancy in Attaining Optimal Health of Mother and Fetus
Carol L. Wagner,Sarah N. Taylor,Adekunle Dawodu,Donna D. Johnson,Bruce W. Hollis
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4030208
Abstract: Despite its discovery a hundred years ago, vitamin D has emerged as one of the most controversial nutrients and prohormones of the 21st century. Its role in calcium metabolism and bone health is undisputed but its role in immune function and long-term health is debated. There are clear indicators from in vitro and animal in vivo studies that point to vitamin D’s indisputable role in both innate and adaptive immunity; however, the translation of these findings to clinical practice, including the care of the pregnant woman, has not occurred. Until recently, there has been a paucity of data from randomized controlled trials to establish clear cut beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy. An overview of vitamin metabolism, states of deficiency, and the results of recent clinical trials conducted in the U.S. are presented with an emphasis on what is known and what questions remain to be answered.
Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students
Xue Ming, Rebecca Koransky, Victor Kang, Sarah Buchman, Christina E. Sarris, and George C. Wagner
Clinical Medicine Insights: Circulatory, Respiratory and Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CCRPM.S7955
Abstract: A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance.
Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms
Sarah E. MacPherson, Gabriela Peretti Wagner, Patrick Murphy, Marco Bozzali, Lisa Cipolotti, Tim Shallice
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092554
Abstract: The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is widely used by clinicians and researchers to assess the ability to produce reasonable cognitive estimates. Although several studies have published normative data for versions of the CET, many of the items are now outdated and parallel forms of the test do not exist to allow cognitive estimation abilities to be assessed on more than one occasion. In the present study, we devised two new 9-item parallel forms of the CET. These versions were administered to 184 healthy male and female participants aged 18–79 years with 9–22 years of education. Increasing age and years of education were found to be associated with successful CET performance as well as gender, intellect, naming, arithmetic and semantic memory abilities. To validate that the parallel forms of the CET were sensitive to frontal lobe damage, both versions were administered to 24 patients with frontal lobe lesions and 48 age-, gender- and education-matched controls. The frontal patients’ error scores were significantly higher than the healthy controls on both versions of the task. This study provides normative data for parallel forms of the CET for adults which are also suitable for assessing frontal lobe dysfunction on more than one occasion without practice effects.
No X-Ray Excess from the HESS J1741-302 Region except a New Intermediate Polar Candidate
Hideki Uchiyama,Katsuji Koyama,Hironori Matsumoto,Omar Tibolla,Sarah Kaufmann,Stefan Wagner
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/63.sp3.S865
Abstract: With the Suzaku satellite, we observed an unidentified TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1741$-$302 and its surroundings. No diffuse or point-like X-ray sources are detected from the bright southern emission peak of HESS J1741$-$302. From its neighborhood, we found a new intermediate polar candidate at the position of $(\alpha, \delta)_{\rm J2000.0} = (\timeform{17h40m35.6s}, \timeform{-30D14m16s})$, which is designated as Suzaku J174035.6$-$301416. The spectrum of Suzaku J174035.6$-$301416 exhibits emission lines at the energy of 6.4, 6.7 and 7.0 keV, which can be assigned as the K$\alpha$ lines from neutral, He-like and H-like iron, respectively. A coherent pulsation is found at a period of 432.1 $\pm$ 0.1 s. The pulse profile is quasi-sinusoidal in the hard X-ray band (4$-$8 keV), but is more complicated in the soft X-ray band (1$-$3 keV). The moderate period of pulsation, the energy flux, and the presence of the iron K$\alpha$ lines indicate that Suzaku J174035.6$-$301416 is likely an intermediate polar, a subclass of magnetized white dwarf binaries (cataclysmic variables). Based on these discoveries, we give some implications on the origin of GCDX and brief comments on HESS J1741$-$302 and PSR B1737$-$30.
Hybrid Decision Models in Non-Proportional Reinsurance  [PDF]
Maik Wagner
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.11008
Abstract: Over the past years, risk measurement and therewith risk measures became more and more important in economics. While in the past risk measures were already adopted at the deposit of credit and shareholders equity, the approach now generates two hybrid decision models and applies them to the reinsurance business. The two introduced models implement a convex combination of risk measures and with it provide the possibility of modelling risk attitudes. By doing that, for the two hybrid decision models on the one hand can be shown, which risk attitude leads to the acceptance of a reinsurance contract and on the other hand, a deductible of which height an insurer is willing to undertake. Hence the possibility exists to identify the risk attitude of an insurer. In return, due to the knowledge of risk attitudes, under similar conditions the possibility arises to establish recommendations about the extent of the deductible at reinsurance contracts.
Photodynamic Therapy for Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: A Case Report  [PDF]
M?nica Sim?es Israel, Sarah Aparecida Antero, Gisele Cuba Riche, Giulianna Lima Pinheiro, Mayara Leonel Duarte Meira, Fernanda Vieira Heimlich, Wagner Pinto das Chagas, Nathália de Almeida Freire, Maria Eliza Barbosa Ramos, Rosemiro de Menezes Maciel
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.712089
Abstract: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a relatively new disease. MARX reported first cases in 2003. MRONJ relates to oral and parenteral bisphosphonates as well as to the so-called target cancer therapies but the list of medications only grows. Although MRONJ is a relatively rare condition, it can be associated to significant morbidity with feeding limitations and intense pain. More severe cases can lead to potentially life-threatening infections. Every patient initiating bisphosphonate and/or target cancer therapy must visit a dentist before starting medication because preventive measures for MRONJ are much more effective compared to surgical management of the lesions. Surgical resolution can be especially difficult to obtain in the coexistence of certain complication factors like wider bone exposures, history of nitrogen containing bisphosphonates use (mainly zolendronate) and immunodeficiency. Recently, researchers have given attention to laser therapy associated to photosensitive agents as a possible option to management of some MRONJ lesions. Our case report demonstrates the use of photodynamic therapy in a denosumab related lesion in the mandible. It seems that denosumab related lesions are more amenable to treatment and total resolution because of the marked differences between its chemical and metabolic characteristics when compared to bisphosphonates.
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