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Dispersal Ability and Environmental Adaptability of Deep-Sea Mussels Bathymodiolus (Mytilidae: Bathymodiolinae)  [PDF]
Jun-Ichi Miyazaki, Saori Beppu, Satoshi Kajio, Aya Dobashi, Masaru Kawato, Yoshihiro Fujiwara, Hisako Hirayama
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.31003

Dispersal ability and environmental adaptability are profoundly associated with colonization and habitat segregation of deep-sea animals in chemosynthesis-based communities, because deep-sea seeps and vents are patchily distributed and ephemeral. Since these environments are seemingly highly different, it is likely that vent and seep populations must be genetically differentiated by adapting to their respective environments. In order to elucidate dispersal ability and environmental adaptability of deep-sea mussels, we determined mitochondrial ND4 sequences of Bathymodiolus platifrons and B. japonicus obtained from seeps in the SagamiBayand vents in the Okinawa Trough. Among more than 20 species of deep-sea mussels, only three species in the Japanese waters including the above species can inhabit both vents and seeps. We examined phylogenetic relationships, genetic divergences (Fst), gene flow (Nm), and genetic population structures to compare the seep and vent populations. Our results showed no genetic differentiation and extensive gene flow between the seep and vent populations, indicating high dispersal ability of the two species, which favors colonization in patchy and ephemeral habitats. Our results also indicate that the environmental type (vent or seep) is not the primary factor responsible for habitat segregation in the two species.


Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of Chemosymbiotic Solemyidae and Thyasiridae  [PDF]
Youki Fukasawa, Hiroto Matsumoto, Saori Beppu, Yoshihiro Fujiwara, Masaru Kawato, Jun-Ichi Miyazaki
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2017.71010
Abstract: In order to invade and adapt to deep-sea environments, shallow-water organisms have to acquire tolerance to high hydrostatic pressure, low water temperature, toxic methane and hydrogen sulfide, and feeding strategies not relying on photosynthetic products. Our previous study showed that the “evolutionary stepping stone hypothe-sis”, which assumes that organic falls can act as stepping-stones to connect shallow sea with deep sea, was supported in Mytilidae. However, it is not known whether other bivalves constituting chemosynthetic communities experienced the same evolutionary process or different processes from mytilid mussels. Therefore, here, we performed phylogenetic analyses by sequencing the nuclear 18S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes of solemyid and thyasirid bivalves. In Solemyidae, the two genera Solemya and Acharax formed each clade, the latter of which was divided into three subgroups. The Solemya clade and one of the Acharax subgroups diverged in the order of shallow-sea residents, whale-bone residents, and deep-sea vent/seep residents, which supported the “evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis”. Furthermore, in Thyasiridae, the two genera Thyasira and Maorithyas formed a paraphyletic group and the other genera, Adontorhina, Axinopsis, Axinulus, Leptaxinus, and Mendicula, formed a clade. The “evolu-tionary stepping stone hypothesis” was not seemingly supported in the other lineages of Solemyidae and Thyasiridae.
Electromagnetic structure of light nuclei
Saori Pastore
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The present understanding of nuclear electromagnetic properties including electromagnetic moments, form factors and transitions in nuclei with A $\le$ 10 is reviewed. Emphasis is on calculations based on nuclear Hamiltonians that include two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials, along with one- and two-body electromagnetic currents derived from a chiral effective field theory with pions and nucleons.
Physical Education and the Degree of Stress
Nobuki Ishii, Saori Osaka
Journal of Human Kinetics , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10078-010-0024-3
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine a relationship between the degree of liking and disliking of sport and physical activity, and stress development. We conducted a survey on Japanese junior high school students (129 boys, 139 girls) in 2007. The survey included such entries as 1) positive vs negative attitude toward physical education classes, 2) the degree of physical education classes-related stress, and 3) personality qualities (goal orientation, sports competence and active coping). In our survey concerning the degree of predilection for physical education classes, the results were as follows: 171 subjects in Group A said they liked physical education classes; 39 subjects in Group B said they didn't like and 57 subjects in Group C chose "neither". Comparing the degree of stress from physical education classes, Group A scored significantly lower than the others by Tukey's multiple comparison test (p<0.05). Also, in order to find the key factor which determines the degree of liking and disliking of physical education classes, we measured various values among 52 subjects with a high degree of stress as a dependent variable, and analyzed the personality aspects as an independent variable. As a result, we found a negative correlation between stress levels and sports competence, whereas ego orientation and active coping had a positive effect on the degree of stress. We showed that those liking physical education experienced low degrees of stress. Conversely, those individuals disliking sport and physical activity should not be expected to experience reduced stress while participating in sports. Furthermore, we can indicate sports competence as a determinant of stress reduction. Consequently, in order to stimulate regular participation in sports activity and to release its stress-reducing potential, it is necessary to develop childhood physical education classes to foster sports competence.
A Report on the Size of Information Unit to Extract Contents on the Web Text
Saori Kitahara,Kenji Hatano
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2013,
Electromagnetic reactions on light nuclei
Sonia Bacca,Saori Pastore
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Electromagnetic reactions on light nuclei are fundamental to advance our understanding of nuclear structure and dynamics. The perturbative nature of the electromagnetic probes allows to clearly connect measured cross sections with the calculated structure properties of nuclear targets. We present an overview on recent theoretical ab-initio calculations of electron-scattering and photonuclear reactions involving light nuclei. We encompass both the conventional approach and the novel theoretical framework provided by chiral effective field theories. Because both strong and electromagnetic interactions are involved in the processes under study, comparison with available experimental data provides stringent constraints on both many-body nuclear Hamiltonians and electromagnetic currents. We discuss what we have learned from studies on electromagnetic observables of light nuclei, starting from the deuteron and reaching up to nuclear systems with mass number A=16.
On the largest subsets avoiding the diameter of $(0,\pm 1)$-vectors
Saori Adachi,Hiroshi Nozaki
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Let $L_{mkl}\subset \mathbb{R}^{m+k+l}$ be the set of vectors which have $m$ of entries $-1$, $k$ of entries $0$, and $l$ of entries $1$. In this paper, we investigate the largest subset of $L_{mkl}$ whose diameter is smaller than that of $L_{mkl}$. The largest subsets for $m=1$, $l=2$, and any $k$ will be classified. From this result, we can classify the largest $4$-distance sets containing the Euclidean representation of the Johnson scheme $J(9,4)$. This was an open problem in Bannai, Sato, and Shigezumi (2012).
Nursing Activities at Health Surveys and Health Checkups during the Early Period of Operation of the Hiroshima ABCC—Oral History Study Based on Narratives of Three Japanese Nurses  [PDF]
Saori Funaki, Mizue Shiromaru
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.81006
Using an oral history approach, this study analyzed the narratives obtained from semi-structured interviews administered to three Japanese women who worked as nurses for the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC). The analysis of the data in the narratives showed details of the health surveys and health checkups conducted during the early period of operation of ABCC. During the early period of operation of ABCC some survivors showed negative behaviors toward the health surveys and health checkups at the ABCC. However, it can be inferred that dedicated nursing played an important role in alleviating the stress and emotional issues of survivors at the health surveys and health checkups. The findings of the study could be beneficial to research into nursing activities for patients exposed to radiation at the present day.
Preparation of Highly Concentrated Silver Nanoparticles in Reverse Micelles of Sucrose Fatty Acid Esters through Solid-Liquid Extraction Method  [PDF]
Hidetaka Noritomi, Yoshihiro Umezawa, Saori Miyagawa, Satoru Kato
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2011.14041
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in reverse micelles consisting of sucrose fatty acid esters by dissolving reactant powder in the water pool of reverse micelles through the solid-liquid extraction. Silver nanoparticles having various sizes and shapes were obtained at high concentration. The size of silver nanoparticles was controlled by reaction temperature. Moreover, the size of silver nanoparticles was dependent upon the average esterification degree of sucrose fatty acid esters forming reverse micelles. The wavelength in the peaks, which corresponded upon the localized surface plasmon resonance of resultant silver nanoparticles, was correlated with their sizes.
Habitual Difference in Fashion Behavior of Female College Students between Japan and Thailand  [PDF]
Aliyaapon Jiratanatiteenun, Chiyomi Mizutani, Saori Kitaguchi, Tetsuya Sato, Kanji Kajiwara
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.24034
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to elucidate a role of the street fashion as a habitual communication tool for the youth through the comparative study on the habitual behavior of the Japanese and Thai youths. The questionnaires concerning the fashion behavior were submitted to a total of 363 female college students in Japan and Thailand in 2011. The results revealed the significant differences in fashion behavior between the two countries, which were affected by the climate, personal income, and traditional lifestyle. The Japanese youths care much about their personal surroundings and adapt fashion as a communication tool for social networking to be accepted in a group. The Thai youths care less about fashion and seek for other tools for social networking. By the time of the survey, the Japanese street fashion has been already matured as a communication tool with a variety of expression ways and is transfiguring spontaneously by repeated diversification and integration of several fashion elements. On the other hand, Thai street fashion is in the early stage and has not yet fully developed to affect a way of personal communication. However, the Thai youths have been increasing interest in fashion as confirmed by the increasing popularity of domestic fashion magazines, and provide a potential for Thai street fashion to develop.
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