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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 221 matches for " Sanpei Kageyama "
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The Construction of Pairwise Additive Minimal BIB Designs with Asymptotic Results  [PDF]
Kazuki Matsubara, Sanpei Kageyama
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.514207
Abstract: An asymptotic existence of balanced incomplete block (BIB) designs and pairwise balanced designs (PBD) has been discussed in [1]-[3]. On the other hand, the existence of additive BIB designs and pairwise additive BIB designs with k = 2 and λ = 1 has been discussed with direct and recursive constructions in [4]-[8]. In this paper, an asymptotic existence of pairwise additive BIB designs is proved by use of Wilson’s theorem on PBD, and also for some and k the exact existence of l pairwise additive BIB designs with block size k and λ = 1 is discussed.
Certain new M-matrices and their properties and applications
R. N. Mohan,Sanpei Kageyama,Moon Ho Lee,Gao Yang
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: The Mn-matrix was defined by Mohan [20] in which he has shown a method of constructing (1,-1)-matrices and studied some of their properties. The (1,-1)-matrices were constructed and studied by Cohn [5],Wang [33], Ehrlich [8] and Ehrlich and Zeller[9]. But in this paper, while giving some resemblances of this matrix with Hadamard matrix, and by naming it as M-matrix, we show how to construct partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs and some regular bipartite graphs by it. We have considered two types of these M- matrices. Also we will make a mention of certain applications of these M-matrices in signal and communication processing, and network systems and end with some open problems.
Why Are Children Impatient? Evolutionary Selection of Preferences  [PDF]
Junji Kageyama
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35A3003

This study aims to explain why children are impatient. Using a biological framework called the life history theory, the study investigates the evolutionary root of time preference, paying particular attention to childhood. The results show that the biologically endowed rate of time preference is equal to the mortality rate not only in adulthood but also in childhood, reflecting the change in the biological value of survival. Mortality is the baseline for time preference through the entire course of life. These results are consistent with the findings in previous empirical and experimental studies that the discount rate is U-shaped in age, and account for why young children, in particular, are impatient. In addition, the difference in time preference between adults and children provides a biological explanation for the parent-offspring conflict, in which the higher discount rate among children causes parents and their children to disagree over intertemporal allocation of resources in collective decision-making particularly within the household.

Necessity, Criteria (Requirements or Limits) and Acknowledgement of Product Identity of Claims for Product Described by Its Manufacturing Process (Product-by-Process Claims)  [PDF]
Kotaro Kageyama
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.52011

It is inevitably necessary to admit Product-by-Process claims (PBP claims). To make them effective, their requirements and limits should be clarified, and the methods to define the product and acknowledge the identity of the product in their practical exercise should be studied. The author has suggested the following two view points to examine inventions, 1) considering the difficulty to predict an invention from the tentative principles and 2) categorizing inventions into the physicalobject type and the material type. Based on these two viewpoints, this paper will show the case where the PBP claims are inevitable. From the above and its opposite side, the criteria for the PBP claims will be proposed by analyzing the category of inventions, requirements of manufacturing process steps and the limits of admitting the PBP claims. The following theory will be composed of: the scope of the PBP claims should include their identical product to the product described in the claim through the process of the patent applications and infringement cases because of the legal stability. Then, the methods of determining the time to define the product by way of structure or properties and acknowledging the identity of the product, in the practical exercise of the claims will be suggested.

On the Application of the Laplace Transform in the Study of Phillips-Type Stabilization Policy  [PDF]
Satoru Kageyama
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.56080
Abstract: This paper provides a reformulation of Phillips’s multiplier-accelerator model with stabilization policy in terms of the Laplace transform. Applying the Laplace transform, the differential equations of the economy are transformed into the algebraic ones on a complex variable. The transfer functions of economic variables are defined by these algebraic equations. With this representation, we show the effects of Phillips-type policy on equilibrium level and derive the necessary and sufficient condition for asymptotic stability.
Determining Inventive Step or Nonobviousness for a Patent Requirement in View of the Formation Process of an Invention  [PDF]
Kotaro Kageyama
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.73023
Abstract: Regarding the criteria for determining the inventive step or nonobviousness (unobviousness) for a patent requirement of a patent invention, the conventional approach in the court decisions and examination standard of Japan, USA and EPO focused on acts, for example, whether or not the act to invent in the invention claimed in the application was “suggested” or “motivated” by the prior arts. On the other hand, Author regarded “conception based on a principle” and “establishment of a model” as the most important stage by analyzing the formation process of an invention. Especially, principles (typically in physics and chemistry) are important; furthermore, they are objective as the object of acts of the inventions. Therefore, I would like to propose a way in order to compare the applied invention with the prior arts. That is, we should set the “principle” and “ways of their utilization” as the object to analyze and judge their difference between the said invention and the arts. If the degree of the difference is large, an inventive step can be recognized. Because the problem to be solved does not consist of the contents of an invention, it should not be focused too much. In this article, the various factors in order to recognize differences with reference to principles and ways of their utilization were explained in a good order. Because the determination of the principles and their utilization seems to be made more objectively compared to that of acts, it can exclude hindsights. Up to now, this kind of discussion in this article has not yet been made.
Analysis of the Invention through an Experiment for Clarifying a Problem of Patent Law
—Based on Abstraction of Invention by “Principle and Its Use”, and “a Shape, a Structure, Properties and Their Transformation of an Article”

Kotaro Kageyama
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2018.95037
Abstract: Author proposed so far to arrange two-dimensional technology and inventions which are objects to judge the inventiveness and others for patent inventions, using two perspectives (coordinate axes), that is, 1) the combination, shape structure, and physical or chemical characteristics and its transformation of an article which are factors for a physical-object invention and a material invention, and 2) principle, its use and the ways of its use. This coordinates may show abstraction (norm-forming) for technology and inventions. There are, however, cases where the inventions are made through experiments and principles and their use are unknown. Most of material inventions are included in this case. This case usually shows difficulty in understanding problems under patent law such as invention and its identification of an article (including the relation with PBP claims also), inventiveness, interpretation of claims, etc. In this paper, Author will analyze inventions and try to arrange two-dimensional inventions through experiments, using the above two perspectives, especially about the above 2), considering the principles and their use supporting each raw materials and each manufacturing process, and furthermore considering the effect based on materials and manufacturing process above. Author will analyze inventions through experiments so as to help the actual patent practice, considering the relation with actual patent guidelines and using examples in patent gazette.
Customers’ Responses to Employee Extra Attention  [PDF]
Yoshimasa Kageyama, Albert Barreda
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.71004
Focusing on positive service experiences, this study examined the relation-ships among employee extra attention, customers delight, and customer re-purchase intentions. The target sample that had a positive interaction with an employee in the recent six months was invited to participate in the survey. The data analysis was performed in two steps: 1) Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and 2) Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results suggested that employees’ extra attention affects customer delight. Subsequently, customer delight has a positive relationship with customer repurchase intentions. Furthermore, employee extra attention has a positive relationship with customer repurchase intentions. The finding of the study provides valuable implications for research and the industry regarding generating favorable customer repurchase intentions in positive service experiences.
Regulation of gonadotropins by corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin
Kazunori Kageyama
Frontiers in Endocrinology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2013.00012
Abstract: While stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, it suppresses the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a major regulatory peptide in the HPA axis during stress. Urocortin 1 (Ucn1), a member of the CRF family of peptides, has a variety of physiological functions and both CRF and Ucn1 contribute to the stress response via G protein-coupled seven transmembrane receptors. Ucn2 and Ucn3, which belong to a separate paralogous lineage from CRF, are highly selective for the CRF type 2 receptor (CRF2 receptor). The HPA and HPG axes interact with each other, and gonadal function and reproduction are suppressed in response to various stressors. In this review, we focus on the regulation of gonadotropins by CRF and Ucn2 in pituitary gonadotrophs and of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) via CRF receptors in the hypothalamus. In corticotrophs, stress-induced increases in CRF stimulate Ucn2 production, which leads to the inhibition of gonadotropin secretion via the CRF2 receptor in the pituitary. GnRH in the hypothalamus is regulated by a variety of stress conditions. CRF is also involved in the suppression of the HPG axis, especially the GnRH pulse generator, via CRF receptors in the hypothalamus. Thus, complicated regulation of GnRH in the hypothalamus and gonadotropins in the pituitary via CRF receptors contributes to stress responses and adaptation of gonadal functions.
Dynamic Expression of Notch Signaling Genes in Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells
Ryoichiro Kageyama
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2011.00078
Abstract: In neural stem/progenitor cells, expression of the Notch effector Hes1, a transcriptional repressor, oscillates with a period of 2–3 h by negative feedback, and Hes1 oscillations induce the oscillatory expression of the proneural gene Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) and the Notch ligand gene Delta-like1 (Dll1). Dll1 oscillation leads to the mutual activation of Notch signaling between neighboring cells, thereby maintaining a group of cells in the undifferentiated state. Not all cells express Hes1 in an oscillatory manner: cells in boundary regions such as the isthmus express Hes1 in a sustained manner, and these cells are rather dormant with regard to proliferation and differentiation. Thus, Hes1 allows cell proliferation and differentiation when its expression oscillates but induces dormancy when its expression is sustained. After Hes1 expression is repressed, Ngn2 is expressed in a sustained manner, promoting neuronal differentiation. Thus, Ngn2 leads to the maintenance of neural stem/progenitor cells by inducing Dll1 oscillation when its expression oscillates but to neuronal differentiation when its expression is sustained. These results indicate that the different dynamics of Hes1 and Ngn2 lead to different outcomes.
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