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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 15477 matches for " Santa Ram Joshi "
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Changes in Microfungal Community in Cherrapunji—The Wettest Patch on Earth as Influenced by Heavy Rain and Soil Degradation  [PDF]
Purabi Saikia, Santa Ram Joshi
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.24059
Abstract: As part of a long time analysis to examine the ecological impacts of heavy rain coupled to soil degradation, soil fungal communities from two closely spaced sites bearing distinct ecology—one receiving heaviest rainfall but degraded patch on earth and the other pristine sacred grove forest were investigated over a period of three years. Cherrapunji besides being highest rainfall receiving area, is characterized by complete deforestation and soil erosion with sparse grasses forming the surface growth, whereas the sacred forests are conserved in their pristine nature due to religious beliefs of the indigenous tribes. The effect of deforestation and land degradation on soil microbes, soil organic carbon, soil nitrate nitrogen, soil pH, soil temperature, and fungal CFU/g were investigated from the two contrasting sites. The sites showed great variability in physical and chemical parameters including soil composition, temperature, pH, soil carbon, nitrogen content, water availability and enzyme activities. The population count of fungi was higher in sacred forest soil than degraded land of Cherrapunji. In both soil types, Penicillium perpurogenum markedly dominated and the co-dominant species (Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) were common in both virgin and degraded soils. A total of 63 species were identified during the study period. The species composition between the two sites showed some variation as Syncephalastrum sp., S. chartarum, Gliocladium sp., Eupenicillium osmophilum and Eurotium sp. were not present in Cherrapunji. The undisturbed sacred forest fungal communities had significantly higher Simpson, Shannon and evenness indices than that of degraded soil of Cherrapunji. The prolonged anthropogenic activity in the area leading to degradation coupled with heavy rainfall has decreased the diversity level of fungal communities and masked the pristine differentiating effect of soil on the fungal community.
Bacterial Biofilm in Water Bodies of Cherrapunjee: The Rainiest Place on Planet Earth  [PDF]
Subhro Banerjee, Sudha Rai, Barnali Sarma, Santa Ram Joshi
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.24060
Abstract: Bacterial attachment is influenced by the cell surface, attachment media and other environmental factors. Bacterial community composition involved in biofilm formation in extremely high rainfall areas like Cherrapunjee has not been reported. The present study was undertaken to characterize bacteria involved in biofilm formation on different substrata in water bodies of Cherrapunjee, the highest rainfall receiving place on planet earth and to assess if the continuous rainfall has an effect on nature and colonization of biofilm bacteria. We developed the biofilm bacteria on stainless steel and glass surfaces immersed in water bodies of the study sites. Isolation of biofilm bacteria were performed on different culture media followed by estimation of protein and carbohydrate content of bacterial exopolysaccharides. 16S rRNA gene sequences were amplified for molecular characterization. The results showed that the biofilm bacterial diversity in water bodies of Cherrapunjee was influenced by substratum and was observed more in stainless steel than glass surface. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that biofilm microstructure may represent a key determinant of biofilm growth and physiology of associated bacteria. The overall protein content of the extracted EPS of all the isolates were relatively higher than the carbohydrate content. Diverse bacteria proliferated on the substrata regardless of each other's presence, with more diverse bacteria colonizing the substrata on 7th day compared to 15th day of incubation. The biofilm bacteria compositions in the highest rainfall receiving habitat were not distinctly different from reports available, hence not unique from other water bodies.
NEMiD: A Web-Based Curated Microbial Diversity Database with Geo-Based Plotting
Kaushik Bhattacharjee, Santa Ram Joshi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094088
Abstract: The majority of the Earth's microbes remain unknown, and that their potential utility cannot be exploited until they are discovered and characterized. They provide wide scope for the development of new strains as well as biotechnological uses. The documentation and bioprospection of microorganisms carry enormous significance considering their relevance to human welfare. This calls for an urgent need to develop a database with emphasis on the microbial diversity of the largest untapped reservoirs in the biosphere. The data annotated in the North-East India Microbial database (NEMiD) were obtained by the isolation and characterization of microbes from different parts of the Eastern Himalayan region. The database was constructed as a relational database management system (RDBMS) for data storage in MySQL in the back-end on a Linux server and implemented in an Apache/PHP environment. This database provides a base for understanding the soil microbial diversity pattern in this megabiodiversity hotspot and indicates the distribution patterns of various organisms along with identification. The NEMiD database is freely available at www.mblabnehu.info/nemid/.
Occurrence of Horizontal Gene Transfer of PIB-type ATPase Genes among Bacteria Isolated from the Uranium Rich Deposit of Domiasiat in North East India
Macmillan Nongkhlaw, Rakshak Kumar, Celin Acharya, Santa Ram Joshi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048199
Abstract: Uranium (U) tolerant aerobic heterotrophs were isolated from the subsurface soils of one of the pre-mined U-rich deposits at Domiasiat located in the north-eastern part of India. On screening of genomic DNA from 62 isolates exhibiting superior U and heavy metal tolerance, 32 isolates were found to be positive for PIB-type ATPase genes. Phylogenetic incongruence and anomalous DNA base compositions revealed the acquisition of PIB-type ATPase genes by six isolates through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Three of these instances of HGT appeared to have occurred at inter-phylum level and the other three instances indicated to have taken place at intra-phylum level. This study provides an insight into one of the possible survival strategies that bacteria might employ to adapt to environments rich in uranium and heavy metals.
Improvement of Algorithm in the Particle Tracking Velocimetry Using Self-Organizing Maps
Shashidhar Ram Joshi
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v7i1.2057
Abstract: The neural network techniques are becoming a useful tool for the particle tracking algorithm of the PIV system software and among others, the self-organizing maps (SOM) model seems to have turned out particularly effective for this purpose. This is mainly because of the performance of the particle tracking itself, capacity of dealing with unpaired particles between two frames and no necessity for a priori knowledge on the flow field ( e.g. maximum flow rate) to be measured. Initially, concept of SOM was applied to PIV by Labonte. It was modified by Ohmi and further modified algorithm is developed using the concept of Delta-Bar-Delta rule. It is a heuristic algorithm for modifying the learning rate as training progresses. Earlier, the treatment of unpaired particles, a specific problem to any type of PIV, is not fully considered and thereby, the tracking goes unsuccessfully for some particles. The present research is to bring about further improvement and practicability in this promising particle tracking algorithm. The computational complexity can be reduced employing modified algorithm compared to other algorithms. The modified algorithm is tested in the light of the synthetic PIV standard image as well as in particle images obtained from visualization experiments. Key words: Delta-Bar Delta, Dynamic Threshold Binarization, HVD Algorithm, Labonte's SOM, Modified Algorithm, Ohmi's SOM, Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV), Particle Tracking Velocimetry(PTV), Self-Organizing Map(SOM), Single Threshold Binarization. Journal of the Institute of Engineering , Vol. 7, No. 1,? 2009, July, pp. 6-23 doi: 10.3126/jie.v7i1.2057
Adsorption of Fluoride Ion onto Zirconyl-Impregnated Activated Carbon Prepared from Lapsi Seed Stone
Sahira Joshi,Mandira Adhikari,Raja Ram Pradhananga
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v30i0.9330
Abstract: The potentials of activated carbon derived from Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaries) seed stone after impregnation with zirconium for adsorptive removal of fluoride is presented. Activated carbons from Lapsi seed stone were prepared by three different techniques. Firstly by directly burning in limited supply of air, secondly by treating with a mixture of conc. H2SO4 and HNO3 (in the ratio of 1:1 by weight) and thirdly by activation with zinc chloride (in the ratio of 1:1 by weight) followed by carbonization at 400°C and 500°C under nitrogen atmosphere. Thus prepared carbons were impregnated with zirconyl oxychloride and effects of pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time and adsorbate concentration for the removal of fluoride were evaluated by batch mode. The optimum pH for adsorption of fluoride was observed at pH 3-4, and a minimum contact time for the maximum defluoridation was found to be 180 min. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. Zirconium impregnation increased the fluoride adsorption capacity of carbon to considerable extent. Among carbon prepared by three different techniques, the carbon prepared from zinc chloride activation followed by carbonization showed relatively higher fluoride adsorption capacity. From the experiment it is concluded that activated carbon prepared from Lapsi seed is an efficient, low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon for defluoridation of water. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jncs.v30i0.9330 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Vol. 30, 2012 Page: ?13-23 Uploaded date : 12/16/2013 ? ? ?
Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of self organized nanostructures on Ta Surface Fabricated by Low Energy Ion Sputtering
Shalik Ram Joshi,Trilochan Bagarti,Shikha Varma
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.susc.2015.07.002
Abstract: Surfaces bombarded with low energy ion beams often display development of self assembled patterns and quasi-periodic structures. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to describe ion sputtered Tantalum surfaces. A weak nonlinearity in the relaxation process has been introduced and the results show that the Positive Schwoebel barrier, produced by the nonlinear Hamiltonian, is necessary in describing ion bombarded Tantalum surfaces. Furthermore, their scaling exponents suggest presence of a class other than KPZ.
Urban Heat Island Characterization and Isotherm Mapping Using Geo-Informatics Technology in Ahmedabad City, Gujarat State, India  [PDF]
Ram Joshi, Hardik Raval, Maharshi Pathak, Sumit Prajapati, Ajay Patel, Vijay Singh, Manik H. Kalubarme
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2015.63021
Abstract: India has witnessed tremendous industrialization in the last five decades. This has led to migration of masses from rural areas towards cities for jobs and businesses. With increase in the population, the demand for residences has also increased which has escalated growth of slum areas and haphazard planning in suburbs. City of Ahmedabad is one such urban metropolis in the state of Gujarat, India. Being the financial capital of Gujarat, population of the city has increased many folds since 1980s. Congested and unsustainable planning and increasing in the emissions from industries and vehicles in certain areas of the city have given birth to many climatic issues. One of these major problems is the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomena. This has increased the temperature by four to five degrees and has also severely affected air quality. Satellite based Remote sensing data can provide temperature information of various land use classes. Remote Sensing data along with in-situ surface measurements can help to identify urban heat island intensities and hotspots in the cities. A study on heat island characterization and isotherm mapping was taken up in Ahmedabad City. In the present study, Surface Heat Island (SHI) effect is studied using satellite data along with field measurements. Thermal infrared data from Landsat ETM band-6 have been effectively used for monitoring temperature differences of various land use classes in urban areas. The study aims to identify and study the urban hot spots using the data from LANDSAT-5 and field data collected using IR Gun in various zones of Ahmedabad City. The results of this study indicated that the surface temperature near industrial areas and dense urban areas was higher as compared to other suburban areas in the Ahmedabad City.
Quassinoids and Their Chemotaxonomic Significance
Bipin Chandra Joshi,Ram Prakash Sharma,Anakshi Khare
International Journal of Herbal Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: The quassinoids are a group of complex, highly oxygenated, degraded triterpene mostly found in Simaroubaceae family. Two quassinoids (degraded triterpenes), 1 and 2 were isolated first time from the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa. Compound 1 is C19 quassinoid. C19 quassinoid derived biogenetically from a C20 quassinoid, via a 1,2 –dioxo derivative. The structural elucidation is based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. Interest in these quassinoids has increased enormously in recent years due in part to the finding of the American National Cancer Institute that these compounds display marked antileukamic activity. The ways in which plants interact with other organisms in an environment are complex. Ailanthus also produces toxins in its root, bark and leaves. These toxins inhibit the growth of other plants. The isolated quassinoids are currently being studied as a possible source of a natural herbicide. Extracts of this plant have anti-insect activity and anti-tuberculosis activity.
Investor Awareness and Investment on Equity in Nepalese Capital Market
Sudarshan Kadariya,Phul Prasad Subedi,Bharati Joshi,Ram Prasad Nyaupane
Banking Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/bj.v2i1.5702
Abstract: Keywords: Access; Awareness; Information; Investment; Stock Market DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/bj.v2i1.5702 Banking Journal 2012; 2(1): 1-15
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