Introduction: Epidemiologic data proposed a
relationship between obesity and depression in older adults. We conducted this
study to evaluate the association between obesity and depressive disorders, as
well as a range of eating disorders in old women. Methods: From a total of 1477
clients referred to an outpatient clinic, 212 obese persons (97 persons 60+ and
115 persons 40 - 59 years of age) were enrolled. Data of demographics,
comorbidities, anthropometrics, physical activity level, and diet, as well as,
depressive and eating disorders were collected. Depressive and eating disorders
were assessed using diagnostic structural interview based on DSM-IV-TR
(Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder—fourth
edition— Text version). BMI more than or equal to 30 was considered as obesity.
Results: The prevalence of dysthymic disorder was significantly lower in older
women compared to younger (p = 0.026).
Comparable but not significant results were observed for major depression
disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified.
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that obese older women were less likely to suffer
from Comorbid dysthymic disorder/obesity compared to younger.
The Fahliyan Formation is a carbonate
sequence of Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian-Hauterivian) in age and was deposited
in the Zagros sedimentary basin. This formation is a part of Khami Group and is a reservoir rock in Zagros Basin. This formation was investigated by a detailed petrographic analysis
in order to clarify the depositional facies and sedimentary environment in the Kuh-e-Gadvan
in Fars Province. Petrographic studies led to the recognition of nine microfacies
that were deposited in four facies belts: tidal flat, lagoon, and barrier and
shallow open-marine. An absence of turbidite deposits, reefal facies, and
gradual facies changes indicate that the Fahliyan Formation was deposited on a
Complete removal of smear layer and debris during the process of root canal therapy is of paramount importance in order to achieve the objectives of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the amount of extruded debris and smear layer using two widespread rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Fifty eight freshly extracted human mandibular first molar mesial canals were randomly assigned into two groups. The root canals were instrumented using Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany), and BioRaCe (FKG Dentaire, LaChauxde-Fonds, Switzerland) NiTi instruments. Debris and smear layer from the apical thirds part during instrumentation were evaluated by scanning electron microscope. Then, the scores of remaining debris and smear layer were calculated for each group and compared. Data were then statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. There were significant differences in the amount of smear layer among two groups (P < 0.05). The greatest amount of apical debris was extruded by the BioRaCe group and the least by the Mtwo group. The results of the present study showed that, although both instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris and smear layer through the apical foramen, the Mtwo instruments induced less extruded debris and smear layer than the BioRaCe rotary systems.