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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6210 matches for " Sarah Tarquinio "
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Estimation of Tree Biomass, Carbon Stocks, and Error Propagation in Mecrusse Woodlands  [PDF]
Tarquinio Mateus Magalh?es, Thomas Seifert
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.54041
Abstract: We performed a biomass inventory using two-phase sampling to estimate biomass and carbon stocks for mecrusse woodlands and to quantify errors in the estimates. The first sampling phase involved measurement of auxiliary variables of living Androstachys johnsonii trees; in the second phase, we performed destructive biomass measurements on a randomly selected subset of trees from the first phase. The second-phase data were used to fit regression models to estimate below and aboveground biomass. These models were then applied to the first-phase data to estimate biomass stock. The estimated forest biomass and carbon stocks were 167.05 and 82.73 Mg·ha-1, respectively. The percent error resulting from plot selection and allometric equations for whole tree biomass stock was 4.55% and 1.53%, respectively, yielding a total error of 4.80%. Among individual variables in the first sampling phase, diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement was the largest source of error, and tree-height estimates contributed substantially to the error. Almost none of the error was attributable to plot variability. For the second sampling phase, DBH measurements were the largest source of error, followed by height measurements and stem-wood density estimates. Of the total error (as total variance) of the sampling process, 90% was attributed to plot selection and 10% to the allometric biomass model. The total error of our measurements was very low, which indicated that the two-phase sampling approach and sample size were effective for capturing and predicting biomass of this forest type.
Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Pediatric Infection in Cambodia
Kheng Chheng, Sarah Tarquinio, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Lina Sin, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Premjit Amornchai, Ngoun Chanpheaktra, Sarinna Tumapa, Hor Putchhat, Nicholas P. J. Day, Sharon J. Peacock
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006630
Abstract: Background The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection is rising in the developed world but appears to be rare in developing countries. One explanation for this difference is that resource poor countries lack the diagnostic microbiology facilities necessary to detect the presence of CA-MRSA carriage and infection. Methodology and Principal Findings We developed diagnostic microbiology capabilities at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, western Cambodia in January 2006 and in the same month identified a child with severe community-acquired impetigo caused by CA-MRSA. A study was undertaken to identify and describe additional cases presenting between January 2006 and December 2007. Bacterial isolates underwent molecular characterization using multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, and PCR for the presence of the genes encoding Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL). Seventeen children were identified with CA-MRSA infection, of which 11 had skin and soft tissue infection and 6 had invasive disease. The majority of cases were unrelated in time or place. Molecular characterization identified two independent MRSA clones; fifteen isolates were sequence type (ST) 834, SCCmec type IV, PVL gene-negative, and two isolates were ST 121, SCCmec type V, PVL gene-positive. Conclusions This represents the first ever report of MRSA in Cambodia, spread of which would pose a significant threat to public health. The finding that cases were mostly unrelated in time or place suggests that these were sporadic infections in persons who were CA-MRSA carriers or contacts of carriers, rather than arising in the context of an outbreak.
Decreased Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on nanomodified endotracheal tubes: a dynamic airway model
Machado MC, Tarquinio KM, Webster TJ
International Journal of Nanomedicine , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S28191
Abstract: reased Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on nanomodified endotracheal tubes: a dynamic airway model Original Research (2953) Total Article Views Authors: Machado MC, Tarquinio KM, Webster TJ Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 3741 - 3750 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S28191 Received: 12 November 2011 Accepted: 29 December 2011 Published: 19 July 2012 Mary C Machado,1 Keiko M Tarquinio,2 Thomas J Webster3 1School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI; 2Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI; 3School of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious and costly clinical problem. Specifically, receiving mechanical ventilation for over 24 hours increases the risk of VAP and is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. Cost-effective endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial infections could help prevent this problem. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on nanomodified and unmodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs under dynamic airway conditions simulating a ventilated patient. PVC ETTs were modified to have nanometer surface features by soaking them in Rhizopus arrhisus, a fungal lipase. Twenty-four-hour experiments (supported by computational models) showed that airflow conditions within the ETT influenced both the location and the concentration of bacterial growth on the ETTs, especially within areas of tube curvature. More importantly, experiments revealed a 1.5 log reduction in the total number of S. aureus on the novel nanomodified ETTs compared with the conventional ETTs after 24 hours of airflow. This dynamic study showed that lipase etching can create nanorough surface features on PVC ETTs that suppress S. aureus growth, and thus may provide clinicians with an effective and inexpensive tool to combat VAP.
Using Metaphors to Aid Student Meta-Learning: When You’re Learning at Your Best Your Like What?  [PDF]
Sarah Nixon
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.47A2006

Metaphors are widely discussed within educational research and this paper adds to the body of knowledge in relation to students using these as a tool to support meta-learning. Metaphors free up space for creative thinking by moving the mind from one place to another and have been found to be an effective cognitive device for learning. This project focuses on what students are like when they are “learning at their best” and discusses what knowing this information does for both individual self-awareness and working with others. Six final year students spent half a day exploring, developing and pictorially representing their “learning at best” metaphors. All six metaphors were different and showed the internal representations of the individuals when they were learning at their best. However out of the discourse common themes arose from the group in relation to what was needed to support learning these included time of day, mood, pace and environment. All six students were positive that the development of personal learning metaphors was beneficial and thought that it was important that these were developed systematically over time. The benefits were highlighted to be both for the individual working on their own and for understanding others in group work situations.

A Day in the Life of an Early Childhood Teacher: Identifying the Confronting Issues and Challenges That Arise  [PDF]
Sarah Ohi
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.511115

Recent emphasis upon Early Childhood as an educational priority for the Australian Government has resulted in increases in funding, government initiatives, course providers and the introduction of new policies to the sector in order to improve the quality of early childhood education. The study reported here investigated the “reality” of what it means to be an Early Childhood Teacher within this changing context and identified the roles and responsibilities and the associated challenges. A case study involving observation and interviews with five Bachelor qualified Teachers from varied early childhood settings was undertaken in order to gain knowledge about their experiences and perspectives on their work. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach involving the identification of key themes and issues about the nature of teachers’ work. The findings revealed that in their everyday practice teachers played a complex array of roles that required them to contribute far more than just their teaching skills and knowledge. They were expected to concurrently enact the roles of educator, leader, advocate, communicator, counsellor and administrator whilst juggling everyday challenges including a “lack of time”, the need for “further support and more resources” and “building successful partnerships with parents”.

Behavioural Sleep Disorders across the Developmental Age Span: An Overview of Causes, Consequences and Treatment Modalities  [PDF]
Sarah Lee Blunden
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.33035
Abstract: Behavioural sleep problems, that is, sleep problems that do not have a physiological aetiology, but rather a behavioural or psychological aetiology, are reported in between 20% - 40% of children and adolescents. These sleep disorders are categorised as Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood (BIC) in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. BIC can result in short sleep duration and poor quality sleep and can have wide ranging effects on mental and physical health, cognitive and social functioning and development in infants, pre-schoolers, school aged children and adolescents. Each age group have a particular set of behaviourally based sleep disorders. This paper presents a broad overview of BIC and covers essential information about these sleep disorders, their aetiologies, effects on development and non medical treatment modalities.
Performance Study of a Distributed Web Server: An Analytical Approach  [PDF]
Sarah Tasneem, Reda Ammar
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.511099
Abstract: With the rapid expansion of the Internet, Web servers have played a major role in accessing the enormous mass of Web pages to find the information needed by the user. Despite the exponential growth of the WWW, a very negligible amount of research has been conducted in Web server performance analysis with a view to improve the time a Web server takes to connect, receive, and analyze a request sent by the client and then sending the answer back to client. In this paper, we propose a multi-layer analytical approach to study the web server performance. A simple client-server model is used to represent the WWW server in order to demonstrate how to apply the proposed approach. We developed a systematic, analytical methodology to quantify the communication delay and queuing overhead in a distributed web server system. The approach uses the Computation Structure Model to derive server processing time required to process a request sent from a client and queueing model to analyze the communication between the clients and the server.
Preferences for behavioral therapies for chronic insomnia  [PDF]
Sarah Ibrahim, Souraya Sidani
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511240
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the acceptability and preference for the two behavioral therapies, and to identify factors persons with chronic insomnia take into account when choosing treatment. Methods: The data were obtained in a large trial evaluating the effects of Stimulus Control and Sleep Restriction therapies. Prior to treatment, participants completed the treatment acceptability and preference (TAP) questionnaire, which described the Stimulus Control Therapy and the Sleep Restriction Therapy and requested participants to rate the acceptability of each treatment option before choosing one for the management of chronic insomnia. Open-ended questions were used to explore the factors that participants considered when making a choice. Results: Participants rated the Sleep Restriction Therapy as acceptable and 70.2% of participants preferred it over Stimulus Control Therapy. The factors that influenced participants’ choice related to the familiarity, previous personal experience, novelty, and suitability of the treatment. Conclusion: Persons have expressed a preference for treatments to manage chronic insomnia. Healthcare providers are in a position to provide relevant information about treatment options in order to help persons make informed treatment related decisions.
Fermented Milk Products from Different Milk Types  [PDF]
Olusola Ladokun, Sarah Oni
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.513133
Abstract: Yogurt was produced from milk obtained from cow milk, goat milk, soymilk and coconut milk by fermentation using starter cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus.The results obtained showed that the initial pH of the fresh milk samples were slightly acidic: cow milk (6.3), goat milk (6.2), soymilk (6.4) and coconut milk (6.0). The pH results of the various fermented milk at 0 hour of production were goat milk (5.24), cow milk (5.85), soymilk (5.73) and coconut milk (5.98), but at 72 hours, all the milk samples tended to be more acidic due to the fermentation and had lower pH values. All the fresh milk samples had the high moisture content which ranged from 63.34% - 76.90%. Fat content ranged between 9.76% - 15.02%. Crude protein ranged from 7.17% - 32.17% with goat milk having the highest protein level of (32.17%). Ash content had the range of 0.52% - 0.96%. Goat milk had the highest ash content value and coconut milk had the least value. Specific gravities of soymilk, goat milk, cow milk and coconut milk were 1.018, 1.030, 1.016 and 1.01 g/ml respectively. Taste, color, mouth feel and odor were acceptable at 0 hours of production but their value depreciated with storage at room temperature. This study was able to establish the close nutritional gap between cow milk, goat milk, soya and coconut milk yoghurt preparations. The nutritional values obtained from the proximate analysis of the milk samples were comparable. This clearly points to the fact that either of the food can substitute for each other based on the values established from this study.
Effect of Bisphosphonate on Osteoclast of Bone  [PDF]
Sarah Ralte, Asima Bhattacharyya
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2014.23011
Abstract: Bisphosphonates are synthetic analogues of naturally occurring pyrophosphate molecule and are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption. Bisphosphonates bind to hydroxyapatite crystals with high affinity and after incorporation by osteoclasts, the primary target cell, it inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption. The anti-resorptive effect has been shown to occur in organ culture as well as in-vivo, but the precise mechanism by which it exerts its bone resorbing effect is not yet fully understood. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that zoledronate is a more potent inhibitor of osteoclasts than earlier bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates have now emerged as a leading therapeutic agent for the treatment of hypercalcaemia of malignancy, bone metabolic diseases, Paget’s disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis.
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