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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 173530 matches for " Sarah E. McDonald "
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Ectopic Pregnancy as a Model to Identify Endometrial Genes and Signaling Pathways Important in Decidualization and Regulated by Local Trophoblast
W. Colin Duncan, Julie L. V. Shaw, Stewart Burgess, Sarah E. McDonald, Hilary O. D. Critchley, Andrew W. Horne
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023595
Abstract: The endometrium in early pregnancy undergoes decidualization and functional changes induced by local trophoblast, which are not fully understood. We hypothesized that endometrium from tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) could be interrogated to identify novel genes and pathways involved in these processes. Gestation-matched endometrium was collected from women with EP (n = 11) and intrauterine pregnancies (IUP) (n = 13). RNA was extracted from the tissue. In addition, tissues were prepared for histological analysis for degree of decidualization. We compared a) the samples from EP that were decidualized (n = 6) with non-decidualized samples (n = 5), and b) the decidualized EP (n = 6) with decidualization-matched IUP (n = 6) samples using an Affymetrix gene array platform, with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, combined with quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of PRL and IGFBP1 was used to confirm the degree of decidualization in each group. There were no differences in PRL or IGFBP1 expression in the decidualization-matched samples but a marked reduction (P<0.001) in the non-decidualized samples. Decidualization was associated with increased expression of 428 genes including SCARA5 (181-fold), DKK1 (71-fold) and PROK1 (32-fold), and decreased expression of 230 genes including MMP-7 (35-fold) and SFRP4 (21-fold). The top canonical pathways associated with these differentially expressed genes were Natural Killer Cell and Wnt/b-Catenin signaling. Local trophoblast was associated with much less alteration of endometrial gene expression with an increase in 56 genes, including CSH1 (8-fold), and a reduction in 29 genes including CRISP3 (8-fold). The top associated canonical pathway was Antigen Presentation. The study of endometrium from tubal EP may promote novel insights into genes involved in decidualization and those influenced by factors from neighboring trophoblast. This has afforded unique information not highlighted by previous studies and adds to our understanding of the endometrium in early pregnancy.
Reduced expression of p27 is a novel mechanism of docetaxel resistance in breast cancer cells
Iain Brown, Kawan Shalli, Sarah L McDonald, Susan E Moir, Andrew W Hutcheon, Steven D Heys, Andrew C Schofield
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr918
Abstract: We created two docetaxel-resistant human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and performed cDNA microarray analysis to identify candidate genes associated with docetaxel resistance. Gene expression changes were validated at the RNA and protein levels by reverse transcription PCR and western analysis, respectively.Gene expression cDNA microarray analysis demonstrated reduced p27 expression in docetaxel-resistant breast cancer cells. Although p27 mRNA expression was found to be reduced only in MCF-7 docetaxel-resistant sublines (2.47-fold), reduced expression of p27 protein was noted in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 docetaxel-resistant breast cancer cells (2.83-fold and 3.80-fold, respectively).This study demonstrates that reduced expression of p27 is associated with acquired resistance to docetaxel in breast cancer cells. An understanding of the genes that are involved in resistance to chemotherapy may allow further development in modulating drug resistance, and may permit selection of those patients who are most likely to benefit from such therapies.Recent developments in chemotherapy have focused on the taxanes docetaxel and paclitaxel. Docetaxel is used in the treatment of breast cancer and is being evaluated in other solid tumours, including lung, gastro-oesophageal and, more recently, prostate cancers [1-3]. It is currently the most effective agent in the treatment of patients with advanced breast cancer. Up to 50% of patients who have previously been treated with or without anthracycline drugs, and have developed disease recurrence, will exhibit an objective response to docetaxel therapy [4]. Unfortunately, however, many patients do not respond to docetaxel or, having had an initial response, develop disease progression. This may occur either due to an inherent or an acquired resistance to docetaxel.The mechanisms of docetaxel activity include binding to the β-tubulin subunits of microtubules, which prevents their depolymerization and thus blocks cell g
Facebook in Vietnam: Uses, Gratifications & Narcissism  [PDF]
Brian McCauley, Sarah Gumbley, Giovanni Merola, Matthew McDonald, Truc Do
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.411006
The purpose of this study was to create a conceptual framework and to collect some pilot data in order to underpin future research on how the Vietnamese use Facebook in their day-to-day lives. A number of key points were observed in this study, which informed the framework. Firstly, there is a paucity of research on this topic, that Facebook users in Vietnam (population 90 million) rank as some of the heaviest consumers in the world, and Vietnamese cultural traditions and values need to be acknowledged given these differences when compared to other nations and how this might influence Facebook use. Given the studies focus on users, the theory on “uses and gratifications” was employed in order to understand how Facebook satisfies the needs of its Vietnamese users. An important component in this theory is the way in which Facebook allows posting of material related to the enhancement of the “self”, which has the potential to satisfy ego driven needs in the form of narcissism. However, narcissism and its links with Facebook have only recently been systematically studied in Asian countries, predominately in China. In conclusion, the conceptual framework and analysis of the pilot data produced a number of interrelated constructs (e.g. socializing, social enhancement, entertainment) that provide a baseline or foundation from which a longer-term program of empirical research can be conducted on Facebook use in Vietnam1.
CB1 Expression Is Attenuated in Fallopian Tube and Decidua of Women with Ectopic Pregnancy
Andrew W. Horne, John A. Phillips, Nicole Kane, Paula C. Lourenco, Sarah E. McDonald, Alistair R. W. Williams, Carlos Simon, Sudhansu K. Dey, Hilary O. D. Critchley
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003969
Abstract: Background Embryo retention in the Fallopian tube (FT) is thought to lead to ectopic pregnancy (EP), a considerable cause of morbidity. In mice, genetic/pharmacological silencing of cannabinoid receptor Cnr1, encoding CB1, causes retention of embryos in the oviduct. The role of the endocannabinoids in tubal implantation in humans is not known. Methods and Findings Timed FT biopsies (n = 18) were collected from women undergoing gynecological procedures for benign conditions. Endometrial biopsies and whole blood were collected from women undergoing surgery for EP (n = 11); management of miscarriage (n = 6), and termination of pregnancy (n = 8). Using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, CB1 mRNA and protein expression levels/patterns were examined in FT and endometrial biopsies. The distribution of two polymorphisms of CNR1 was examined by TaqMan analysis of genomic DNA from the whole blood samples. In normal FT, CB1 mRNA was higher in luteal compared to follicular-phase (p<0.05). CB1 protein was located in smooth muscle of the wall and of endothelial vessels, and luminal epithelium of FT. In FT from women with EP, CB1 mRNA expression was low. CB1 mRNA expression was also significantly lower (p<0.05) in endometrium of women with EP compared to intrauterine pregnancies (IUP). Although of 1359G/A (rs1049353) polymorphisms of CNR1 gene suggests differential distribution of genotypes between the small, available cohorts of women with EP and those with IUP, results were not statistically significant. Conclusions CB1 mRNA shows temporal variation in expression in human FT, likely regulated by progesterone. CB1 mRNA is expressed in low levels in both the FT and endometrium of women with EP. We propose that aberrant endocannabinoid-signaling in human FT leads to EP. Furthermore, our finding of reduced mRNA expression along with a possible association between polymorphism genotypes of the CNR1 gene and EP, suggests a possible genetic predisposition to EP that warrants replication in a larger sample pool.
Molecular Surveillance of Viral Processes Using Silicon Nitride Membranes
Brian L. Gilmore,Justin R. Tanner,Allison O. McKell,Crystal E. Boudreaux,Madeline J. Dukes,Sarah M. McDonald,Deborah F. Kelly
Micromachines , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/mi4010090
Abstract: Here we present new applications for silicon nitride (SiN) membranes to evaluate biological processes. We determined that 50-nanometer thin films of SiN produced from silicon wafers were sufficiently durable to bind active rotavirus assemblies. A direct comparison of SiN microchips with conventional carbon support films indicated that SiN performs equivalent to the traditional substrate to prepare samples for Electron Microscopy (EM) imaging. Likewise, SiN films coated with Ni-NTA affinity layers concentrated rotavirus particles similarly to affinity-coated carbon films. However, affinity-coated SiN membranes outperformed glow-discharged conventional carbon films 5-fold as indicated by the number of viral particles quantified in EM images. In addition, we were able to recapitulate viral uncoating and transcription mechanisms directed onto the microchip surfaces. EM images of these processes revealed the production of RNA transcripts emerging from active rotavirus complexes. These results were confirmed by the functional incorporation of radiolabeled nucleotides into the nascent RNA transcripts. Collectively, we demonstrate new uses for SiN membranes to perform molecular surveillance on life processes in real-time.
Boobs Out! A Perspective on Fashion, Sexuality and Equality  [PDF]
Sarah E. Reynolds
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2017.52009
Abstract: Society is facing many challenges currently with uncertainty about the implications for the economy (including the fashion industry) and equality of issues such as Brexit and the rise of the Right. This article takes the opportunity to survey current fashion trends and take stock of potential equality issues. This article discusses key trends in dress length, cut and footwear, and also how the big cleavage is such a key look currently. The key look for any young woman in the west currently who wants to look fashionable is “Boobs Out!”. We also discuss how women are wily and can use their bodies, including the revealing of lots of cleavage, to exert a powerful influence over men. This article discusses some of the safety issues relating to women’s outfits and how further research is required into these aspects. Progress and remaining challenges with regard to gender equality in fashion, for example the pressure to wear high heels, is also discussed.
Cultural and Aesthetic Analysis of Some of the Most Daring Celebrity Fashion Trends  [PDF]
Sarah E. Fields
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2017.52008
Abstract: Celebrities play an important role in setting the fashion agenda. Albeit often with some delay or in a watered-down form, celebrity trends are often embraced by either high street stores or more specialist fashion retailers. Designers often seek to push the boundaries of what is deemed possible in women’s wear. Celebrity appearances, in particular at red carpet events, have in recent years featured increasingly daring ways of attracting attention to both the wearer’s body and the designer’s outfit idea. Nipple flashing has been usurped as the limit of daringness by an increasing focus on below the waist. Buttocks and the groin have become important areas for designers to flirt with, and in some cases reveal candidly. Meanwhile, designers offer increasingly extreme versions of that women’s staple fashion item, the high-heeled shoe. This article presents an overview of some of the most daring celebrity fashion trends of recent years, provides cultural and aesthetic analysis on these trends, and comments on how these trends either currently do or in future may transfer to a broader clientele.
Fine motor deficits in reading disability and language impairment: same or different?
Dorothy V Bishop,Sarah McDonald,David McDonald,Annie Brookman
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.77v1
Abstract: Several studies have found evidence of motor deficits in poor readers. There is no obvious reason for motor and literacy skills to go together, and it has been suggested that both deficits could be indicative of an underlying problem with cerebellar function and/or procedural learning. However, the picture is complicated by the fact that reading problems often co-occur with oral language impairments, which have also been linked with motor deficits. This raises the question of whether motor deficits characterise poor readers when language impairment has been accounted for – and vice versa. We considered these questions by assessing motor deficits associated with reading disability (RD) and language impairment (LI). A large community sample provided a subset of 9- to 10-year-olds, selected to oversample children with reading and/or language difficulties, to give 37 children with comorbid LI+RD, 67 children with RD only, 32 children with LI only, and 117 typically-developing (TD) children with neither type of difficulty. These children were given four motor tasks that taxed speed, sequence, and imitation abilities to differing extents. Different patterns of results were found for the four motor tasks. There was no effect of RD or LI on two speeded fingertip tapping tasks, one of which involved sequencing of movements. LI, but not RD, was associated with problems in imitating hand positions and slowed performance on a speeded peg-moving task that required a precision grip. Fine motor deficits in poor readers may be more a function of language impairment than literacy problems.
Modeling nonlinear compressional waves in marine sediments
B. E. McDonald
Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics (NPG) , 2009,
Abstract: A computational model is presented which will help guide and interpret an upcoming series of experiments on nonlinear compressional waves in marine sediments. The model includes propagation physics of nonlinear acoustics augmented with granular Hertzian stress of order 3/2 in the strain rate. The model is a variant of the time domain NPE (McDonald and Kuperman, 1987) supplemented with a causal algorithm for frequency-linear attenuation. When attenuation is absent, the model equations are used to construct analytic solutions for nonlinear plane waves. The results imply that Hertzian stress causes a unique nonlinear behavior near zero stress. A fluid, in contrast, exhibits nonlinear behavior under high stress. A numerical experiment with nominal values for attenuation coefficient implies that in a water saturated Hertzian chain, the nonlinearity near zero stress may be experimentally observable.
Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment
Dorothy VM Bishop, Georgina Holt, Elizabeth Line, David McDonald, Sarah McDonald, Helen Watt
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1866-1955-4-3
Abstract: Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired) and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average). The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed.Among the late talkers, seven (29%) met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) at 4 years of age, and a further two (8%) had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14%) met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8%) had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome.In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.The ease and speed with which children master their native language has been widely commented on, most memorably by Pinker ([1]. p. 29), who noted: 'In general, language acquisition is a stubbornly robust process; from what we can tell there is virtually no way to prevent it happening short of raising a child in a barrel'. Nevertheless, there is a fairly wide spread of ages at which maste
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